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William Sumner Appleton 

OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSITTS 
CLASS OF 1896 



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THE 



CIVIL WAR IN HAMPSHIRE, 



(1642-46) 



AND 



THE STORY OF B-ASING HOUSE. 



BY THE 



REV. G. N. GODWIN, 

Chaplain to the Forces. 



LONDON : 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW, B.O. 

1882. 



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' Py. '/£ct>?i^uA/ ^<-0^'^'^ 



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TO 

THE HONOURABLE W. T. ORDE POWIiBTT, J.P^ 
DBPtrrr Lieutenant for the Nobth Ridino op Tobkbhibk^ 

▲KD TO 

THE REV. JAMES ELWIN MILLARD, D.D., 
YiCAR OP Basingstoke and Rural Dean, 
Honorary Canon op Winchester Cathedral, 
this work is, with much okatitode, dedicated. 



PREFACE. 

In the atern straggle between Charles I. and his Parliament, Hampshire played no 
unimportant part. 

The captnre, after a brief siege, of the strong fortress of Portsmouth, was no small 
gain to the Parliamentary cause, whilst, on the other hand, the gallant defence made by the 
Cavalier garrisons of Winchester Castle and Basing House, was eagerly watched, and warmly 
appreciated at loyal Oxford. 

Lord Hopton^s defeat at Cheriton " broke all the measures and altered the whole 
scheme of the King's counsels," nor did the fierce conflicts which took place at Arundel Castle 
and Salisbury, fail to influence the general result of the war. 

To record in a complete, yet brief form, the part played by the County of Hampshire 
during that most eventful time, is the object of this work. The narrative has been most 
carefully compiled from original materials existing in our great national and private libraries, 
and other original sources. It is believed, indeed, that no known source of possible information 
has been left unexamined. 

It was originally intended to quote many of the more interesting authorities verbatim, 
but the consideration of space, and the desire to render the work acceptable to the general 
reader as well as to the student, induced the method of judicious condensation, which has been 
now adopted. 

In conclusion, the Author desires most heartily to thank the numerous friends who 
have assisted him in his researches, and to express a hope that his labours will prove to have 
supplied one more of those local histories which have become of increasing interest to English 
readers of late years, and which prove of good service to the historian of the great events of 
our country. 



G. N GODWIN. 



CuRKAGu Camp, 

October B6ih^ 188$. 



p 



ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA. 



Page 6, line 11, for "as'* read "and." 

„ 7, line 30, for '• Ajmey Loyante " read " Aymes Lojanie/' 

„ 8, line 37, for " Aymey Loyante " read ** Aymei Ijoyaiite." 

„ 9, line 15, for " Porta " read " Porta." 

„ 9, line 49, for " Hachwood " read *' Haokwood.** 

„ 21, lines 24 and 26, for ** he " read •* they."* 

„ 24, lino 51, for " Vikars " read '■ Vicara.' 

„ 29, line 1, for " four " read « fonl." 

„ 29, line 3, for " a " read " all." 

„ 29, line 25, for " Whykeham " read " Wykeham." 

„ 83, line 15, for '♦ Aymey " read '• Aymez." 

„ 66, lines 1 and 21, for « Pairthorne " read « Faathome." 

„ 76, line 17, for '* some " read " come." 

„ 90, line 26, for " light " read ' eight." 

„ 100, line 13, for "sabering" read "sabring." 

„ 119, line 24, for »• 1842 " road •* 1642." 

„ 146, line 42, for " eight" read " light." 

„ 166, line 35, for « Ime" read « lines.' ' 

» 178, line 5, for " and wall as " read " as well aa." 

» 198, line 1, for " heopateld " read " field at the." 

„ 200, line 48, for " Sadler" read « Sadleir." 

„ 206, line 2i, for " 30,000" read '* 3,000." 

„ 213, line 28, for "regiment" read *' regiments." 

, 213, line 32, for « Welcher" read *' Welden." 

„ 217, line 22, for " 600" read " 600 horae.* 

» 220, line 44, for " it" read •* Winchester.' 



•» 



- -,^' ^ 



HAMPSHIRE FIGHTS OF LONG AGO. 



Chapteb I.~The Ruined Fortress. 



Stepping out of the tm o'clock up train at 
Basingstoke station, on a bright May morning, 
we find friends waiting for us than whom wo 
cannot desire more genial companions or more 
reliable authoiities, bound like ourselves fort' e 
famous, though now ruined, Cavalier stronghold 
of Basing House. 

In company with another friend, who has 
many a time and oft given us most valuable 
assistance, are Mr. Cooksey and Mr. Sapp, who 
likewise take a warm and withal discerning 
interest in all that concerns Basing famed in 
story. 

The resistance of temptation is a virtue, and 
despite the many attractions of Basingstoke, we 
close firmly the eyes of our imagination, reso- 
lately declining to describe the church or any 
other object of interest. 

We pass the lower road leading to Basing, of 
which we shall hear much ere long. The Town- 
hall, in the Market-place, contains several pic- 
tures, one of which is a portrait of the Morrio 
Monarch, by Sir Peter Lely. Others seem to 
have come from Basing House, and one of 
these is thought to be " t le counterfeit present- 
ment of the loyal Marquis" himself, with his 
baton of conunand. 

As we turn to the left out of the Market- 
place, we note the *' Falcon House." " That 
modern building," says Mr. Sapp, "stands on 
the site of a quaint old-fashioned hostelry, with 
the sign of the * Fleur-de-lys,' which, according 

constant local tradition, was for some days 
least the head-quaiters of Oliver, renowned 
in arms." 



in 

% 



"Note also the *Bell Inn' across the way, 
which was almost a century old when Basing 
House was taken," adds Mr. Cooksey. " Thither 
were brought as prisoners the Marquis and Sir 
Robert Peake, his Deputy-Governor, before 
being sent up to the Parliament in London." 

On our right is the road leading to Hackwood, 
the stately home of the Dukes of Bolton, pre- 
ferred by them to their old ancestral seat. 
Roundheads and Cavaliers alike have trudged, 
marched, as galloped along the road which we 
are now following. By this route " the puissant 
army" of Sir William Waller marched to face 
the house, and over these rolling hills, on which 
the grass then grew green and unbroken, ad- 
vanced the Ironsides, who knew not the meaning 
of the word " defeat," who had conquered at 
Naseby and Marston Moor, and who failed not 
at Basing. 

The valley below us is well watered, and in 
days when drainage was a thing little heeded 
the wide-stretching swamps must have aided 
the defence not a little. As we skirt the canal 
we reach a bridge, on the other side of which is 
a field still known as " Slaughter Close," where 
many a brave man on both sides died the death 
of a soldier. Close to the aforesaid bridge are 
two cottages, in one of which are some ancient 
beams, formerly belonging to a mill which was 
burnt during the siege, of which we shall here- 
after h ve more to say. 

Following the canal we see on the opposite 
bank a long ivy-covered wall, which two cen- 
turies ago did good service as a " curtain " for 
the defence of the fortress, being furnished with 



6 



Ths BunrcD Fobtbvss. 



towers at either end, in one of which may still 
be seen the embrasures for five cannon. The 
cutting of the canal, some few years since, has 
considerably modified the outer defences, but 
still enough remains to interest the antiquary, 
the pleasure seeker, or him for whom the 
memory of bygone deeds of valour has a charm. 
Looking across the valley we cannot fail to 
remark the Basingstoke Workhouse, just in rear 
of which is the London and South- Western 
Railway. 

The Workhouse and the railway mark the 
position of Cowdray's Down, whereon, as we 
shall see. Parliamentarian troopers kept watch 
and ward for many a weary month, and that 
clump of trees to the right beyond the railway 
ifl near a large chalk pit, known as Oliver's 
Delve, wherein regiment after regiment of the 
besiegers found shelter. 

Closer at hand, but *' severed by a wall and 
common roade, againe divided from the foot of 
Gowdrey's Downe by meades, rivulets, and a 
river running from Basingstoke, a mile dis- 
tant, upon the west, is a farm house, which 
from a time long prior to the siege has borne 
the name of the *Graunge,"* or "Grange." 
To Mr. Barton, the present tenant, we and all 
other visitors to the site of Basing House are 
much indebted for courteous permission to ex- 
amine the traces of the deadly struggle here to 
be mot with. 

A noble bam, said by tradition to have been 
the former riding school, still retains a roof of 
which many a church might well be proud, and 
has evidently served as a target for Colonel 
Dalbier's hostile gunners. Just beyond the farm 
buildings by the roadside are two gateways, the 
brickwork of which justly attracts attention by 
its exquisite workmanship. A similar ga.»way, 
perhaps due to the same skilful workman, may 
be seen at Titchfield House. 

Within these two ancient but now walled-up 
gateways is a level greensward, beneath which 
the crowbar meets everywhere with brickwork. 
This was probably the site of the Grange at 
the time of the siege, the present dwelling- 
house being of more modem erection. Thi^ 
idea gains confirmation from the fact that only 
a few yards distant f ropi the level space just 
mentioned the wall is loopholed for musketry, 
apparently for the purpose of defending the 
Grange, which was, as we shall presently see, 
strongly fortified. Betw.en the Grange and 
the railway flows the river Loddon, adjoining 



which may still be seen some of the ancient 
fish-ponds, now devoted to the cultivation of 
watercress. Tradition asserts that the dwellen 
in Basing House used to go to church by water, 
and old engravings show that a considerable lake 
formerly existed on this side of the house. 

Great difficulty was experienced in bnilding 
the railway viaduct in consequence of the 
swampy nature of the ground. 

Looking across this low lying tract we note 
the neat houses of the pleasant village of 
Basing, called in the accounts of the siege 
"Basing Towne," the new rectory and the 
Church of St. Mary, which was more than once 
taken and re-taken. Nearly opposite to the 
aforesaid gateways is a wall, which has been 
battered by cannon shot, and just above, on the 
bank of " the barge-river, is a wall, which was 
formerly defended by a now ruinous tower, and 
which extends to the ancient garrison gate, the 
date of which, according to Prosser, is 1563, 
and on which may still be seen the ancient 
armorial bearings of the Paulets. Through 
that ivy -covered gateway have ridden chivalrous 
Colonel Gage, the deliverer of Basing in its 
time of need, stem Oliver, and Hugh Peters, 
"the ecclesiastical newsmonger," who brougkt 
word to waiting London of " The Sack of 
Basing House." Just within the garrison gate 
we cross the canal, and are joined by throe 
friends, who give us much valuable local infor- 
mation. They are Hugh Raynbird, Esq., the 
Steward of the Hackwood Estate, Mr. Bartlett, 
who acts as the caretaker of this historic site, 
and Mr. Hall, the village blacksmith, to one 
and all of whom our best thanks are due. 

To our right is a level greensward, sur- 
rounded by the canal and by deep moats. Along 
the bank of the canal are the foundations of 
towers of massive brickwork. Wherever the pick 
is used foundations are met with just below the 
surface, and we see to our left front evident 
remains of some stately building. 

Considerable difficulty exists in determining 
the exact position of various sites at Basing 
House, but from the words of the "Loysd 
Marquis" himself, hereafter to be quoted, from 
the remains already met with and from the 
descriptions given of the position of the batteries, 
it seems almost, if not quite, certain that we are 
now standing on the site of what was called 
" the New House." 

Climbing or creeping through a rail fence, we 
note a gap in the rampart where the brickwork 



Thb Buinbd Fobtsbss. 



has fallen inward, evidently shattered hy some 
resistless force. We know that batteries were 
constructed to play upon this portion of the 
defences, and that practicable breaches were 
made hereabouts. Furthermore, Mr. Hall points 
out the spot, some six feet to the left, from 
which he himself saw a 321b. cannon-ball 
t^en. Let each decide for himself, but it 
fleems, to say the least, very probable that this 
was "the imminent deadly breach" by which the 
bosicgera, so long bafQed, at last entered the 
stronghold. Beyond the moat to the south is 
an open space, still called the Park, as it was 
two centuries ago. Not long since two piers of 
fine brickwork stood at the former entrance, 
nearly opposite to which is a chalk-pit, in which 
several skeletons have been discovered. Those 
slain in the siege seem to have been buiied 
wh' re they fell. Some appear to have been in- 
tcired with care and reverence, whilst the posi- 
tion of other remains seems to indicata haste 
and heedlessness. There was formeily a little 
wood between the House and the village of 
Basing. Leaving the very probable site of the 
Now House, and retracing our steps, we note a 
btidge of biickwork, which was brought to 
light a few years since. Mark it well, for on 
that bridge brave men on both sides " fought it 
out at sword's point." 

Huge eaith works, circular in form, faced with 
brickwork, over which grass and ivy grow green, 
invito exploration, but leaving the bridge behind 
ns and walking over turf beneath which lie 
hidd^ n yet more foundations, wo soon reach a 
gate which opens into a spacious garden, in 
which the Boy-King Edward YI. sought health 
in our fresh Hampshire air ; wheiein Queen 
Mary and her Spanish bridegroom spent some 
horns of their all too brief honeymoon, and 
which saw Queen Elizabeth and the Ambassador 
o£ Franco in grave and earnest converse. 
Thomas Fuller, Wenceslaus Hollar, Oliver 
Cromwell, Sir Balph Hopton, and Hugh Peters 
have each in turn visit d this pleasant gaiden. 
Along one side of it rims the long loopholed 
''curtain" wall, with its two conical towets, 
one of which, as we have already seen, did good 
061 vice as a battery, as also piobably did the 
other, which is now transformed into a dove- 
cot. All around the sides are nest-holes, most 
literally and in truth ** pigeon-holes." Around 
a stout oak post in the centre revolves a frame- 
work with a ladder attached to it, which gives 
easy access to the several pigeon nurseries. The 



ancestral doves must have had unpleasant ex- 
periences during the siege, but no doubt proved 
most useful 

"• With their heads down in the gravy, 
And their legs up throngh the crust," 

when other provisions began to fail. A postern 
gate from this dovecot is now walled up. 
We cross an orchard on the opposite side of 
the garden to the dovecot, noting the ancient 
wall on our right, and enter a chamber of 
massive brickwork, locally styled " The Bank- 
ing," or *' Banquetting House." The latter 
designation seems by no means appropriate, but 
it may have been a kind of mediieval '^ strong 
room." Who can tell ? Turning to the right, 
up a flight of steps we see, at the door of the 
pleasant *^ Cottage," a heap of mementoes of the 
famous siege, which have oeen brought to light 
by the excavations which have for some time 
past been cariied on by Lord Bolton, and in 
which the Hon. W. T. Orde Powlett has taken 
a keen and lively interest. Nor <jan we proceed 
f uither without thanking the latter for his kind 
assistance to the writer in his endeavours to 
throw light upon the siege and sa<-k of Basing. 
Broken pottery mingles with fragments of 
carved stone work. Here and there are proud 
escutcheons having on them, '^ Honi soit qui 
mal y pense," and fragments of the glorious 
family motto, "Aymey Loyante." Blackened 
and discoloured here and there indeed are they, 
for flame- jets and smoke-eddies have done their 
worst, but " Love Loyalty " is still the text 
from which they preach, and spite of storm, 
sack, and spoil. Basing will be *' the House of 
Loy Ity " for evermore. Glass quarries have 
been found with " Aymey Loyante " painted on 
scrolls of a period evidently prior to the siege. 
This discovery destroys the pretty legend of 
Basing House being styled '^ Loyalty House," 
from the " Loyal Marquis" having written this 
motto on the window with a diamond ling, with 
a view to animate and inspirit the garrison. 
These quirries bear also the family badge (a 
key and garter). Several cannon-balls have 
been found. Mr. Hall says *^Yes, I have seen a 
number recast in years gone by at the Basing- 
stoke Foundry." Bullets, and a large number 
of fragments of shell have been met with ; and 
two swords were brought to light some years ago. 
Beautiful encaustic tiles, over which Queen 
Bess walked, even in her old age tripping lightly, 
quaint tobacco pipes, with bowls suggestive of 
the days when **the weed" was worth its 



8 



TOV BUINXD FORTBI88. 



weight in silver, and fanners chose their largest 
shillings to place in the tobacconists' scales, still 
tell of the past. 

Dr. Hayes, of Basingstoke, has in his posses- 
sion some ancient manacles from Basing, and 
do not those vitrified masses speak of intense 
and fervid heat ? Hand grenades, and the jaws 
of horses that mnnched oats two hundred years 
ago, together with bones picked by hungry 
Cavaliers at the same distant perioa, are not 
wanting. The old ramparts are here gay with 
flowers, speaking not of war but of peace. 
Long may they continue so to do I 

Betracing our stops towards the brick bridge, 
by which we paused awhile ago, we have be- 
tween us and the C inal the supposed Bowling 
Green, oblong in shape, and formerly defended, 
says Pressor, by a rampart and covered way, 
whereon amused themselves — " " Stop," cried 
Mr. Sapp, " no historical disquisitions please, or 
we shall bo here till to-morrow morning !" 

Opening an iron gate, and as carefully closing 
it behind us, we halt for a moment at the 
entrance to a huge circular embankment of 
earth faced with brickwork, and surrounded by 
a moat, the average perpendicular depth of 
which (except towards the Bowling Green) is 
36 feet. Round the top of the earthworks runs 
a path commanding wide and extensive views 
over the neighbouring country. Prosser (" An- 
tiquities of Hampshire, 184*2") tells us that 
around the citadel or keep was a parapet wall, 
about four feet high from the gravel, now de- 
stroyed. Some such protection must have been 
necessary, since the besiegers' works were within 
pistol shot. Several towers also protected the 
circular rampart, which we will walk round 
presently. 

We are standing on the supposed site of the 
lofty Gate House, and close beside us is a heap 
of fragments of carved stonework, which tell of 
past magnificence. Notice especially some fine 
brickwork or terra cotta, of the Tudor period, 
and very similar to that at Layer Mamey, in 
Essex, which probably formed part of the 
stately mansion erected by the first Marquis, 
who was " a willow, and not an oak." 

Mr. Gooksey now produces a recent reprint, 
entitled *' A Description of the Siege of Basing 
Castle, kept by the Lord Marquisse of Win- 
chester, for the service of His Majesty against 
the forces of the Bebells under command of 
Colonell Norton. Anno Dom. 1644. Oxford, 
printed by Leonard Lichfield, printer to the 



University, 1644." From this diary he reads 
the following extract : — 

" Basing C istle, the seat and mansion of the 
Marquisse of Winchester, stands on a rising 
ground, having its forme circular, encompassed 
with a brick rampart, lined with earth, and a 
very deep trench, but dry. The loftie Gate- 
house with f oure turrets looking northwards, 
on the right whereof without the compas83 of 
the ditch, is a goodly building, containing two, 
f aire courts. Before them is the Graunge 
severed by a wall and common roade, againe 
divided from the foot of Cowdrey*s Downe by 
meades, rivulets, and a river running from 
Basingstoake, a mile distant upon the west. The 
south side of the Castle hath a parke, and 
toward Basing towne a little wood, the place 
seated and bmlt as if for Royaltie, having a 
proper mitto, * Aymey Loyalte.' " 

" Having read this account of Basing in its 
glory by its lord and master, let us explore fts 
ruins !" 

Inclining to the right, as we enter the circular 
keep or citadel, we at once reach the excava- 
tions before referred to. Very curious and 
very puzzling are their results. The rooms at 
present explored seem to have been the kitchens 
of the mansion. Recesses in which some think 
the tinder-box formerly rested have been opened 
out, together with chimneys, fireplace, and 
ovens. Just within the rampart is what at 
present seems like a corridor, paved in some 
places with brick, and in others with flint. 
This paving has here and there disappeared, and 
there is reason to suppose that wood was used, 
as well as the more durable materials. Chalk 
also formed the floor in various places. A 
circular brick wall, three feet in height, a por- 
tion of which appears to have been hastily con> 
structed, runs round the area parallel to the 
outer rampart. Drains have been met with, 
and a large culvert leads beneath the moat into 
the open country. In one portion of the wall 
are several recesses, the original use of which is 
shrouded in mystery. A large arch, which pro- 
bably did duty as a sally-port, has been un- 
covered, and various chambers below the surface 
are being brought to light. The foundations of 
what was apparently a square tower are visible 
near the centre of the circular area, and close 
by is a large cellar, the arched roof of which 
was probably intended to be bomb proof. The 
stands for the beer barrel may still be seen, 
and light was admitted by shoots very similar 



Thx Buiksd F0BTBE88. 



9 



to those in the cr3rpt of Winchester Cathedral. 
The steps leading down to this cellar were of 
brick with stout oaken curbs. The all-con- 
suming fire penetrated even here, as the charred 
timbers plainly testified. Indeed, this cellar 
was the probable scene of a tragedy as horrible 
as that of the Black Hole of Calcutta, of 
which Hugh Peters shall tell us more anon. 
The citadel was supplied with water from a 
well on the left of the entrance, and there is 
Another well on the outer edge of the moat. 
Pursuing our walk round the circular ram- 
part, we notice some masonry which seems to 
have formed part of the more anciont build- 
ing which Adam De Porta called "home." 
Pleasant is the breezy walk along the path at 
the top of the rampart, where steadfast Cava- 
liers did " sentry go" for many a weary month. 
From the summit to the left of the entrance to 
the citadel we look down into the moit, more 
than 30 feet below, and the supposed site of the 
famous New House.beyond which is the canal, on 
the opposite bmk of which som3 of the out- 
works of the fortress are still distinctly trace- 
able. Further off is Basing Church, alter- 
nately occupied by both parties, and as we walk 
onwards we skirt the Park, in which the be- 
siegers raised their strongest works. Close by, 
indeed within a stone's throw of where we 
stand, the focmen's trenches are still much in 
the same condition as they were after the final 
assault. Close quarters truly 1 

When we have completed half our circuit we 
see the well before mentioned on the outer edge 
of the moat, and we are evidently treading on 
foundations, probibly of a tower, to defend a 
drawbridge, of the existence of which at this 
point there are some indications. A large 
mound to the right of the well perhaps marks 
tho position of a hostile battery. Sir William 
Waller se ms to have " faced the House" on this 
side. And now what a view we have I Away in 
the distance is Wiaklcbury Circle, from whence, 
according to tradition, Oliver, on his all-con- 
queriug march, first surveyed from a distance 
the stately towers of Basiag, doomed to fall. 
Rather nearer is Basingstoke, the head>quarters 
of the Parliamentarian Committee, and we fail 
not to remark pleasant Hachwood House, 
wherein most fittingly find place the portraits 
of the "Loyal" Marquis and Marchioness. 



Close below us are Slaughter Close and the 
swamps which protected the fortress on the 
north. How cleariy could the besieged discern 
the movements of the enemy's horse on Cowdrey 
Down, of the infantry quartered in the Delve, 
and of convoys moving along the lower road or 
"lane" from Basingi^oke. Protected by the 
guns mounted upon and around the House, 
as well as by its own fortifications, was 
the Grange, which also was stoutly defended. 
Beyond the church, in a field called Priest- 
croft, which may be the land formerly belong- 
ing to the Chaplain of the free chapel of 
Basing, are the remains of fortifications, 
and across th> River Loddon is Pyat's or 
Magpie Hill, from whence the besieged drew 
frequent and welcome supplies of com. 

One of our party prcKiuces a rare contem- 
porary etching ascribed to Wenceslaus Hollar, the 
eminent engraver, who was himself one of the 
besieged, and Mr. Sapp has also a view of the 
House from a very ancient drawing, now in the 
Boileiin Library. The latter view shows a large 
expanse of water on one side, which is crossed by 
a causeway. In " The Soldier's Report of Sir 
William Waller's Fight," &c., we are told: 
"This place is very strongly fortified. The 
walls of the house are made thick and strongly 
to boare out cannon bullets, and the house bmlt 
upright, so thit no man can command the roofe; 
the windowes thereof are guard id by the outer 
walles, and there is no plaoe open in the house 
save only for certain Drikes (or field-pieces) 
upon the roofe of the said house, wherewith 
they are able to play upon our Army, though we 
discern them not. The house is as large and 
spacious as the Tower of London, and strongly- 
walled about with earth raised against the wall, 
of such a thicknesse that it is able to dead the 
greatest cannon bullet, besides they have great 
store both of ammunition and victualls to serve 
for supply a long time, and in the wall divers 
pieces of ordnance about the house." Cromwell 
speaks of taking " about ten pieces of ordnance." 
The Marquis says "Our courts being large 
and many;" and Hugh Peters states, "There 
were in Doth houses 16 courts, both great and 
small." Several towera aided the defence, but 
the lead was stripped from all the turrets during 
the siege, to be cast into bullets. 



Chapter II.— Basing in " Ye Olden Tyme. 



>» 



Having now obtained a general idea of the 
ground on which once stood Basing House, we 
Beat ourselves on the grassy slopes of the 
citadel, and one of our party (with an occa- 
uonal comment from some one or other of his 
audience) speaks as follows : — "Before we speak 
of the Civil War, we must make brief mention 
of * a fight fought long ago' on this very spot. 
A Danish host landed in the north, stormed 
York, and marched upon *tho Royal city 
called Reading.* Brave Earl Alfgar had tried 
to bar the Vikings' way, only to die as a 
soldier should, sword in hand beneath the oaks 
of Kesteven. 

The lion-hearted Ethelred dwelt in the palace 
of the West Saxons at Winchester, and by his 
fiide was his young brother. Earl Alfred, * the 
truth teller,' already known as a Dane fighter, 
liod by the two Royal soldiers, the men of 
Wessex, with their dragon standard, faced the 
Haven of the North on or near the site of 
Basing House. How thickly ficw the arrows 
that day I how fiercely did Saxon and North- 
man hew and hack at one another ! how cheerily 
rang out Alfred's battle cry 1 It was, we may 
be sure, not his fault that ^tho Pagans 
remained masters of the place of death,' and 
that * when the fight began hope passed from 
the one side to the other ; the Royal army was 
deceived ; the enemy had the victory but gained 
no spoils.' The grave of the slain is probably 
remembered in the name of the neighbouring 
farm of 'Lick Pit,' or *Body Pit.'" 

But we must hasten onwards. Camden says: 
"Beneath this (the Holy Ghost Chappell) East- 
ward lieth Basing, a towne very well knowne 
by reason of the liords bearing the name of it, 
to wit, St. John, the Poinings, and the Pow- 
lets. For when Adam de Portu, Lord of Basing, 
a mightie man in this tract,and of great wealth, 
in the reign of William the First, matched in 
marriage with the daughter and heire to the 
right noble louse of St. John, William his 
Sonne, to doe honour unto that f amilie, assumed 
to him the surname of St. John, and they who 



lineally descended from him have still retained 
the same. But when Edward St. John 
departed out of this world without issue 
in King Edward the Third his time, 
his sister Margaret bettered the state 
of her husband, John Saint Philibert, 
with the possessions of the Lord Saint John, 
and when she was dead without children, 
Isabell, the other sister, wife unto Sir John 
Poinings, bare unto him Thomas Lord of 
Basing, whose niece Constance by his sonne 
Hugh (unto whom this fell for h t child-part 
of inheritance) was wedded into the f amilie of 
Powlet, and she was gr^at grandmother to that 
Sir William Powlet who, being made Baron 
Saint John of Basing, by King Henrie the 
Eighth, and created by King Edward the 
Sixth first Earl of Wiltshire, and afterwards 
Marquess of Winchester, and withall was Lord 
Treasurer of England, having in a trouble- 
some time runne through the highest 
honour, fulfilled the course of nature 
with the satietie of his life (and that 
is great prosperitie as a rare bl'^ssing 
among Courtiers), after he had built a 
most sumptuous house heere, for the spacious 
largenesse thereof admirable to the beholder, 
untill for the great and chargeable reparations 
his successors pulled down a good part of it. 
But of him I have spoken before." This keep 
or citadel, in which we now are, is probably an 
old camp, which has been utilised in turn by 
Celt, Roman, Saxon, Dane, Norman, and 
Cavalier. In a grant made to the Priory of 
Monks Sherborne, in the reign of Henry II., 
mention is made of " the old castle of Basing." 
This seems to have been rebuilt by William 
Paulet, or Powlett, the First Marquis of Win- 
chester, of whom we are told that he was the 
son of Sir John Paulet, who was twice Sheriff 
of Hampshire. He was made Comptroller and 
Treasurer of the Household by Henry YIII., 
and became Lord Treasurer to Edward YI., by 
whom he was created Marquis of Winchester. 
" It has never been said that he possessed 



Baling in "Ye Oldxn Tnu. 



f» 



11 



masterly abilities; he is only presented to ns as 
amanof^eat policy and sagacity." He was 
the c ief instroment in preserving the crown to 
Queen Mary, and c^ied in 1571 at the age of 87, 
enormously wealthy, and leaving 103 de- 
scendants. He seems to have been remarkable 
for pithy sayings. Being asked how he had re- 
tained the favour of four Tudor sovereigns, he 
replied " I was born of the willow, not of the 
oak." He said also ** that there was always 
the best justice when the Court was absent 
from London." He thus wrote : — 

Late Bupning I forbear, 

Wine ana women I forswear ; 

My neck and feet I keep from cold, 

No marvel then, though 1 be old ; 

I am a wUlow, not an oak. 

I chide, bnt never hurt with stroke. 
In 1560 he entertained at Basing his Royal 
mistress, who made the full fond conf.ssion, 
** By my troth, if my Lord Treasurer were but 
a young man, I could find in my heart to love 
him for a husband before any man in England." 
Entertaining Royal personages was expensive 
then as now. In January, 1569, the old Mar- 
quis received a letter from the Earl of Shrews- 
burpr, who acted as jailor to the Queen of Scots, 
asking for a further allowance of wine in these 
terms : — " Truly two tuns have not sufficed ordi- 
narily, besides that which is sacrificed at times 
for her bathings and such like use, which seeing 
I cannot by any means conveniently diminish, 
my earnest trust and desire is that you will now 
consider me with such larger proportions in this 
case as shall seem good unto your friendly 
wisdom, even as I shall think myself much bo- 
holden to you for the same, and so I commit 
you unto God. From Tutbury Castle, this 15 
of January, 1569. Your assured friend to my 
power, G. Shrewsbury." The second Marquis, 
who was one of the judges at the trial of the 
Duke of Norfolk in 1572, died in 1576, bequeath- 
ing his body to be buried in the church of 
Basing, and ordering that his funeral should 
cost lObOZ. The third Marquis wrote poetry and 
gave large estates to four ille^timate sons. His 
8on and successor impoverished himself by 
royally entertaining Queen Elizabeth in 1601, 
of which we have the following graphic account : 
*' Queen Elizabeth's entertainment at Bas- 
ing House, in her progress in 1611. — Her 
Majesty was that night attended on to 
Basing, a house of the Lord Marquesse, where 
aho t<K>k much quiet content, as well with the 
seato of the house, as honourable carriage of the 



worthy Lady Lucie, Marquesse of Winchester, 
that fihee staid there thirteene dayes, to the 
greate charge of the sayde Lorde Marquesse. 
The fourth day after the Queen's conuning to 
Basing the sherifte was conmianded to attend 
the Duke of Biron at his conuning into that 
country, whereupon the next day, being the 
10th of September, hee went towards Black- 
water, being the uttermost confines of that 
shire, towards London, and then met the said 
Duke, accompanied with above 20 of the 
nobilitie of France, and attended with about 
400 Frenchmen, who were met by George, 
Earle of Cumberland, and by him conducted 
from London to Hampshire. The said Duke 
was that night brought to the Vine, a f aire and 
large house of Lord Sands, which house was 
furnished with hangings and plate from the 
Tower and Hampton Court, with 7-score beds 
and furniture, which the willing and obedient 
people of the countrie of Southampton, upon 
two dayes warning, had brought in thither, to 
lend the Queene. The Duke abode there four 
or five days, all at the Queene's charges, and 
spent her more at the Vine than her owne 
court for the time spent at Basen. During her 
abode there. Her Majestic went to him at the 
Vine, and he to her at Basen, and one day he 
attended her at Basen-parke on hunting, where 
the Duke staied her conmiing, and did there see 
her in such Royaltie, and so attended by the 
nobilitie,and costlv furnished and mounted,a8 the 
like had seldome oeen seene ; but when she came 
to the place where the Duke staied, the said 
bherifPe (as the manner is), being bareheaded, 
and riding next day before her, staied his horse, 
thinking the Queene would then have saluted 
the Duke, whereat the Queene, being much 
offended, commanded the Sheriffe to go on. 
The Duke followed her very humbly, bowing 
low towards his horse's maine with his cap off. 
About twenty yards Her Majestic on the sudden 
tooke off her masko, looked backe upon him, 
and most gratiously and courteously saluted him, 
as holding it not beseeming so mightie a Prince 
as she was, and who so well knew all kingly 
majestic to make her stay directly against a 
subject before he had shewed his obedience in 
following after her. She tarried at Bason 
thirteen diys, as is aforesaid, being very well 
contented with all things there done, affirming 
she had done th t in Hampshire that none of 
her ancestors ever did, neither any Prince of 
Cristendom3 could doe ; that was she had in her 



12 



Basing in "Tb Olden Ttmv. 



t» 



I 



progreese in her subjects* houses entertained a 
Koyall Ambassador^and had Royally entertained 
him. At her departure from iBasen, being the 
14th of Septemoer, she made 10 Knights, 
having never in all her raigne made, at one 
time, so many before, whose names were : Sir 
Edward Citsell, second sonne to the Lord 
Burley ; Sir Edward Hungerfcrd, next heyre 
to the Lord Hungerford ; Sir Edward Bainton, 
of Wiltshire, Sir W. Eingmil, Sir Care Raw- 
leigh, Sir Francis Palmer, then sheriffe of the 
shire ; Sir Benjamin Tichboume, Sir Hamden 
Paulet, Sir Richard Norton, of Hampshire ; Sir 
Francis Stoner, of Oxfordshire ; and Sir Edward 
liudlow, of Wiltshire. Next day she went from 
Basen towards Famham, a castle belonging 
to the see of Winchest r, and in her 
way to Famham she knighted Sir Richard 
White in his own house, having feasted her and 
her trayne very royally, neer unto which towne 
the sheriffe of Hampshire took his leave, and 
the sheriffe of Surrey met her, but the sheriffe 
of Hampshire and the gentlemen of that country 
went to Famham by command, and there at- 
tended the next day, where they were feasted 
and kindly entertained by the learned prelate. 
Dr. Bilson, Bishoppe of Winchester, upon whose 
onely commendation two auncient and worthy 
gentlemen of Hampshire, Sir Richard Mill and 
Sir William Udall, received there the dignity of 
knighthood. And thus much for that progresso 
to be noted." (Vide " Queen Elizabeth's Pro- 
gresses," Vol. IL) 

The Vyne or Vine just mentioned is near 
Sherborne St. John. Before the 16th century 
it was an old manor house, which Lord Sandys 
enlarged and beautified. It was afterwards 



greatly altered by Liigo Jones and his son-in- 
law Webb. Camden styles it " A neat house of 
the Lord Sandes, called from the vines intro- 
duced into Biitain, more for shade than for the 
sake of the fruit, ever since tho time of the 
Emperor Probus, who allowed the Britons and 
other nations to plant vines." Horace Walpolc 
says " At the Vine is the most heavenly chapel 
in the world," which contains some stained glass 
brought from Boulogne after its capture by 
Henrv VIII. by the first Lord Sandys. This 
glass has, therefore, like Hudibras's breeches and 
the hollow copper ball on Naseby Spire, " been 
at the siege of Bullen." The tomb room 
adjoining the chapel was built by John Chute, 
the friend of Horace Walpole. It contains an 
altar-tomb, with an effigy of Chaloncr Chute, 
Speaker of the House of Commons, and one of 
the great lawyers of the time of the Common- 
wealth, who purchased the estate of the 
representatives of the Sandys family. For 
full particulars of the noble owners of 
Basing see Woodward's History of Hawpshirt^ 
to which we are greatly indebted for much 
valuable information. The 5th Marquis at first 
managed his estates in peace, keeping up the 
old customs that " tenants were to make 
hedges for the wheat field by or within six days 
after St. Andrew's Day, and for the barley field 
on or within six days of Maie Daie. No wheat was 
to be sown until within a fortnight of Christmas, 
and no fallowing done until within a fortnight 
of Candlemas." But more stirring times were 
about to ruin, whilst immortalising, Basing, and 
to confer upon its noble owner the proud title 
of "the Loyal Marquis." 



Chapter III.— The Civil Wab Bboins. 



It comes not within our province to discuss 
the canses of qnarrel between Charles I. and his 
Parliament. Suffice it to say that the house of 
Pawlet declared for the King. On June 15th, 
1642, Lord Pawlet was with the King at York, 
and was one of those who were styled by their 
opponents ** the Popish and beggarly lords, and 
cavaliers for and about the King." On that day 
he, with 44 other noblemen, declared that ** the 
King had no intention of making war upon the 
Parliament,'' and on June 20th he was one of 
43 who undertook '^ to pay horses for three 
months (thirty days to the month), at two 
shillings and sixpence per diem, still advancing 
a month's pay, the first payment to begin so 
Boone as the King shall call for it after the com- 
missions shall be issued under the great scale. 
In this number are not to be reckoned the horses 
of the subscribers, or of those that shall attend 
them." Lord Pawlet promised to provide 40 
horses, and the Lord Marquess of Hartford 60. 
Lord Pawlet and his son Sir John Pawlet were 
afterwards besieged in Sherborne Castle by the 
Earl of Bedford. 

In Hampshire the Marquis of Winchester de- 
clared for the King, but his kinsmen. Sir Henry 
Wallop and Eobert Wallop, who were members 
for the county and for Andover, were Parlia- 
mentarians. Of this ancient family Camden 
says, " After this, Test having taken into it a 
little river from Wallop, or more truly Well- 
hop, that is by interpretation out of our fore- 
fathers' ancient language ^ a pretty well out of 
the side of a hill,' whereof that right worship- 
ful familie of the Wallops of Knights' Degree 
dwelling harde by tooke name." Two other 
kinsmen, Richard and Sir Thomas Jervoise, 
represented the borough of Whitchurch in Par- 
liament. Sir William Waller, the Parliamen- 
tarian general, was also a relative, and had just 
been returned a member for Andover. 

Sir Henry Wallop and Richard Whitehead, 
Esq., who were both Parliamentarians, repre- 
sented the county at Westminster. Sir Henry 
Bainsford and Henry Yemon, Esq., were the 



original members for Andover in the Long Par- 
liament, but by a petition which bears the date 
of May 3rd, 1642, Mr. Vernon was unseated, 
and Sir William Waller declared duly elected, 
the return being amended on May 12th, 1642. 
Robert Wallop, Esq., a staunch friend to the 
Parliament, also represented Andover in the 
Long Parliament. 

Henry Percy, Esq., was one of the members 
for Portsmouth, but on his electing to sit for 
Northumberland a new writ was issued on 
November 11th, 1642, and Nicholas Weston, 
Esq., was elected. The other member was the 
notorious Colonel Goring, who, deserting the 
Parliament, openly declared for the King early 
in August, 1642, and was, in consequence, ex- 
pelled from the House of Commons on the 8th 
of that month. 

The members for Southampton were George 
Gallop and Edward Exton, Esqs., who were 
likewise adherents of the Parliament. The re- 
presentatives of Stockbridge were William 
Hevenineham and William Jephson, Esqs., who 
supported the same cause, whilst at Whitchurch 
the Parliament had friends in Richard Jervoise, 
Esq., and Sir Thomas Jervoise, the sitting 
members. Clarendon speaks of "Norton, 
Onslow, Jarvis, Whitehead, and Morley, all 
Colonels of Regiments," and of " two Captains, 
Jarvise and Jephson, the two eldest sons of two 
of the greatest rebels of that country, both 
heirs to good fortunes." One of the members 
for Winchester was the celebrated John Lisle, 
Esq., the friend of Cromwell, and the husband 
of Dame Alicia Lisle, the victim of brutal 
Judge Jeffreys. His colleague. Sir William 
(afterwards Lord) Ogle, was a devoted 
Royalist, which caused him to be unseated 
on June 24th, 1643. Sir William Lewis, Bart., 
and Sir Wm. Uvedale supported the claims of the 
Parliament at Petersfield. Sir Benjamin Tich- 
bome, who also represented Peteiisfield about 
this time, was obliged to " retire after the battle 
of Cheriton to the mansion at West Tisted. 
This is now a farm-house, and near it an old 



14 



Trb Civil War Beqins. 



hollow oak is still shown in which the Knight 
contrived to secrete himself from the pnrsuit 
of the troopers who were sent to apprehend- 
him. Sir Richard Tichbome was probably in 
the battle of Cheriton, as was also his brother, 
Sir Benjamin, and his son, Sir Henry. These 
members of the Tichborne family were unhap- 
pily arrayed against a kinsman in the Parlia- 
mentarian Army. This was Robert Tich- 
bome, a zealous adherent of Cromwell, after- 
wards Lord Mayor of London, and called by the 
Protector to his Upper House in 1057. He sat 
as one of the Judges on the trial of the unfor- 
tunate Charles, and signed the warrant for his 
execution. He was arraigned, but never brought 
to trial. Sir Henry Tichbome, the son of Sir 
Richard, is the same baronet who is represented 
in Tilbourg's picture of the Dole. For his at- 
tachment to the Royal cause his estate was 
sequestered, but regained at the Restoration." 
Colonel Norton, the friend of Cromwell, lived 
at the Manor House of Old Alresf^rd, but Dr. 
Peter Heylin, the Rector, who wrote a History 
of the Reformation, was hateful to the Puritan 
party, having arranged his church according to 
the Injunctions issued by Archbishop Laud. 
The principal inhabitants of Alresf ord favoured 
the Parliament. Winchester Castle was a place 
of considerable strength. James I. had granted 
it to the Tichborne family in fee farm for ever. 
Sir William Waller laid claim to the office of 
Governor, but in 1643 Sir Richard Tichborne 
aided in bringing it under the authority of the 
King. Bishop Curie and the Rev. W. Lewis, 
Master of St. Cross, were " stanch loyalists and 
Churchmen," whilst as to the inhabitants in 
general we know that when Charles I. was brought 
as a prisoner to the city under a guard of horse 
on December 21st, 1648, en route from Hurst 
Castle to Windsor, " At his entrance therein the 
Mayor and Aldermen of the city did, notwith- 
standing the times, receive the King with duti- 
ful respect, and the clergy did the like. During 
his short stay of one nis;ht the gentry and 
others of inferior rank flocked thither in great 
numbers to welcome His Majesty." Most of 
the townsmen of Southampton appoar to hive 
been friendly to the Roval cause, whilst of the 
noble Lord of Titchfield House Clarendon says : 
'* The Earl of Southampton was indeed a great 
man in all respects, and brought very mucli re- 
putation to the King's cause." A large portion 
of the parish of Abbott's Worthy belonged to 
Arthur, Lord Capel, who desired that his heart, 



after his execution in March, 1649, might be en- 
closed in a silver vase and presented to Charles 
II. at the Restoration, which was accordingly 
done. Of him the old rhyme ran : — 

Onr lion-like Capel nndaimted stood, 
Beset witli crosses in a sea of blood. 

Colonel Sandj*^ o^ Mottisfont House, Colonel 
Phillips, of Stoke Charity, Captain Peregrine 
Tasbury, and many others took up arms for the 
King. The Earl of Portland, who held away 
in the Isle of Wight, was peculiarly obnoxions 
to the Puritans, who " objected to all the acts 
of good fellowship, all the waste of powder, and 
all the waste of wine in the drinking of healths, 
and other acts of jollity ; whichever he had 
been at in his government from the first honr 
of his entering upon it." 

The Marquis of Winchester seems to have 
been at first inclined to neutrality, for, after 
giving a description of Basing House, he says : 
" Hither, the rebellion having made houses of 
pleasure more unsafe, the Marquis first retired, 
hoping integrity and privacy might have here 
preserved his quiet, but the source of the time's 
villany, bearing downe all before it, neither 
allowing neutrality, or permitting peace to any 
that desired to be lesse sinful than themselves, 
enforceth him to stand upon his guard." The 
position of Basing House, commanding," sit did, 
the western road, could not escape notice, and 
on AiTgust 19th, 1641, ** In the House of Com- 
mons one, Mr. Sewer, did this day give infor- 
mation that he did see on Monday was seven- 
night a great many arms in the Marquis of 
Winchester's house at Basingstoke, a recusant, 
and that the keepers of them told him there 
were arms for a thousand five-hundred men." 
On November 4th, of the same year, " It was 
ordered that the Lord Marquess of Winchester 
shall have liberty, by vcrtue of this Order, to 
sell off his arms to such tradesmen as will buy 
the same." Having thus, as they thought, 
rendered Basing House defenceless, some of its 
foes attacked it, which "enforceth him (the 
Marquis) to stand upon his guard, which, with 
his gentlemen armed with six musquets 
(the whole remainder of a well-furnished 
armory), ho did so well that twice 
tho enemies' attempts proved vaine." 
" Portsmouth was at the time of the raising of 
the stand ird hold for the King by one whose 
course, from first to last, devious, uncertain, 
and unprincipled, shed disgrace upon the noble- 
ness of his name, and upon the honourable pro- 



The Ciyix Wab Beoins. 



15 



fesfdon of a soldier. This man was Goring, 
than whom, on account of his private vices of 
drunkenness, cruelty, and rapacity, and of his 
political timidity and treachery, scarcely any- 
one was more unworthy to bo trusted with any 
important matters for counsel or execution." 
Clarendon says, " When the King returned to 
York, an accident fell out that made it 
absolutely necessary for the King to declai*o the 
war, and to enter upon it before he was in any 
degree ripe for action, which was that Ports- 
mouth had declared for the King and refused 
to submit to the Parliament, which had there- 
upon sent an army, under the command of Sir 
William Waller, to reduce it." 

** In the previous year Col. Goring had been 
a ti'aitor to the King, and had betrayed the 
army plot. The Parliament now felt sure of 
him, but he was all the while in treaty with 
their enemies. Queen Henrietta Maria even 
thought of placing herself under his protection 
at Portsmouth. This plan ho duly disclosed to 
the Parliament, and received large sums of 
money from both Puritans and Cavaliers to be 
expended upon the defences of the toAvn. All 
which ho performed witli that admirable 
dissimulation and rare confidence that when 
the House of Commons was informed by a 
member, whose zeal and affection to them was 
as much valued as any man's, ' that all 1 is 
correspondence in the county was with the most 
malignant persons (/.<?., Royalists), that of those 
many frequently resorted to, and continued 
with him in the garrison ; that he was fortify- 
ing and raising of batteries to"w ards the land ; 
and that in his di.scom-so, especially in 
tho seasons of his good fellowship, ho 
used to utter threats against the Parlia- 
ment and sharp censures of their proceed- 
ings, and upon such information (tho author 
whereof was well known to them, and of great 
reputation, and lived so near Portsmouth that 
ho could not be mistaken, in the matter of 
fact), (Was this informjint Colonel Norton, or 
ouo of his family from Southwick Park V) tho 
House sent for him, most thinking ho would 
refuse to como. Colonel Goring came upon the 
summons, with that undauntcdness, that all 
clouds of distrust immediately vanished, inso- 
much as nb man presumed to whisper tho least 
jealousy of him ; which he observing, came to 
the House of Commons, of which he was a 
member, and having sato a day or two patiently, 
as if ho expected somo charge, in tho end he 



stood up, with a countenance full of modesty 
and yet not without a mixture of anger (as he 
could help himself with all the insinuations 
of doubt or fear, or shame, or simplicity in his 
face that might gain belief, to a greater degree 
than I ever saw any man ; and could seem the 
most confounded when he was best prepared, 
and tho most out of countenance when he was 
best resolved, and to want words, and the habit 
of speaking, when they flowed from no man 
with greater power), and told them that he 
had been sent for by them, upon some informa- 
tion given against him, and that, though he 
believed, the charge being so ridiculous, they 
might have received, by their own particular 
inquiry, satisfaction, yet the discourse that had 
been used, and his being sent for in that manner, 
had begot some prejudice to him in his reputa- 
tion ; which if he could not preserve, he should 
be the less able to do them service ; and there- 
fore desired, that he might have leave (though 
very unskilful, and unfit to speak, in so wise 
and judicious an assembly) to pi*esent to them 
the state and condition of that place under his 
command. And then he doubted not, but to 
give them full satisfaction in those particulars, 
which, possibly, had made some impression in 
them to his disadvantage. That he was far from 
taking it ill from those who had given any in- 
formation against him ; for what he had done, 
and must do, might give some umbrage to well 
affected persons, who knew not the grounds and 
reasons that induced him so to do ; but that 
if any such persons would at any time 
resort to him, he would clearly inform 
them of whatever motives he had ; and would 
be glad of their advice and assistance for the 
better doing thereof. Then he took notice of 
every particular that had been publickly said 
against him, or privately whispered, and gave 
such plausible answers to the whole, interming- 
ling sharp taunts and scorns to what had been 
said of him, with pretty application of himself 
and flattery to the men that spake it. Conclud- 
ing * That they well knew in what esteem he 
stood with othei-s ; so that if, by his ill carriage, 
he should forfeit the good opinion of that 
House, upon which he only depended, and to 
whoso service he entirely devoted himself, he 
were madder than his friends took him to be, 
and must be as unpitied in any misery that 
could befal him as his enemies would be glad 
to see him.' With which, as innocently and 
unaf^eotcdly uttered, as oan be imaginedf he got 



16 



Thi Civiii Wab Beoiks 



BO general an applause from the whole House 
that, not without some apology for troubling 
him, they desired him again to repair to his 
government, and to finum those works which 
were necessary for the safety of the place, and 
gratified him with consenting to ail the pro- 
positions he made in behalf of his garrison, and 
paid him a good sum of money for their 
arrears ; with which, and being privately as- 
sured (which was indeed resolved on) that he 
should be Lieutenant-General of their Horse 
in their new army, when it should be formed, 
he departed again to Portsmouth ; in the mean 
time assuring His Majesty, by those who were 
trusted between them, ^ That he would be 
speedily in a posture to make any such declara- 
tion for his service as he should be required ;* 
which he was forced to do sooner than he was 
provided for it, though not sooner than he had 
reason to expect." 

" When the levies for the Parliament Army 
were in good forwardness, and that Lord had 
received his commission for Lieutenant-General 
of the Horse, he wrote the Lord Kimbolton, who 
was his most bosome friend, and a man very 
powerful, desiring * That he might not be called 
to give his attendance upon the army till he was 
ready to march ; because there were so many 
things to be done and perfected for the safety of 
that important place, that he was desirous to be 
present himself at the work as long as was pos- 
sible. In the meantime he had given directions 
to his agent in London to prepare all things for 
his equipage ; so that he would be ready to 
cmpear at any rendezvous, upon a day's warning/ 
Though the Earl of Essex did much desire his 
company and assistance in the Council of War, 
and preparing the articles, and forming the dis- 
cipline for the Army, he having been more lately 
versed in the order and rule of marches and the 
provisions necessary or convenient thereunto 
than any man then in their service, and of greater 
command than any man but the General ; yet 
the Lord Kimbolton prevailed that he might not 
be sent for till things were riper for action. 
And when that Lord did afterwards write to him 
' That it was time he should come away, he sent 
such new and reasonable excuses, that they were 
not unsatisfied with his delay ; till he had mul- 
tiplied those excuses so long that they began to 
suspect, and thev no sooner inclined to suspicion 
but they met with abundant arguments to cherish 
it. His behaviour and course of life was very 
notorious to all the neighbours, nor was he ataU 
reserved in his mirth and publick discourses to 



conceal his^opinion of the Parliament, and their 
proceedinsi, so that at last the Lord Ejhnbolton 
writ plainly to him ' That he could no longer 
excuse his absence from the Army, where he was 
much wanted ; and that if he did not come to 
London by such a short day as he named, he 
found his integrity would be doubted, and that 
many things were laid to his charge, of which he 
doubted not his innocence, and therefore con- 
jured him immediately to be at Westminster, it 
beinff no longer deferred or put off.* ^e writ 
a jolly letter to that Lord ' That the truth was, 
his Council advised him that the Parliament did 
many things which were illegal, and that he 
might incur much danger by obeying all their 
orders, that he had received the command of that 
garrison from the King, and that he durst not be 
absent from it without his leave :' and concluded 
with some good counsel to the Lord." 

" This declaration of the Governor of a place, 
which had the reputation of being the only 
place of strength in England, and situated upon 
the sea, put them into many apprehensions ; 
and they lost no time in endeavounng to reduce 
it ; but upon the first understanding his resolu- 
tion. Sir William Waller was sent with a good 
part of the army, so to block it up that neither 
men nor provisions might be able to get in, and 
some ships were sent from the Fleet, to prevent 
any relief by sea. And these advertisements 
came to the King as soon as he returned to 
York." 

Previous to the arrival of Sir William Wal- 
ler, the troops of the Parliament were under 
the command of Sir John Merrick, who was 
at the time Serjeant Major-General of their 
army. He was afterwards superseded by 
General Philip Skippon, receiving the appoint- 
ment of General of the Ordnance. Let us hear 
Clarendon once more. ''It gave no small 
reputation to His Majesty's affairs, when there 
was so great a damp upon the spirits of mon.^ 
from the misadventures at Beverly, that &< 
notable a place as Portsmouth had declarer 
for him in the very beginning of the "war 
and that so good an officer as Goring wai 
returned to his duty, and in the possession of j 
the town. And the King, who was not snr-^ 
prised with the matter, knowing well the reso-' 
lution of the colonel, made no doubt but that' 
he was very well supplied with all thin^.^j 
as he might well have been, to have given the 
rebels work, for three or four months, at the 
least." 



SlIOB OF POBTSMOCTH IN Tfil YeAS 1642. 



17 



This and other considerations induced the 
Kinff to issue a proclamation calling on his 
loyal subjects to rally round his standard at 
Nottinghain,and to send the Marquis of Hertford, 
witii Lord Seymour, his brother, Lord Pawlet, 
Hopton, Stawel, Coventry, Berkeley, Wind- 
hun, and some other gentlemen '* of the prime 
quality and interest in the Western parts," 
into those districts to raise regiments for Ids ser- 
vice. But no sooner had the standard been dis- 
played at Nottingham, on August 25, 1642, than 
*' Eus Majesty received intelligence that Ports- 
mouth was so streightly besieged by sea and 
land that it would l^ reduced in very few days, 
except it were relieved. For the truth is, Colonel 
Groring, though he had sufficient warning, and 
sufficient supplies of money to put that place 
into a posture, had rebed too much upon 

Srobable and casual assistance, and neglected to 
o that himself which a vigilant officer would 
have done ; and albeit his chief dependence was 
both for money and provisions from the Isle of 
Wight, yet he was careless to secure those small 
castles and blockhouses that guarded the passage ; 
which revolting to the Parliament as soon as he 
declared for the King, cut off those dependences ; 
so that he had neither men enough to do ordi- 
nary duty nor provisions enough for those few 
for any considerable time. And at the same 
time with this news of Portsmouth, arrived 
certain advertisements, that the Marquis of 
Hertford and all his forces in the West, from 
whom only the Eling hoped that Portsmouth 
should be relieved, was driven out of Somerset- 
shire, where his power and interest was believed 
unquestionable, into Dorsetshire ; and there 
besieged in Sherborne Castle." 

Siege of Portsmouth in the Yeak 1642. 

I have been favoured with the following ex- 
tract from an exceedingly rare work, entitled 
** Jehoveh-Jireh, God in the Mount ; or Eng- 
land's Parliamentarie Chronicle," in the pos- 
session of Mr. C. E. Smithers, of Queen-street, 
Portsea : — 

« And much about thia time came certain in- 
telligence to the Parliament of the present 
estate, then of Portsmouth, how Colonell 
Goreing, the then Govemour thereof (and that 
by the assent and good liking of the Parlia- 
ment ; Tet), had now deserted them ; and de- 
clared himself e solely for the King against the 
Parliament, and that ho had strongly fortified 
himaelfe both within and without against any 



forces that should come to oppose or supplant 
him ; And that the Countrey much f earmg he 
would now be but a bad neighbour, or unruly 
inmate to them, had already laid a strong siege 
about the Towne, but immediately desired the 
Parliament's assistance therein, which was ac- 
cordingly performed, and the Parliament's forces 
built a strong Fort on the Bridge-foot before 
Portsmouth, and planted ordnance thereon, and 
forthwith the Parliament sent to desire the Earl 
of Warwick to place a Guard of Ships by sea, 
to prevent all passages and supplies to Ports- 
mouth that way, which accordin^y the said most 
Noble Earle faithfully perform^, whereby the 
Collonell was now so hem'd in on all sides that 
it was not likely he could long keep house there 
in the Castle, the Townesmen also much dis- 
rellishing his doings therein. But because tMs 
was a piece of much concernment for the good 
of the whole kingdom, I shall here now take 
occasionf or the Reader's more delight and fuller 
satisfaction, to give a particular narration of 
the siege and taking of this Town and Castle, 
wherein will be divers delightfull passages very 
obvious to the Reader's obBervation. Colonell 
Goreing, having about the beginning of Aucust, 
1642, declared himself e openly (as was fore- 
mentioned) to be for the l^ing alone, and not 
for the King and Parliament, and having there- 
fore resolved to keep it ^as was pretended) for 
His Majesties coming thither, used all the care 
he could to fortifie himselfe therein, raised 
therefore in the first place a Mount at Port- 
bridge, three miles from the Town, and the 
onley passage into the Island of Portsey, but 
upon the first comming of the Parliaments 
forces, which was about the tenth of August, 
he took away the Ordnance which he had planted 
in the said Mount, being foure pieces, and 
brought them back again into the Town, and 
kept the said Bridge onley with 10 or 12 Troopers 
with Pistolls and Carbines. 

Now the Parliaments forces first showed 
themselves against Goreing about Pochdown in 
London way, halfe a nme from the Bridge. 
Hereupon the Colonells Troopes within the 
Town issued out in the night, and brought in 
all the sheepe and cattell that were in Portsey 
Island, and spoiled and piUaged the Inhabitans 
thereof, and of all their Koods and substance, 
and of all their victualls, leaving them not so 
much bread as to live on for one day. 

About the 12th of August our Parliament 
Troopers came in the night and beat the Gove- 



id 



StEOE Ot" POBTSHOUTH Itf THE Te^S 1642* 



nours Troopers from the Bridge and the whole 
Island, tooke a Trooper prisoner, and another 
horse, the Bider hardly escaping, having leapt 
from his horse, and ran away over hedge and 
ditch. August the 13th, the Lord Wentworth, 
with about 60 Troopers, all they could make, 
issued out of the Towne half a mile into Port- 
sey Island, to fetch in a piece of Ordnance, 
left behind them at first, and without resistance 
recovered it into the Towne." 

Lord Wentworth was the Major-Gencral of 
Goring's forces. The Cavalry under his charge 
received a severe check at Ashburton, in Devon- 
shire, and on January 15th, 1646, he received 
the command of all the horse in the remnant of 
the King's Army in the West. He was con- 
stantly associated with Colonel Goring. 

*' But shortly after, our Troopers approached 
noere to a mill, fast by the Town Mount, 
whereon their Ordnance was planted, intending 
to fire the mill, to hinder their grinding of corne, 
which attempt on the null, together with the 
Colonells Troopers endeavours to bring in the 
Cattell thereabout, caused many a hot skirmish, 
well performed on both sides, but little hurt 
done. Another time the Colonells Troopers s il- 
licd out of the Towne, and were chased by the 
Parliaments Troopers, and forced to retreat as 
fast as their horses could carry them, and at this 
there was a Scott ishman, a brave soldier, fol- 
lowed the chase to the very Towne, within the 
gate, and being within the Gate, six of the ene- 
mies set on him altogether, and he most valiantly 
defending himselfe and fought most bravely, 
at last they gave him three gashes in his head, 
yet for all this he was retreating and had escap't 
them all, had not one very suddenly shut the 
gate upon him, and so he was taken prisoner, 
but they seeing him such a brave soldier, tooke 
care of him, and procured the best Chyrurgions 
they could to cure him, and suffered him to want 
nothing convenient for him, and for his valour 
the Colonell gave him three pieces at his depar- 
ture, he being immediately exchanged for 
another prisoner which they tooke of the 
Colonells, at the Bridge as aforesaid. 

Another time the Colonell himselfe and the 
Lord Wentworth with him sallyed out in the 
night, with all their Troopers in two Companies, 
to the Parliaments Workos, by the conduction of 
one Winter, one of the Aldermen of the Towne, 
who undertooke to guide them, and so brought 
them to the very Court of Guard, thinking 
thereby to doe them much nuBchiefe, but there 



they found opposition enough, and upon com- 
bating came off with the loss of three men, 
whereof one named Glover, ttxe ColonelU 
own man, was slain, and the aforesaid 
Winter, their Guide, was taken prisoner, one of 
the 3 was one Mr. Weston his man, broth'^r to 
tlie Earl of Portland ; they also lost a hors.* of 
the Lord Wentworth 's, which Winter rode on, 
worth 30/. The Colonell also tooke six 
prisoners of our men, wereof five were mus- 
queteers, such as had been Sentinells, the other 
was a Trooper, a stout fellow, who was also 
hurt by a thrust in the arme ; the five musquc- 
teers the Colonell gained to be labourers to 
carry baskets of earth at his workes, but the 
other stood it out stoutly and scorned to comply. 
Winter was kept prisoner in the Court of 
Guard, and his own son, a lad, was permitted to 
come out of the Towne, and to passe to and 
fro to bring his father cleane linen, and other 
necessaries ; who once brought word from his 
father to the Governour, that the King was very 
noere the Towne, comming to their aid, which 
indeed was blazed abroad to be so in the Towne, 
of purpose to perswade the Garison souldiers 
that the King would now certainly and suddenly 
bo with them, and liberally reward all their 
paines and good service. And t'was but need 
thus to take paines to perswade them, for the 
greatest part of the Garison- Souldiers were gone 
away from the Towne by night, sometimes fovir. 
sometimes six at a time ; sometimes more and 
sometimes loss, for a great many nights together, 
and the most of his best Gunners were gone 
from him to the Parliament side, and such as. 
were left of the (iarison. were even heartless 
and did but little, and that on compulsion : tho 
expectation of tho King's comming hid sn 
tryed and dul'dthem, that they were even hope- 
lesse thereof. 

Now about August the 18th, the Governour 
plainely discerned from Gosport (a little 
Village, half a mile over tho water from th's 
Towne) that the Parliament Fortes were f ram - 
ing some workes to make a Fort, whereat the 
Governour was much troubled, and present! \ 
shot at them from all his workes, that la^* 
that way- ward, letting fly that night at 
least 60 bullets, but hurt but one man there- 
with and that by his owne folly, for he stood 
on his workes with a candle and lanthorn in 
his hand, whereby they had a right aime anc'i 
so shot him ; but for all this ours desisted not. 
but went on day and night till they had 



RisoB OT Portsmouth ts this Ybar 16^2. 



19 



perfected two plat farmes, the one behind a 
bame for ten pieces of Ordnance, the other be- 
hind a pile of Faggots for two pieces, though 
the Governor shot incessantly 14 dayes and 14 
nights to have beaten them off, but . could not. 
Shortly after this a parley was sounded but with- 
out any good successe, so then they fell to it 
again, the Govemour letting fiio his Ordnance 
apace, day and night, but not with Any losse to 
us rblessed be the Lord for it), no not of a man 
or norse. All this time there being but two 
pieces of Ordnance planted on the small worke 
of Gosport, behind the Faggots, which played 
not at all on the Towne, though they could have 
done it, but some short time after, they shot 
thence and killed one of the Garison-Souldiers on 
their Mount, and cut off a French man's leg,near 
unto him above the knee, to the endangering of 
his life. The Govemour himself e, and the Lord 
Wentworth in their own persons (and all could 
be spared from other duties) wrought all one 
night to make a Trench on the top of the Mount 
that at the sight of the firing of our Ordnance, 
they might 1 ap down into it and save themselves 
from the like shot from Gosport. 

On the Saturday f ollowing,ours played soundly 
from Gosport with our Ordnance and shot 
through the Tower of the Church and brake one 
of the Bells, and shot again against the same 
Tower, and that rebounded and fell into the 
Church, and shot down another top of a house 
that was near the Church, and the same Satur- 
day morning they shot at the Water-mill, the 
Miller whereof conmiended it (by experience) 
for a good thing to rise early in the morning, 
for (as he said) if be had not risen early that 
morning, he had been kilFd in his bed, for a 
bullet tooke away a sheete and part of his bed. 
The reason why th^y shot so much at the Churcli- 
tower, was, for that at the top thereof was their 
Watch-tower, whereby they espied all approaches 
by sea and by land, and the tolling of a 
bell gave notice both what ships came by sea, and 
w^ at number of horse came by land. That 
Saturday night ours shot but five bullets from 
Gosport, but every one of them did execution. It 
vras well observed, that in a small time, as ours 
shot from Gosport ; beginning at four of the 
clock on Friday afternoon, and ending at four 
on the Sabbath day in the morning, we did 
more execution with our two pieces of Ordnance 
than the Govemour had with the Towne 
Ordnance in 14, or 16 dales, and so many nights, 
in Tvhich they shot, at least, 300 bullets, and 



kill'd but one man in all that time's, a most re- 
markable providence of the Lord, we having but 
two pieces of Ordnance at Gosport, whereas the 
Ordnance planted against Gosport, from their 
f oure workes, could not be less than thirty pieces 
of Ordnance ; on Saturday, September the third, 
in the night, the Parliament forces took Sousey 
Castle, which lies a mile from the Towne upon 
the sea, and the way thither is on the sea-sands. 
The Captain of the Castle his name was 
Challmer, who on Saturday had been at Ports- 
mouth, and in the evening went home to the 
Castle, and his Souldiers took horse-loads of 
Provision, Bisket, Meal, and other necessaries 
with them. They reported that he had more 
drinke in his head than was befitting such a 
time and service, and the Townsmen gave out 
that he had been bribed with money to yield up 
the Castle, but 'twas false, though the first may 
be true, yet was not that neither any further- 
ance to the taking of it, for, thus it was : there 
were about 80 musqueteers and others that came 
that night to the Walls of the Castle, and under 
their Ordnance, and had been with them a very 
good Engineer, and 35 scaling ladders, and the 
whole company in the Castle were but 12, 
Officers or Commanders, who all were not able 
to deal with ours in such a disadvantage. 
Wherefore ours having suddenly and silently 
scaled the Walls, called unto them, advised 
them what to doe, shewing the advan- 
tage we had over them, and therefore their 
danger if they resisted, who seeing the same 
immediately yielded the Castle to us I where- 
upon the triumph at our taking it was plainly 
heard, about two of the clock in the morning, 
into the Towne, and so soon as they were 
masters of the Castle, they discharged two 
pieces of the Castle Oi'dnance against the Towne. 
Now hereupon the Govemour perceiving that the 
Castle (which was the defence of the Towne 
both by sea and land) was lost and gone, and 
pelting already of the Towne with the Ordnance 
thereof, and having seen through a prospective 
glasse, so good and faire a Plat-forme for ten 
pieces of Ordnance at Gosport, in th t very 
morning, before break of day, he called a 
Counccll of Warre to consult about their 
present condition, wlio soon agreed upon the 
sending out of a Drum to sound a Parley, which 
was done betimes, in so much that the Parley 
was begun about ten of the clock the same day, 
their hostages on each side being appointed. 
Out of the Towne, the Lord Wentworth, Mr. 



20 



8lE0S OF POBTSMOUTH IN THX TsAB 1642. 



Lewkner, and Mr. Weston, the Earl of Port- 
land's brother. From the Parliament side. Sir 
William Waller, Sir William Lewis, and Sir 
Thomas LanracQ." Of Sir William Waller we 
shall hear more. He and Sir William Lewis 
are thus described by Clarendon: — " Sir William 
Waller, Lewis, and other eminent persons, who 
had a trust and confidence in each other, and who 
were looked upon as the Heads and Govemours 
of the moderate Presb3rterian party, who most 
of them would have been contented, their own 
security being provided for, that the King should 
be restored to his full rights, and the Church to 
its possessions.'* *^ Lewis had been very 
popular and notorious from the beginning." 

'^The Parley was ended about five of the 
clock in the afternoon, but Articles of agree- 
ment not confirmed till seven, that a trumpet 
came, then, into the Towne from the Com- 
mittee of the Parliament, and then the conclu- 
sion was fully made known, and Articles 
thoroughly agreed on, on both sides ; namely, 
in brief, that the Towne and Castle was first to 
be delivered up to the Parliament, and the 
Colonell after some few daies, liberty to dis- 
pose of his estate there, to depart the Towne ; 
which both he, the Lord Wentworth, Mr. 
Lewkner, and Mr. Weston, and all the Cavaliers 
with them, their servants, and adherents did 
accordingly ; and Sir William Waller, and Sir 
Thomas Larvace, accompanied with Sir John 
Meldrum and Colonell Hurrey, together with a 
troop of Horse, and two companies of Foot took 
possession of the Towne." Is Sir Thomas 
Larvace a misprint for Sir Thomas Jervoise, 
one of the members for Whitchurch, and an 
active adherent of the Parliament ? Sir John 
Meldrum belonged to a Scotch family. He was 
in command of the besiegers at the siege of 
Newark, and was signally defeated by Prince 
Bupert on March 22nd, 1643. Colonel Hurrey, 
or Urrey, deserted to the King in the following 
June, acted as guide to Prince Bupert at Chal- 
grove Field, again went over to the Parlia- 
ment, revealing all that he knew of the King's 
afEairs. He afterwards joined Montrose, was 
wounded and taken prisoner at Preston, and 
hanged straightway. " In the evening, at about 
nine of the clock, Colonell Goring took boat 
and rowed to a ship for Holland," leaving his 
garrison to effect a oifficult and hazardous march 
to the King's quarters in the West." " This 
Colonell when he was first made Govemour of 
this strong Towne of Portsmouth, expelled (as 
one of his first works of piety in this defection 



from the state) a good Minister out of ^ 
Towne, by name Mr. Tach, at the time of his 
first declaring himself, as aforesaid, which said 
godly Minister was brought in again by Sir 
William Waller, and Sir Thomas I^trvace, and 
confirmed to be preacher to the Garrison. The 
greatest cause (as was conceived) that induced 
the Parliament side to agree to any Articles, 
was because the ColoneU had vowed and 
threatened that if the Towne were taken by 
f orceible assault, he would blow up the Maga- 
zine of the Towne, which lay in it, in tvo 
severall places ; namely, in the square-Towre on 
the sea-side, where were, at least, 1200 barreb of 
Gunpowder, and very much Ammunition ; and 
at the other end of the Towne, near the Gate, 
about 200 barrels more of Gunpowder and some 
Ammunition, and they having power over the 
Magazines, if they had fired them the whole 
Towne had been utterly spoiled, and not one 
person in the Towne coula have been secured 
from destruction thereby. But they wisely con- 
sidered that old nulitarie aziome. If thine 
enemie will flie, make him a golden bridge, 
better be merciful to a few, though offenders, 
than to ruinate all, both nocents and innocents, 
which indeed was the divellish doctrine and 
hellish counsell in the Popish powder-plot, by 
that most wicked Jesuite Garnet, that Arch- 
Traitor. 

Thus it pleased the Lord most graciously to 
finish the great worke of so high concernment 
to the Kingdome, as things now stand, and U 
doe it in a more than ordinarie way of mercit 
and goodnesse, both in respect of the speedi; 
and also unbloodie effecting of it, so little huit 
being done on both sides, especially ours, con 
sidering how desperately and diligently tb 
Colonell discharged his Ordnance at our men i: 
the siege, as you have heard, with so little 8^^ 
cesse. And who now can be so dull heartei 
and so blind sighted, as not to conceive and set 
plainly from all those last f orementioned pit 
mises, especially these of this Towne of Porte- 
mouth, and therewith all ingeniously confe.stf 
and acknowledge, The Lord Jehovah to be n 
the mount of mercies to us, and for his beliet^ 
ing peoples prosperity and welfare.'* 

The surrender of Portsmouth produced a decf 
sensation in the Cavalier Court at Oxford. 

Says Clarendon : " The King's enemies wen 
in a manner, possessed of the whole kingdom 
Portsmouth, the strongest and best fortifi(y 
town then in the kingdom, was surrendered ti 
them. Colonel Goring, about the beginning of. 



SiSQX OF FOBT8XOUTH IN THX TjBAB 1642. 



91 



iBeptember, thoofih he had, seemed to be so 
long resolved and prepared to expect a siege, 
and had been supplied with moneys according 
to his own proposal, was brought so low that he 
gave it up, only for liberty to transport himself 
beyond seas, and for his officers to repair to the 
King. And it were to be wished that there 
might be no more occasion to mention him 
hereafter, after this repeated treachery ; and 
that his incomparable dexterity and sagacity had 
not so far prevailed over those who had been so 
often deceived by him, as to make it absolutely 
necessary to speak at large of him before this 
discourse comes to an end." 

Another account says: "The King's most 
able General, Colonel Goring, was an airy bac- 
chanalian, who, in the most critical emergency, 
could not be enticed from the jollities of the 
table, sliffhting every alarmist till the carouse 
was concluded." 

The Marquis of Hartford, with Lord Sey- 
mour, Sir Balph Hopton, Lord Pawlet, and 
others, were at Sherborne, hoping to be able to 
relieve Portsmouth, but as soon as he heard of 
its surrender he withdrew into Glamorganshire 
with the Lords Seymour and Pawlet, leaving 
8ir Ralph Hopton to march into Cornwall with 
the cavalry under his command. Sir William 
Waller, with his forces, marched to join the 
Earl of Essex, after making himself master of 
Portsmouth. 

Clarendon says of the surrender of Ports- 
mouth : "This blow struck the King to the 
very heart." Ever since the days of the Eighth 
Harry the dwellers in the Isle of Wight had 
4< furnished themselves with a parochial artillery; 
«aGh parish provided one piece of light brass 
ordnance, which was commonly kept either in 
the church, or in a small house built for the 
purpose, close by the church. Towards the end 
of the last century some sixteen or eighteen of 
.theae guns were stiU preserved in the island ; 
they were of low calibre, some being six- 
|K>nnders, and aU the rest one-pounders. The 
islanders, by frequent practice, are said to have 
juade themselves excellent artillerymen. The 
gaa carriages and ammunition were provided by 
the parishes, and particular farms were charged 
-with the duty of nndiuff horses to draw them." 
Of the Earl of Portland, who was the Governor 
of the Liland at the outbreak of the war, 
Clarendon says that the Parliament ^* threatened 
the Earl of Portland, who, with extraordinary 
vivacity, crossed their consultations, that they 



would remove him from his charge and govern- 
ment of the Isle of Wight (which at last they did 
defactOy by committing him to prison, without 
so much as assigning a cause), and to that pur- 
pose objected ail the acts of good fellowship, all 
the wast of powder, and all the wast of wine, 
in the drinking of healths, and other acts of 
jollity, whenever he had been at his Govern- 
ment, from the first hour of his entering upon 
it." " And when they were resolved no longer 
to trust the Isle of Wight in the hands of the 
Earl of Portland, who had long been the King's 
Govemour there, and^ had an absolute power 
over the affections of that people, they pre- 
ferred the poor Earl of Pemorook to it, by an 
Ordnance of Parliament ; who kindly accepted 
it, as a testimony of their favour, and so got 
into actual rebellion, which he never intended 
to do. It is a {)ity to say more of him, and less 
could not be said to make him known." Colonel 
Brett them assumed command at Carisbrooke 
Castle. 

A previously quoted writer, in the " Penny 
Magazine" for 1836, says, ^'Carisbrook Castle was 
in one instance made memorable by the heroism 
of a female, whose adventures in some respects 
resembled those of the celebrated Royalist the 
Countess of Derby, and Queen of the Isle of 
Man. At an early stage of the Civil War, 
Jerome, Earl of Poi-tland, who had been Governor 
for Charles I. during many years, was removed 
by Parliament as a Catholic, or as one who, at 
least, was a favourer of Popery. Shortly after 
he was suddenly imprisoned in London on this 
ground, and further accused by the Commons of 
a thoughtless and profligate expenditure of pub* 
lie money in ammunition, entertainments, and 
the drinking of loyal toasts in Cansbrook. The 
principal inhabitants of the island drew up a peti- 
tion in favour of their < noble and much hon- 
oured and beloved Captain and Governor,' in 
which, dropping all allusion to his wasting of the 
ammunition, &c., they stuck to the more im- 
portant question of his religious faith, declaring 
that not only was he a good Protestant, but that 
there was not one professed Papist or favourer 
of Papacy in the whole Isle of Wight. This 

Setition being disregarded by Parliament, they 
rew up a spirited remonstrance, in which they 
spoke of defending themselves by arms, and 
admitting no new governor that was not ap- 
pointed oy the Kin^. Twenty-four knights- 
and squires mgned this paper, but the people 
were very dilrerently inclined. They were led 



22 



SlKGI or POBTBIIOTTTX IV THE YXAB 1<>42. 



by Moses Read, the Mayor of Newport, who 
declared in favour of Parliament, and trans- 
mitted a representation on the great danger accru- 
ing to the State from the Countess of Portland 
being allowed to continue in the Castle, and to 
retam Colonel Brett there as her warden. Read 
soon received order ' to adopt any measures ho 
might think necessary for the safety of the 
idand,* to siege the fortress, and to secure 
Colonel Brett, the Countess, her five children, 
and other relatives who had taken shelter within 
the walla. He marched upon Carisbrook with 
the Militia of Newport, and 400 sailors drawn 
from the vessels at anchor near the island. The 
garrison of V e old Castle did not exceed 20 men, 
but the Countess resolved not to surrender 
except on honourable conditions. At the 
approach of the force from Newport she 
advanced to the platform with a lighted match, 
and declared she would herself fire the first 
cannon against the assailants. Moses Read, who 
had expected no resistance, soon came to terms 
with the bold Countess, and the Castle was sur- 
rendered on conditions. T he Countess was soon 
afterwards removed from the island. No other 
attempt was made at resistance, and though 
somewhat agitated by Charles's residence in 
Carisbrcok a few years later, the Wight re- 
mained invariably tranquil during the whole of 
the Civil War. This fortunate circumstance 
invited many families from the neighbouring 
counties, which were exposed to the horrors of 
warfare, to go and settle there ; in consequence 
of which the rents of farms rose in proportion 
of from 20Z. to lOOZ., and did not find their 
ordinary level until the Restoration." 

^' Carisbrook Castle was used as a State prison 
both by Crcmwell and by Charles II. Towards 
the end of the Commonwealth period Sir 
William Davenant was confined here, and here 
completed his * Gondibert.' " 

The following account by Mr. Moody gives 
certain additional details : — " The Parliament 
obtained possession of the Isle of Wight at 
the beginning of these intestine wars by the 
removal and imprisonment of its Governor, the 
Earl of Portland, who was attached to the cause 
of ^ the ill-fated and ill-advised King. The 
]principal inhabitants of the Island petitioned 
m the Earl's favour, and afterwards signed a 



declaration to support the Roval cause ; but tk 
popular voice sided with Parliament, to whom 
Moses Read, Mayor of Newport, irtated that 
the safety of the Island was endangered 
while tne Countess of Portland and 
Colonel Brett were suffered to retain pos- 
session of Cariabrook Castle. In consequence 
of this representation, the Parliament 
ordered the captains of ships in the river to 
assist Read in an^ measure he might think ne- 
cessary for securing the island. Read accord- 
ingly marched the Newport Militia with 4O0 
naval auxiliaries against the Castle, when 
Brett had not above 20 men, many well wishers 
to him being deterred from assisting them by 
the menaces of the populace, who tluew ofE all 
respect for their superiors. Harvey, the Curate 
of Newport, a man under peculiar obligations 
to the Earl of Portland, distincuished himself 
by stirring up the feelings of the besiegen 
against the Countess and her children, saying 
that she was a Papist, and exhortiuff them in 
the canting phraseology of the times to be valiant 
as they were about * to fight the battle of the 
Lord.' The Castle had not at that time three 
days' provision for its small garrison, yet the 
Countess, with the magnanimity of a 
Roman matron, went to the platfom 
with a match in her hand, vowing she 
would fire the fiist cannon herself, and defend 
the Castle to the utmost extremity, unless 
honourable terms were granted. After some 
negotiations, articles of capitulation were agreed 
on ,and the Ca stle surrendered. * ' "The other f ort4 
of the Isle of Wight were seized about th< 
same time. This decisive step in favour of th< 
prevailing powers prevented the occarrencc 
here of those scenes of bloodshed whicli 
speedily desolated many other parts of the 
kingdom. Indeed, the securitv which wai 
here enjoyed induced many families to beconi< 
residents in the isle, and the rent of land in 
creased about 25 per cent, in consequeuccy bol 
fell again soon after the Restoration. After 
the fail of Carisbrook Castle, the small garrisox 
at Portsmouth left the town, which was snb- 
sequently held byParliamentarians. TheRoymlista 
made more determined efforts at Winchester 
Basing House, and in some other parts of Hamp^ 
shiie." ' 



\ 



Ohjlpteb IV.— The Capture op Faknham Castle, Mablboboitoh, and Winchester. 



The dwellers in and about Faniham Castle 
wore the next to suffer from the miseries of the 
Civil War. Clarendon says: '* Famham Castle, 
in Surrey, whither some gentlemen who were 
willing to appear for the King had repaired, 
and were taken with less resistance than was 
fit, by Sir William Waller, some few days be- 
fore (the capture of Marlborough, on Decem- 
ber 3rd, 1642) deserved not the name of a gar- 
rison." Says Warburton, " A few days pre- 
viously Famham Castle was taken by Sir 
William Waller, after an indifferent defence by 
Sir John Denham, Colon ol Fane, a son of the 
Earl of Westmorel md, who was shot through 
the cheek, and died a few days after, being 
almost the only person slain. Denham was a 
poet and a wit, but to confess the truth, the 
poets do not appear to advantage in this war, 
even in a Tyrteean point of view. Edmund 
Waller proved both a trimmer and a coward; 
Sir John Suckling, a poltroon ; Denham, no 
better ; William Davenant was dissolute and 
negligent, and the great Milton condescended 
to write the most rancorous and unworthy 
lampoons." To quote Lord Nugent, "Sir John 
Denham was more eminent as poet, gamester, 
and wit, than soldier. When George Wither 
was shortly after this brought prisoner to 
Oxford, and was in some jeopardy, having been 
takon in arms against the King, Sir John 
Denham begged the King not to king him, for 
that * while Wither lives, Denham will not be 
the worst poet in England.' " This good natured 
epigram contributed to save Wither 's life, and 
was also afterwards the means of restoring to 
Denham some of his property in Surrey, which 
had been confiscated by Parliament, and given 
to Wither, But it would be unfair to refer a 
kind and gentle act to interested motives. 

Bat it 18 time to take Carlyle*s advice, and 
''Hear Vicars, a poor human soul zealously 
prophesying as if through the organs of an 

ass in a not mendacious, yet loud-spoken, 

exaggerative, more or less assinine manner." In 



his Parliamentai*y Chronicle (before referred 
to) Vicars thus describes 

THE TAKING OP FARNHAH CASTLE. 

'* Much about which time (the beginning of 
December, 1G42), certaine information came to 
London that that noble and renowned knight 
and mo3t expert and courageous commander Sir 
William Waller f who had also a prime hand in 
the recovery of Portsmouth from Colonell 
Goring), together with Colonell Fane and some 
other bravo commanders, having suddenly 
assaulted Famham-castle, within the space of 
three houres forced their approach to so nearo 
the cjustle-gates that with a petard they blew 
open one of them, and most resolutely made 
forcible entrance thereinto; whereupon the 
Cavaliers within threw their armes over the 
wall, fell down upon their knees, crying for 
quarter (not so much as having once offered or 
desired to treat of any honourable conditions to 
depart like souldiera, before the castle was 
entered), which Sir William gave them. There 
were taken in this cistle one Master Denhsun, 
the new High SherifEe of Surrey, Captaine 
Hudson, Captoine Brecknoz, a brewer in South- 
warke, a most desperate malignant against the 
Parliament, and divers other prisoners of quality, 
with about an hundred vulgar persons, together 
with all the armes and ammunition in the 
castle, and about 40,000^. in money and pLatc, :ih 
was credibly informed, besides that the common 
souldiers had good pillage for themselves to a 
good value. The taking of this castle so terri- 
fied the Cavaleers in Sussex that those of them 
of the long robe (Master Luckener, the Corpo- 
ration Proctour), Master Aderson, Master 
Heath (son to that dry and barren Heath the 
Judge, like father, like son), and others of the 
same stamp, began now to traverse the com- 
mands of their Cavaleers, and would then have 
gladly joined issue with the Parliament, on 
easie termes.'' This success of Sir William 



[ 



24 



ThK CaFTTBK of FJlBNHAK CaBTLS, MiLBI.BOBOUOH, AND WiNGHSBTBB. 



Waller had a disastrous influence upon the 
fortunes of Basing House, as the Boundheads 
thus secured a most advantageous base of 
operations, of which they did not fail to make 
gccd vje. 

*' On November 2l8t, 1642, Lord Grandison*8 
troope of horse and Colonell Greye's dragooners 
rode into Basingstoke, and ' one Master Goater* 
writes *to a Merchant of good quality in 
Lombard-street' that they lay there 'eleven 
dayes ; wee had emploiment enough to dress the 
meat and provide drinke for them. It hath 
been a great charge to our Towne, they de- 
manded two thousand yards of wooUen cloth 
and 500 yards of linnen at fonrteene pence the 
yard ; so the linnen Drapers brought theirs in, 
but the clothiers and woilen Drapers made no 
great haste, so they served themselves some at 
one shop and some at another.' " Part of the 
garrison of Basing House was added to Lord 
Grandison's force, which called foith a letter of 
remonstrance from the Marquis. All being 
prepared, " last Friday they went away, and as 
we heard, are gone to Marlborough, and many 
sav they heard the guns goe oft very fiercely. 
The cannons' roar t^d of the capture of Marl- 
borough by Lord Wilmot, Lieutenant-General 
of Horse, on Saturday, December 3rd, 1642, 
after a sharp action. The town was given up 
to pillage, and according to Vicars the Cavaliers 
committed great excesses. Sir John Ramsay, 
the Governor, was taken, " and other officers, 
who yielded upon quarter, above 1000 prisoners, 
great stores ai Annes, four pieces of Cannon, 
and a good quantity of Ammunition, with all 
which the Lieut. -Gen. returned aife to Oxford." 
The weakening of theffarriaon of Basing House 
encouraged the friends of the Parliament to 
attack it, and they accordingly seem to have 
made one or both of those assaults which were 
Impulsed, as we have seen, by the Marquis and 
*'his Gentlemen armed with six musquets," 
probably aided, as they were on another occa- 
sion, by volleys of stones and tiles from the 
roof of the house. The loss of Marlborough 
was keenly felt by the Parliament, which had 
intended to make it a rendezvous for all their 
adherents in Wiltshire and the adjacent 
counties. Sir William Waller, Colonel Brown 
(of whom more anon), and others were sent to 
attack the victorious Cavaliers. Failing to 
meet with them at Marlborough, they pursued 
them to Winchester, with what result we shall 
presently see. "MercuriusRusticus" thus de- 



scribes the conduct of the Puritan force on the 
march. They seem to have, at any rate, pos- 
sessed the virtue of impartiality, so far as 
plunder was concerned : — 

" About December, 1642,theCollonel8 Waller. 
Brown, and others, marching from Ailesbury to- 
Windsor, and thence by Newbury to Winchester, 
their soldiers in the march plundered every 
minister within six miles of the road without 
distinction, whether of their own party or of 
the other, whether they subscribed for Episco- 
pacy, Presbytery, or Independency, whether 
they wore a surpless or refused it, only if they 
did not they afforded them the leas booty. 
Those who were Confiders, whose Irregularity 
and Nonconformity armed them with confi- 
dence to appear, petitioned the House of Com- 
mons for r^ief and satis&ction, it being taken 
into consideration that this was not according ta 
their new phrase, * to weaken the wicked,' but 
the righteous and such as stood well affected to 
the Parliament, hereupon slandering the Cava- 
liers with the fact which their own soldiers had 
done ; and to make the * foolish citizens bleed 
free' there was an order drawn up and pub- 
li^ed, * That in regard the petitioners were well 
affected men and plundered by the Cavaliers^ 
there should be a general collection made for 
them the next Fast-day, and that the preadhers 
should exhort the people and pray to God to^ 
enlarge the people's hearts, bountifully to r ^Ueve 
the petitioners.'" (Pp. 89-90). But mark th<» 
end of all this. Lord Grandison was despatched 
to the relief of the Marquis of Winchester. Ltet 
Clarendon speak :-:'^ This success (the capture of 
Marlborough) was a little shadowed by the un- 
fortunate loss of a very good regiment of Horse 
within a few days after, for the Lord Grandison. 
by the miscarriage of orders was exposed at too 
great a distance from the Army, with his single 
regiment, consisting of 300, and a regiment of 20O 
Dragoons, to the unequal encounter of a party of 
the enemy of 5000 Horse and Dragoons, and so 
washimself , after a retreat made to Winchester, 
there taken with all his party, which was the 
first loss of the kind the King sustained ; bnt 
without the least fault of the commander, and 
the misfortune was much lessened by his 
making an escape himself with two Or three of 
his principal ofiicers, who were very welcome to 
Oxford." John Yikars thus describes the, 
failure of this attempt to succour Basing, and 
the subsequent occupation of Winchester, in 
his Parliamentary Chronicle, published in 



\ 



"'■■• ••^^••l 



Ths Caftvbb of Fabnhax Cabtls. MablbobouoHj and WiNGHB8TBB. 



25 



1644. (P. 227 et seq.) " And about December 
the 7th, 1642, came a poste to the Parliament 
with letters from Winchester, setting forth a 
▼ery great and famous victorio obtained 
by their forces against the Cavaliers 
in Winchester,which was in this manner effected : 
The Lord Digbie, Lord Grandison, Gommissario 
Wilmot, and some others of their confederacies 
haying possessed themselves of Marleborough, 
and most basely and barbarously pillaged and 
plundered the same, and like so many traitorous 
and lustf nil bloodie thieves ravished and abused 
the women and maids of the towne (brave 
defenders of the Protestant religion, and show- 
ing themselves indeed to bo the true swome 
brethren of their bloody brothers in Ireland), 
these, I say, hearing that Sir William Waller, 
Colonell Browne (whose very names were, and 
that most justly, very dreadfull to them), 
Colonel Hurrev (who played both parties false). 
Colonel Middleton, and other forces of the 
Parliament were coming against them they 
thereupon thought it no boot to stay any longer 
there, out having, as I say, most cruelly got 
what they came for, viz., piUage and food, they 
^>eedily left ppore Marleborough in most 
lamentable condition, and that audacious traitor 
Lford Digbie, with a part of their forces and a 
greatest pari of their pillage, returned to 
Oxford, leaving the Lord Grandison with those 
other forces to see what further pillage he could 
meet with in those parts, but fearing to be 
caught napping bv active Sir William Waller 
and his forces, and the better to protect himself 
and his Cavaliers from the pursuit of the 
Parliament's forces, he retreated to Winchester, 
a place more like to give him kind entertain- 
ment, being full of Malignant spirits, who 
indeed were not a little g&d at his coming, 
thinking themselves now secure from danger, 
being under the wings of a bird of their own 
feather. But the Parliament forces with those 
commanders also oomming to Marleborough and 
missing the Cavaliers there, resolved to follow 
in hot pursuit of them, and to revenge that 
cruelty exercised on that miserable town. 
Whereupon, after some coursing about the 
country, having notice by their scouts of the 
Liord Grandison*s being now at Winchester, they 
bent their course with all spcNdd thither, and by- 
ihe-ymy, strangely (if not wilfully in some of 
the conmianders) fuled of falling on the Lord 
I>igbie's forces in their passage, and so they 
came before the dtie of Winchester. Now the 



Cavalien, having notice thereof, were not a little 
startled, and considering it altogether unsafe to 
keep themselves within the towne, and so ^ive 
the Parliament's forces opportunity to besieffe 
them, because they could not be able to hold 
out long for want of provisions fit for a 
siege, they resolved, therefore, to march out and 
to give them battell abroad, and so accordingly 
the^ issued out and prepared for a pitcht field; 
which the Parliament forces perceivmg drew up 
iJl their forces also into a battalia, and came up 
most bravely and resolutely to them, and most 
stoutly gave them the first charge with their 
horse, and so there began to be a very hot 
skirmish between them for the time on both 
sides. But truly the Parliament's soldiers 
followed their business so closely and 
couragiously,and with such undaunted spirit, that 
after about halfe an houre's fight they inforced 
the Cavaliers from their ground and drove them 
violently into the towne againe, and, being 
very eager of their prey, resolved not to 
leave them, but most valiantly pursued 
them up to the towne walles, where the 
most part of their regiment fiercely assaulted 
the citie at one side of it, and notwithstanding 
the exceeding high and very steep passage up to 
the walls, even so steep that they had no other 
way to get up, but of necessity to creep up 
upon their knees and hands from the bottom to 
the top, which was as high as most houses, the 
enemie pkying all the while on them with their 
muskets, and yet slew but three men in this 
their getting up, so at last (though with much 
danger and difficultie) our soldiers got up and 
plyea their businesse so hotly and closely that 
they had quickly made a great breach in the wall. 
And here Colonell Browne's Sergeant-Major 
(i.e., Major) deserved much honour in this 
service, he himself being one of the first that 
forced upon the breach into the towne, though 
the enemies bullets flew thick about them, upon 
sight of whose ever invincible valour all the 
rest of his comrades followed close and drove 
the Cavaliers before them into the midst of the 
towne ; who, having no place else of shelter, 
fled apace into the Castle, which yet was not so 
considerable a sanctuary or place of refuge to 
defend them long, especially it being destitute 
of ordnance, so our men beset the Castle round 
with musqueteers and horse, and lay per-dues 
under the waU, so that not a man of them could 
stir. Then about 10 or 11 of the docke at 
night they sounded a parley, but our men 



26 



Thk Oaptubx or Fabnhax Castle, Maslbosouqu, and Winchsstbb. 



would not accept it, and against tho next 
morning we had prepared a great quantity 
of faggots and pitcht barrels to fire the Castle- 
gate, in regard that we wanted ordnance and 
petards proper for such a worke. But as soon 
as it began to be light they, seeing no hope of 
helpe, sounded another parley, wherein the 
Lord Grandison himselfe, with nve or six more, 
desired to be, which at last was accepted, and 
after some debate articles and conditions were 
agreed upon, viz., that they should all yeeld 
themselves up prisoners to the Parliament, 
presently resign the Castle into Sir William 
Waller*s cust3dy and possession, their armas. 
horses, monev, and all to be seized on by the Par- 
liament's officers in armes. But many of the 
townsmen, who had most of all infested our 
men, and shot mo3t desperately at them, were 
now well repaid for that pains by our souldiers, 
who most notably plundered and pillaged their 
houses, taking whatsoever they liked best out of 
them, and so the souldiers dealt with all their 
common souldiers, or ordinary cavaleers, who 
only had quarter granted them for their lives. 
Here were taken prisoners the Lord Grandison 
himselfe, and his lieutenant-colonell, and be- 
twecne fourty and fifty other commanders of 
good worth and quality of Hampshire, about 600 
horse, 200 dragooners, and 60 J armes, together 
with greit store of other pillage. In this fight 
from first to last there were about 30 or 40 
slaine on their side, and but three or four on 
the Parliamint's. Colonel Browne's regiment 
had the honour to take the city, and to make 
the fi:st breach in the wall, and so to enter the 
towae. They assessed the townesmen and in- 
habitants for their base malignancy in so des- 
perately opposing, them at IJOO^., or else to 
plunder tho whole towne (which was hardly 
restrained in the common souldiers, especially in 
some houses), but chiefly some Papists' houses 
there, and the sweet Cathedralists, in w^ose 
houses and studies they found great stor : of 
Popish boo cs, pictures, and crucifixes, which the 
souldiers carried up and downe the streets and 
market-place in triumph to make themselves 
merry ; yea, and they for certaine piped before 
them with the organpipes (the faire organs in 
the minster being broken downe by the 
souldiers), and then afterwards cast them all 
int3 the fire and burnt them, and what (thinke 
you) was the case of those Romish Micka's, 
when their pretty pettv Popish and apish-gods 
were thus taken from them, and burnt in the 



fire before them? And thus the Lotd most 
graciously began in some measure to revenge 
the wrongs of his poore people of Marleborougb, 
makeing these their enemies come short of long 
possessing their prey there gotten, which was 
thus by these most valiant Parliamentarians 
valiantly and violently regained out of their de- 
vouring teeth. And now to goe on" (p. 231^. 
Truly ** the good old times" must now and again 
have been somewhat unpleasant to live in! 
But let us hear tho Boyalist account of this 
matter. This we find in '* Mercurius Bnsticus, 
or the Countries' CO oaplaint of the barbarous out- 
rages committed by the Sectaries of this late 
flourishing Kingdom." : — 

" Thy sabstanoe and thy treasure will I give to the 
BDoil without price, aud that for all thy sins, even in 
all thy borders." — Jer. xv., 13. 

P. 144. " The rebels defying God in his 
own house ; their sacrilege, in stealing ChnrcJi 
plate and g:>ods, their irreverence towards the 
King by abusiig his statue, their heathenish 
barbarity in violiting the bones ani ashes of 
dead Monarchs, Bishops, Saints, and Confessors 
in the Cathedral Church of Winchester, &c. 
The next instance which I shall ^ive of the 
rebels* sicrilegc and profaneness is in the 
Cathedral Church of Winclie ster, which city, as 
it was the Royil seat of t'lo King of the "Vvest 
Saxons in the time of the Hcptirchy, so was ic 
the seat of the Bishops of that people, after 
Kenwalchus, King of tho West Saxons (not 
brooking the barbarous broken expressions of 
A^ilbertus, his Bishop) divided this large 
diocese bet wee i Ag'ibertus and WIni, and 
leaving Agilbertus to reside at Dorchester, 
caused Wina to be cons3crated Bishop of 
Winchester. Before we tell you by whom and 
in whit manner this Church was robbed and 
spoyled of its ornameats and beauty, it will 
not be impertinent (while it mav serve as an 
aggravation of their impiety) briefly to set 
down by whom this C'lurch was built and so 
richly aderned, as lately we siw it. This 
magnificent struHure, which now stands, was 
begun by Walkelinus, the 35ta Bishop of that 
See, which work left imperfect, and but begun 
by him, was but coldly prosecuted by the 
succeeding Bishops until William of Wickham 
(the magnificent sole founder of two St. Mary 
CoUedges, the one in Oxford commonly called 
New Colledge, the other a nurcery to this, near 
Winchester) came to possess this See. He, 
amongst many other works of Piety, built the 



-^ 



Tux Cafiubs of Farkuam Cabtle, M&blbobouqh^ and Wjvchestxb. 



27 



wfaclenare or body of this Chnrch f rem the 
quire to tho west end, the Chappels on the 
east end, beyond the qnire, had their Beveral 
foundeis. The hallowed ornaments and utensils 
of this Church being many, rich, and costly, 
were the gifts of seTcial benefactors, who, tho* 
their names aro not recorded on eaith, have 
found their reward in heaven. This Chuich was 
first differenced by the name of St. Amphibalus, 
who received a Crown of Mai tyrdc m under tho 
Persecution of Dioclesian. Kext it exchanged 
this name for that of St. Peter, and again, this 
for that of St. Swithin, tho 18th Bishop of this 
Sec. Last of all, it was dedicated to tno Holy 
Trinity, whoso blessed name is now called upon 
it; which holy name, though it cculd not but 
put the rebells in mind whcse pcFscs&icn and 
house it was, did net at all afCcrd it patienagc 
and protection frcm their accursed lage and 
madnefs. 

" The rebelf, under the conduct of SirWilliam 
Waller, Bate down before the City of Win- 
chester on Tuesday, tho 12th of December, 
1642, about 12 of the deck, and enteied the 
city that afternoon between two and three. 
Being masters of tho city, they instantly fall 
upon tho Close under a pretence to search for 
Cavaliers. They seize upon the Prebend's 
horses, and demand their persons with many 
thrcatning words. That night they break into 
some of the Prebend's houses, and such houses 
as they were directed into by their brethren, tho 
seditious schismaticks of the city, and plundered 
their goods. But the ca6tle,not yet surrendered 
into the rebels hands, something awed their 
insolency, which, being tho next day delivered 
up to their power, did not only take away the 
restraint which was upon them, but incouraged 
them withe ut eheck or control to rob and defie, 
both God and all good men, Wednesday, there- 
fore, and Wednesday night being spent in 
plundering the city and Close. On Thnisday 
morning, cetween nine and ten of the clock 
(hours set apart for better imployments, and 
to eref ore purposely in probability chosen by 
them,^ being resolved to profane all that was 
canonicsl) they violently break open the 
Cathedral Church, and being entred to let in 
the tyde, they presently open the great west 
door, where the barbarous soldiers stood ready, 
nay, greedy, to rob God and to pollute His 
temple. The doors being open as if they 
meant to invade God Himself, as well as His 
ptof eflflion, they enter the church with colours 



flying, their drums beating, their matches fired, 
and that all might havo their part in so horrid 
an attempt, some of their troops of horse also 
accompanied them in their march, and rode 
up through the body of the church and 
quire, until they came to the altar ; there 
they begin their work, they rudely pluck down 
the table, and bieak the rail, and afterwards 
carrying it to an ale-house, they set it on fire, 
and in that fiie burnt the books of Common 
Prayer, and all the singing books belonging to 
the quiie ; they throw down the organ, find break 
the stones of tho Old and New Testament, 
curiously ( ut out in carved work, beautified with 
colours, and set round about tie tep of the stalls 
of the quite ; fiom hence they turn to the monu- 
ments of the dead, seme they utteily demolish, 
others they deface. They login Ttith Bishop 
Fox, his eh a PI el which they utterly deface, they 
break aU the glass windows of this chap pel, not 
because they hi) d any pictures in them, either of 
Patiiar(h,I re phet, Apostle, or Saint, lut because 
they were of painted coloured glass ; they de- 
molish and oveiturn the monuments of Caidinal 
Beaufoit, son to John of Gaunt, Duke of Iiau- 
caster, by Kathaiine Swinfort, founder of the 
hospital of S. Cross, near Winchester, who sate 
Bishop of this See 43 years. They deface the 
monument of William of Wainfl(t, Bislop like- 
wise of Winchester, Lord Chancellor of England, 
and the magnificent founder of Magdalen Col- 
ledge in Oxicrd, which monument m a grateful 
piety, being lately beautified by seme that have 
or lately have had, relation to that foundation, 
made these rebels more eager upon it, to deface 
it, but while that colledge, the unparalleled 
example of his bounty, stands in despight of the 
malice of these inhuman rebels, William of Wain- 
flet eannot want a more lasting monument to 
transmit his memory to posterity. Frcm hence 
they go into Queen Marie's chappel, so called 
because in it she wa^ married to King Philip of 
Spain ; here they brake the Communion table in 
pieces, and the velvet chair whereon she sat when 
she was married. They attempted to deface the 
mcnument of the late Lord Treasurer, the Earl of 
Portland, but being in brass, their violence made 
small impression on it, therefore they leave that, 
and turn to his father's monument, which, being 
of stone, was more obnoxioas to their fury; 
here, mistaking a Judge for a Bishop, led into 
the error by the resemblance or counterfeit of a 
^uare cap on the head of the statue, they 
43tiike oft not only the cap, but also the head too 



2S 



Thb Cuturs of Farnhax Castle, Mablbobough, and Winchbsteb. 



of the statae, and bo leave it. Amongst other 
acts of piety and bounty done by Richard Fox, 
the 57th Bishop of this See, he covered the 
quire, the presbytery, and the iJes adjoining 
with a goodly vault, and new glassed all the 
windows in that part of the church, and caused 
the bones of such kings, princes, and prelates 
as had been buried in this church and lay dis- 
persed and scattered in several parts of the 
cathedral to be collected and put into several 
chests of lead, with inscriptions on each chest 
whose bones lodged in them. These chests, to 
save them from rude and prophane hands, he 
caused to be placed on the top of a wall of 
exquisite workmanship, built by him to inclose 
the presbytery. There never to be removed (as a 
man might think) but by the last trump, did 
rest the bones of many kings and queens, as of 
Alfredus, Edwardus " senior, Cadredus, the 
brother of Athelstane, Edwinus Canutus, Har- 
decanutus, Emma, the mother, and Edward the 
Confessor, her son, Kini^lissus, the first founder 
of the Cathedral of Wmchester, Egbert, who, 
abolishing the Heptarchy of the aaxons, was 
the first English monarch, William Ruf us, and 
divers others. With these in the chests were 
deposited the bones of many Godly bishops and 
confessors, as of Birinus, Hedda, Switninus, 
Frithestanus, S. Elphegusthe Confessor, Stiffan- 
dus, Wina, and others. Had not the oar- 
barous inhuman impiety of these schismaticks 
and rebels showed the contrary, we could not 
have imagined that anything but the like piety 
which here inshrined them or a Resurrection 
should ever have disturbed the repose of these 
venerable, but not Popish reliques. But these 
monsters of men, to whom nothing is 
holy, nothing is sacred, did not stick 
to prophane and violate these cabinets 
of the dead, and to scatter their bones 
all over the pavement of the church: for on the 
north side of the quire they threw down the 
chests wherein were deposit^ the bones of the 
Bishops ; the like they did to the bones of 
William Rufus, of Queen Emma, of Harde- 
canutus, and of Edward the Confessor, and were 
ffoing on to practise the like impiety on the 
bones of all the rest of the West Saxon Kings. 
But the outcry of the people, detesting so great 
inhumanity, caused some of their commanders 
(more compassionate to these ancient monu- 
ments of the dead than the rest') to come in 
anurngBt them and to restrain tneir madneai. 
But that devilish mAlice which was not per- 



mitted to rage and overflow to the spuming and 
trampling on the bones of all, did satiate itself, 
even to a prodigious kind of wantonness, on 
those which were already in their pdwer. And, 
therefore, as if they meant (if it had been pos- 
sible) to make these bones contitict a posthume 
guilt by being now made passive instruments of 
more than heathenish sacrilege and prophane- 
ness, those windows which they could not reach 
with their swords, musquets, or rests, they brake 
to pieces by throwing at them the bones of 
Bangs, Queens, Bishops, Confessors, or Saints, 
so that the spoil done on the windows will not 
be repaired for 1000/. ; nor did the livinff find 
better measure from them than the deao, for 
whereas our Dread Sovereign that now is (the 
best of Kings) was ffn&tiously pleased, as a 
pledge of his princely ravour to the Church to 
honour it with the gift of his own statue, to- 

S ether with the statue of his dear father, Kin^ 
ames of ever blessed memory, both of maaay 
brass, both which statues were erected at the 
front of the entrance into the quire, these 
atheistical rebels, as if they would not have so 
much of the militia to remain with the Kins as 
the bare image and representation of a sword by 
his side, they breake off the swords from the 
sides of both of the statues ; they break the 
cross from off the globe in the hand 
of our gratious Sovereign now living, and 
with their swords hiusked and hewed 
the crown on the head of it, swearing 
they would bring him back to his Parlia- 
ment.' A most fli^ritious crime, and that for 
the like S. Chrysostome (Horn. 2. ad pcpulum 
Antiochjy with many tears, complains he much 
feared *the City of Antioch, the MetropoHs, 
and head (as he calls it) of the East, would have 
been destroyed from the face of the Earth,' for 
when in a tumult, the seditious citizens of 
Antioch had done the like affront to Theodosius 
the Emperour in overturning his statues, how 
doth that holy Bishop bemoan ? how doth he 
bewail that City? which, fearinj^ the severe 
effects of the abused Emperor's ]ust indigna- 
tion ' of a populous City, a Mother boasting of 
a numerous issue, was on a sudden become a 
Widow, left desolate and forsaken of her Ijc^- 
habitants, some ' out of the sense and horror 
of the guilt abandoning the City and fljrinff into 
the desolate wilderness, others lurking in holes 
and confining themselves to the dark comers of 
their own houses, thereby hoping to escape the 
vengeance due to so disloyal, so traiterous a 



Jt-^K^ 






The CiPTUBB of Farnhax Casti^* Mabi«bokui:oh, and Winchesiek, 



2*J 



fact, * because of this four injury offered the 
Emperour's Statue, He (as that Father speakse 
was wronged, that was the supreme head of a) 
men, and had no equal on earth/ But what 
wonder is it that these miscreants should offer 
such shameful indignities to the Representation 
of his Royal Person and the Emblems of his 
Sacred power, when the heads of this damnable 
Rebellion (who set these their Agents on work) 
offer worse affronts to his Sacred person himseli, 
and by their Rebellious Votes and Illegal 
Ordinances daily strike at the Substance of 
that power of which the Crown, the Sword, and 
Scepter are but emblems and shadows, which 
yet, notwithstanding, ought to have been 
venerable and aweful to these men, in respect 
of their Relation. After all this, as if what 
they had already done were all too little, they 
go on in their horrible wickedness, thev seize 
upon all the Communion Plate, the Bibles and 
Servioe-Books, rich Hangings, large Cushions of 
Velvet, all the Pulpit Clothes, some whereof 
were of Cloth of Silver, some of Cloth of Gold. 
They break up the Muniment House and take 
away the Common Seal of the Church,8uppo8ing 
it to be silver,and a fair piece of gilt plate,given by 
Bishop Cotton ; they tear the evidences of their 
hand8,and cancel theircharter ; in a word, whatever 
they found in the church of any value and por- 
table they take it with them, what was neither 
they either deface or destroy it. And now, 
having ransacked the church, having defied God 
in His own house and the King in His own 
statue, having violated the urns of the dead, 
having abused the bones and scattered the ashes 
of deceased monarchs, bishops, saints, and con- 
fessors, they return in triumph, bearing their 
spoils with them. The troopers (because they 
were the most conspicuous) ride through the 
streets in surplesses with such hoods and tippets 
as they found, and that they might boast to the 
world how glorious a victory they hadatchieved, 
they hold out their trophies to all spectators, 
for the troopers, thus clad in the priests' vest- 
ments, rode carrying Common Prayer Books in 
one hand and some broken organ pipes together 
with the mangled, pieces of carved work, but 
now mentioned containing some histories of 
both Testaments, in the other. In all this giving 
too just occasion to all good Christians to com- 
plain with the Psalmist, * O God, the heathen 
are come into Thine inheritance. Thy holy 
Temples have they defiled. The dead bodies 
of Thy servants have they abused, and scattered 



their bones as one heweth wood upon the earth. 
Help US, God of our salvation, for the glory 
of Thy name.* "—Psalm 79. It has been said 
that *' of the brass torn from violated monuments 
might have been built a house as strong as the 
brazen towers in old romances." That acute 
and indefatigable antiquary Dr. Milner tells us 
that prebendaries were regularly instaUed in 
Winchester Cathedral until late in the summer 
of 1645. The Rev. Laurence Hinton, rector of 
Chilbolton, was installed on December 14th, 
1G44 ; the Rev. Thomas Gawen, rector of Ex- 
ton, dates from June 17th, 1G45 ; and the Rev. 
Nicholas Preston from July 23rd, 1645. As the 
result of an Act passed in 1643, all crosses, 
crucifixes, representations of saints and angels, 
copes, surplices, hanging candlesticks, basins, 
organs, &c., were carried out of the Cathedral, 
and other churches* railings and altars weiv 
destroyed, raised chancels levelled, and 
according to local tradition cavalry were 
during these troublous times sometimes 
quartered, together with their horses, in the 
Cathedral. It is pleasant to find that a 
Whykehamist, who is said to have been Colonel 
Nathaniel Fiennes, the brother of Lord Say and 
Sele, who having been educated at Winchester 
was also one of the Fellows of New College, and 
who possessed considerable influence amongst 
the Parliamentarians, was the means of saving 
from the spoiler Winchester College, together 
with the tomb and statue of him ^' whose 
rectitude, knowledge of humanity, talents for 
public work, and steady industry justify us in 
claiming for him a place in history close to, if 
not beside, such brightest stars of the time a« 
Chaucer, Wycliffe, and Edward the Black 
Piince.' * Need we say that we speak of William 
of Whykeham, whom all dwellers beneath St. 
Giles's Hill love well ? The authority for all 
this havoc and destruction in Cathedrals and 
Parish Churches was '^ An order from the 
Parliament against divers Popish innovations, 
dated September 8th, 1641, being Wednesday : 
It is this day ordered by the Commons in 
Parliament assembled that the Church Wardens 
of every Parish and Chappell respectively doo 
forthwith remove the Communion Table -from 
the east end of the Church, Chappell, or Chancel 
into some other convenient place ; and that 
they take away the rails and level the chauccllN 
as heretofore they were, before t!ie late innova- 
tions. That all crucifixes, scandalous pictures 
of any one or more persons of the Trinity, and 



30 



Thk Captubi of Fabnuaic Cabtlb, HABLBOBOuaHj andWinchestsb. 



all images of the Virgin Mary shall be taken 
away and abolished, and that all tapers, candle- 
sticks, or basons be removed from the Com- 
munion Table. That all corporall bowing at 
the Name (of Jesus) or towards the oast end of 
the Chnrch, Chappell. or Chancell, or towards 
the Communion Table be henceforth forbom. 
That the Lord's Day be duly sanctified, all 
dancing and other sports, either before or after 
Divine Service, be forbom and restrained, and 
that the preaching of God's Word be permitted 
in the aftemoone in the several Churches and 
Chappells of this Kingdome, &c." 

'* Die Mercurii, Sept. 8th, 1641 :— 
*' It is this day ordered by the House of Com- 
mons, now assembled in Parliament, that it 
shall be lawfuU for the parishioners of any 
parish within the kingdom of England and 
Wales to set up a lecture* and to maintain an 
oi*thodox minister at their own charge to preach 
evei*y Lord's Day where there is no preaching, 
and to preach one day in the week where there 
is no weekly lecture. 

Hen. Elsyn. Eler. Dom. Com." 
We have already quoted the words of Clarendon, 
that the misfortune of the defeat of Lord 
Grandison ^* was much lessened by his making 
an escape himself, with two or three of his 
principal officers, who were very, very welcome 
to Oxford." 

But similar satisfaction was by no means felt 
in London. Vicars charges the fugitives with a 
breach of parole, saying, *' About the middle of 
this December the Parliament had certaine in- 
formation thai those active and couragious 
champions, Sir William Waller and Colonell 
Brown, and the forces with them forementioned, 
having secured the prisoners they had taken at 
Winchester, in the strong towne of Portsmouth, 
whither they had sent them all, save only the 
Lord Grandison and Sergeant-Major Willis, who 
had perfidiously, contrary to their engagements 
to Colonel Goodwin, made an escape, were now 
bent for Chichester in Sussex." 

Colonel Goodwin Hiere referred to) had been 
one of the members for Buckinghamshire two 
years previously. Here is a picture of him and 
his troopers from a Cavalier point of view. 
Listen to "Mercurius Rusticus":— "On Monday, 
the 29th of May, 1643, a bov of five or six 
years of age,attended by a youth, was comming 
to Oxford to his father, an officer in the King's 
army passing through Buckinghamshire, he 



fell into the hands of some troopers of Colonel 
Goodwin's Regiment, who not only piUaged 
him of the cloaths which he brought w^ith him^ 
but took his doublet off his back, and would 
have taken away his hat and boots, if the 
youth that attended on him had not earnestly 
interceded for them to save them. For one of 
the company more tenderhearted than the rest, 
moved with the child's cries and affrightment, 
and with the youth's earnest entreaty, prevailed 
with the rest not to rob the child these 
necessary fences against the injury of wind 
and weather. Yet tho' they spare him of these 
things, they rob him of his horse, and leave the 
poor child to a tedious long journey on foot. 
This barbaiism to a poor chUd, far from his 
friends, almost distracted with fear, so prevailed 
with some, that they made Colonel Goodwin and 
Sir Robert Pyc acquainted with it,hoping to find 
them sensible of so cruel practices on a poor 
child, but these great professors and champions 
of religion only laughed at the the relation, 
without giving any redress to the child's 
injuries. This want of justice in the com> 
manders animated the soldiers to prosecute 
their villanies to a greater height, for that night 
they came to the place where the child lay, and 
tho poor soul being in bed fast asleep, his 
innocent rest not disturbed with the injuries of 
the day, they dived into his and his attendant's 
pockets, robbed them of all their monies, and 
left them either to boiTow more or beg for 
sustenance in their journey to Oxford." 

'^Mercurius Rusticus,*' savson the other hand 
that Colonel Brown in his letter to Isaac Pen- 
nington, the Lord Mayor of London, threw the 
blame of Lord Grandison 's escape on Colonel 
Urrey, who, as we know, repeatedly changed 
sides during the war. The colonel, however, 
contrived to clear himself of this charge, and 
received compensation from the fund originally 
raised for the relief of the clergy who liad been 
plundered by the soldiera of the Parliament. Let 
" Mercurius Rusticus " tell the story : — 

'^But Winchester being surprised and the 
Lord Grandison taken prisoner, Colonell Brown, 
in a letter to famous Isaac Pennington, mag- 
nifies the victory and enlarged the glory of it 
very much, by that circumstance of taking that 
noble Lord prisoner, but what did much eclipse 
the honour obtained that day, in tho Letter he 
adds, that by the treachery of Colonell Urrey 
I he was escaped. Little Isaac had hardly so 
' much patience as to read out the Letter, but he 



TaE Capture op Fabnuam Castlk, MABLBOiioTrGH, and Wimchbbteb. 



31 



suxnmous his Mirmidons, and gives an Alarm to 
his Redcoats, the Messengers of his Fnry, and 
sends them instantly to plunder Mistress 
Urries Lodging; it was no sooner said than 
donCf they being as swift to act mischief as 
Isaac was ready to command it ; what they had 
in charge they pei'form faithfully, and plunder 
her of no more but all. Mistress Urrey pre- 
sently gives notice to her husband what measure 
she found in the City while he was in their 
flervice in the Country. The Colonell, upon 
the information, hastens to Ix>ndon to expostu- 
late for this Injury, and for redress, complains 
to the House against the Ringleader Brown 
and Rout-Master ' little Isaac' Upon hearing 
both parties, the House quits Colonell Urrey 



from any conspiracy with my Lord Grandison, 
or connivance at his escape, and for reparation 
of his losses they order him £400, to be paid 
out of the monies collected the last Fast Day 
for the plundered Ministers, who by this means 
were plundered twice, and so, one Order be- 
getting another, they Order, * That a new col- 
lection shall be made for the Petitioners the 
next Fast Day ;' nor was this the first Debt by 
many that have been paid by the abused Charity 
of London, the ' great tax-bearing Mule,' as one 
justly calls it/' 

Leaving the imprisoned Cavaliera in safe 
custody at Portsmouth, let us follow Sir 
William Waller on his victorious march into 
Sussex. 



Chapter IV. — Tun Generai-s and their Fori ej?. 



Before we speak of the stirring oventb which 
followed the capture of Winchester by Sir Wm. 
Waller at the close of the year 1G42, it will be 
well for us to look at the generals on either side 
and at the forces under their command. 

Sir William Waller belonged to an ancient 
family in this county, and laid claim to the 
ownership of Winchester Castle and to the 
office of hereditary' chief butler of England. 
He had served with credit in the armicH of the 
German Princes against the Emperor. When 
the Civil War commenced ho was a member of 
the Committee of Safety, and raised a troop of 
horse for the service of the Parliament. Ap- 
pointed to a subordinate command under the 
Earl of Essex, he, as we have already seen, made 
himself m.ister of Portsmouth during the 
autumn of 1G42. obliging Goring, the Governor, 
to take ship for Holland. 

Winchester, Chichester, Malmc^bury, and 
Hereford in quick succession opened their gates, 
and a swift and successful night march brouglit 
liim to the Severn shore. Flat-bottomed boats 
speedily carried him and his troops across the 
«tieam. and he at once captured or dispersed a 
KDiall Royalist force which had designs against 
Gloucester. The Parliament and the city 
idolised him, giving to him tlie proud title of 
*• William the Conqueror." Effecting a junction 
with the Earl of Essex at Re iding, that im- 
portant town was taken by storm on April 27th, 
1643. Essex loved him not, nor was Waller. 
tiTith to tell, tlie most loyal of suborduiates. 
Essex wasted his aimy by inaction, whilst 
Waller lost his by dcsei-tion, " as the manner of 
liim was." 

The following letter from Sir William Waller 
to Sir Ralph Hopton, his constant and able 
opponent, is honourable alike to the writer and 
to the recipient : — 

" My affections to you aie so unchangeable 
that hostility itself cannot violate my friend- 



ship to your person, but I must be true to the 
cause wherein I serve. I should wait on you. 
according to your desire, but that I look on you 
as engaged in that part}' without the possibility 
of retreat, and, consequently," incapable of being 
wrought upon by any persuasion. That Great 
God, who is the searcher of all hearts, knows 
with what a sad fear I go upon this service, and 
with what perfect hate I look upon a war with- 
out an enemy. But I look u))on it as Optis 
Domini ! Wc are both on the stage, and must 
act those parts that are assigned to us in this 
tragedy ; but let us do it in the way of houour. 
and without pei-sonal animosity !*' 

Such was the man who was ere long to lay 
siege to Arundel, Chichester, and Basing. 
Waller's opponent at Poitsraouth, "the King's* 
most able general, Colonel Goring, was au aii^' 
Bacchanalian, who on the most critical emer- 
gency could not be enticed from the jollities of 
the table, slighting every alarmist till the carousf^' 
was concluded."' But Lord Hopton was a man 
cast in a more noble mould. Eliot Warbnrtoii 
says ("Memoirs of Prince Rupert," p. 113). 
** Sir Ralph, afterwards Lord Hopi \ heir to 
one of the most powerful and ancient faniiliei> 
in Somersetsliirc, was born in 1508. Ho was. 
early in life, diatinguishcd by an aptness for 
study, and for the attainment of languages, to 
whicli he joined an ardent and enterpribing 
spirit. He was at the battle of Prague, and 
aided in carrying off the poor Queen of Bohemia 
from her dangers. He was devoted to her as 
fervently and after as pure a fashion as the 
other heroes whom she fascinated. For her sake 
he passed five years of his youth in the wars of 
the Low Countries and the Palatinate. He was 
knighted at the Coronation of King Charles, 
and was elected to ser\'e in ParlLament for the 
City of Wells. Like moat men of his disposi- 
tion, he inclined at first towards the popular 
party, and was selected tf) reid before the King 



ThS GbNBKALS AHD TH2IK FuSCES. 



33 



the * Bemonstraucc* of November, 1641. He, 
howcTer, soon came to an opposite opinion, and 
henceforth applied himself vigorously to pro- 
mote the interests of the Crown in his own 
ooonty. He was almost constantly opposed to 
Sir W. WaUer." 

In January, 1 646, when the King had only two 
small armies remaining in the field, the one in 
Cornwall, commanded by Lord Hop ton, and the 
other on the borders ofWalesundcrJjordAstley, 
things were looking serious. The Prince of Wales, 
abandoned b}-GoringandGrenvillc,8till held sway 
in the west. He sent for Lord Hopton,and offered 
him the command of the seven or eight 
thousand men who still remained with the 
colours. ** My lord," answered Hopton, " it is 
not a custom when men are not willing to sub- 
mit to what they are enjoined to say that it is 
against their honour : that their honour will 
not suffer them to do this or that ; for my part, 
Icannot atthis time obey your Highncsii with- 
out resolving to lose my honour ; but since 
your Highness has thought fit to command nio. 
I am ready to obey, even with the loss of my 
honour." 

Having shown himself a right skilful general, 
bis own men at last obliged him to surrender. 
"Treat then," said he '* but not for me," and 
neither he nor Lord Capel would be included in 
the capitulation. During the Commonwealth 
he found an asylum in Spain. He had been 
created a peer in 1 643, and married the widow 
of Sii- Justinian Lewer, but dying without 
children, the title became extinct. Sir William 
Waller was the assailant, and Lord Hopton the 
protector of the Cavalier strongholds in Hamp- 
shiro and the neighbouring counties. 

John, the 5th and " Loyal" Marquis of Win- 
chester was thrice married. His first wife was 
Jane, daughter of Thomas, Lord Savage, by 
whom he became father to Charles, the 6tn 
Marquis and first Duke of Bolton. He had the 
air of one born to command, and was a man of 
great determination, as we know from his 
answer to the arguments of Hugh Peter<, ^^ hat 
if the King had no more ground in EiigLind 
but Basing House, he would venture slu ho cid, 
and mainUin it to the utteimost." Ho aho 
possessed considerable literary ability, ?.nd 
translated Quare's Devout £ntci*tainment!) of a 
Christian Soul. In 1852 he translated The 
ChiUery of Heroic Women, and Salon's Holy 
Hirtory in the following year. Having left the 
Church of England for that of Rome, his 



mansion naturally 1x*came a rallying point for 
the friends of the Queen in the south-western 
counties. **So early as September 23rd. 1642, 
the King wrote to the Earl of Newcastle, not 
only to permit, but to order him to enlist sol- 
diers without considering their religion, or, in- 
deed, anything exoept their fidelity to the Royal 
cause. We constantly find Basing described by 
its assailants as a Popbh ganisan. At first 
Roman Catholics and Protestants fought 
shoulder to shoulder, but during the last days 
of the heroic defence almost the whole gar- 
rison professed the same religion as the Marqub, 
who was at this time about 44 yeai-s of age. 
" A}Tney Loyaultc, *Love LoffalO/,' not Ifotfaitt/,^' 
says Mr. Mudie, '* shows that the Marquis stood 
out thus gallantly for the King, not upon 
personal groundp, but from regarding liim 
as the legitimatu head of the govern- 
ment and administrator of the law — that 
ho was a loyalist in principle, not a 
party Royalist. " 3Ir. Mudie adds : "Colonel 
Norton," who is so prominently mentioned in 
the diary of the siege, " was also a loyalist, 
though a loyalist having different views of the 
matter. He took the field, and took it bravely, 
for the privilege of the Parliament, which 
Charles had unquestionably invaded ; but he 
had no hostility to the King aceordmg to law. 
It happened in that unfoituiiiito conte.^it— in 
which England suffered more tlian in any other 
time since the War;* of the Ro.scs —that sunic of 
the most loyal men, the men nio«t devoted to 
the whole constitution in all its three branches, 
were arranged upon each side, while mere 
courtiers mingled with the one party and 
enemies to )x)th King and Parliament mingled 
with the other. Upon the side of Charles 
the loyal men stood only for the con- 
stitutional authority of the King, while 
the courtiers stood for him in disregai-d 
of the constitution. The loyalists on the side 
of Parliament stood only for its constitutional 
privileges, the rest of that party being enemies 
to all government. Between the first sections 
of the two parties it was merely a misunder- 
standing, but between the second it was im- 
placable and deadly opposition. The former 
were anxious to save both constitution and 
count rj', the latter recked not for the ruin of 
both. This distinction is an important one, 
and necessary before wo do justice to brave and 
d^ood men upon either side — to such men as the 
Mirquis of Winchester and Colonel Norton — 



34. 



Tu£ Gbnskals and their Forces. 



during tlils distracted and frequently misre- 
presented period of our history." 

The Lady Marchioness of Winchester at thii 
time was the second wife of the Marquis. She 
was named Honora, and was the daughter of 
Richard, Earl of St. Albans and Clanricarde, 
and was the mother of four sons and three 
daughters. Clarendon describes her as being **a 
lady of great honour and alliance, and sister to 
the Earl of Essex and to the Lady Marchioness 
of Hertford." She shai^ed in all the dangers of 
the siege, and saw her maid killed by a grenade, 
she herself having a narrow escape. Together 
with the other ladies of the garrison, she aided 
in casting into bullets the lead stripped from 
the roof and turrets of the house, and it was in 
great measure owing to her representations and 
entreaties that Colonel Gage was despatched 
from Oxford to the relief of her beleagured 
husband. Her brother was the celebrated 
General of the Parliament, '* the slow-going, in- 
articulate, indignant, somewhat elephantine 
man," as Carlyle calls him. 

Family strife once more ! Colonel Richard 
Norton, already referred to, belonged to a family 
which had settled long before at Alresford, 
South wick, near Portsmouth, and Rotherfield. 
His ancestor and namesake had been knighted 
at Basing House by Queen Elizabeth, and it was 
while Charles I. was the guest of Sir Daniel 
Norton at Southwick Park that he received the 
jiews of the assassination of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham by Felton at Portsmouth. 

Colonel Richard Norton resided at the Manor 
House of Old Alresford, and is said to have dis- 
tinguished himself in the battle of Cheriton by 
bringing up a body of Horse through bye ways, 
from his knowledge of the country, to charge 
the rear of the enemy. With this gentleman 
Oliver ('rorawell was on familiar and intimate 
tcrniH, distinguishing him in letters to his pri- 
vate friends by the appellation of '* Idle Dick 
Norton." Clarendon says that the besiegers of 
Basing Hoasc wore " united in this service under 
thcctommand of Norton, a man of spirit and of the 
greatest fortune of all the rest," and speaks of 
" the known courage of Norton." He served 
under the Earl of Manchester, was a fellow 
colonel with Oliver in the Eastern Association, 
and became member for Hants in 1G45. Crom- 
well addresses lettera to him thus : " For ni / 
noble Friend Colonel Richard Norton. These, ' 
and commences "Dear Dick." Carlyie says 
of Norton, "Clivcn to Presbyterian notions; 



was purged out by Pride ; came back, dwindled 
ultimately into Royalism." A relative of **tho 
Loyal Marquis" married Elizabeth, the daughter 
of Sir Richard Norton, of Rotherfield. 

A few particulars respecting the Cavaliers and 

their opponents may not bo without interest. 

In August, 1642, the Army of the Parliament 
was about 23,000 strong. There were To troops 
of horse, each GO strong. The five regiments of 
dragoons had 100 in each troop, and 1200 was 
the strength of each of the 14 regiments of in- 
fantry, whilst 50 l>ra8s guns and a few moi-tars 
or " mui-thercrs " formed the train of artillery. 
Iron guns had been manufactured at Buxted, in 
Sussex, by Ralph Hogge and his covenanted 
servant, John Jackson, as long before as 1 543, 
but brass was now the favourite metal for guns. 
Sussex people used to say 

Master Hogge and his man John 
Thev did cast the first cannon. 

Another version of this important transaction 

is as follows : — " Petrus Bande, Gallua Opens 

Artifex, worked with Ralph Hogge or Hugget, 

of Buxtod, and first made cast iron guns. 

Master Hugget and his man John, 
They did cast the first can-non.'* 

The Earl of Essex wore a buff -coloured scarf, 
which gave origin to the colours of the Parlia- 
mentarians. Royalist officers wore red scarves, 
whilst those serving the Parliament affected 
buff or deep yellow. Uniforms, S3-called, 
existed but only in name. Buff coats were 
used by both parties, but red, orange, grey, 
purple, and blue regiments, with flags of the 
same colours, were to be seen, whilst John 
Hampden commanded a r3gi.nrnt of ** Green- 
coats." The best discipline seotns to have been 
maintained by the London Trained Bands, each 
regiment of which had the City Arms in the 
dexter canton of its flig. The Parliamentarian 
artilley had no distinctive nniform, and the 
cavalry, being Cuiinssiers, required none. At 
Naseby the Cavaliers attacked one another, 
having no special distinguishing badges. In 
each troop of cavalry, or company of infantry, 
there was a subaltern officer, who, from the en- 
sign which he carried, was styled a ** comet." 
£2, defrayed by the Council of State, was the 
price of a regimental colour. The officei-s of a 
Parliamentarian regiment were a lieutenant- 
colonel, captains, lieutenants, ensigns, a quar- 
ter-master, a carrij^e-master, a provost-marshal, 
a chirurgeon, and often a chaplain. There 
were ten companies in a regiment. The present 



The Genkrals and jhkir Fobccs. 



35 



iuA)o£ wa>^ then styled aergeaut-major, and non- 
rommufsioned oflfi jcrs wore then, as now, known 
by the names of sergeants and corporals. One 
standard bore an arm painted, thrusting a bloody 
sword through a crown. They adopted Scrip- 
iaral names. Cieyeland alludes to this by a 
stroke of humour : — "With what face can they 
object to the King the bringing in of foreigners, 
when they themselves maintain such an army 
of Hebrews V One of them beat up his diums 
clean through the Old Testament ; we may 
leain the genealogy of Our Saviour from the 
names iu his regiment. The mustcrman usch 
no other list but the firpt chapter of Matthew." 
The following names are given by Jolm 
Squire as belonging to men " who joined us at 
the »\ege of Lynn, and came riding in full 
aimed, and went into our second regiment : and 
who left us, manyof them, after Maiston Fight, 
on fancies of conscience, and turned Quackers 
(Quakers)": — " Hiram, Judah, Caleb, Danyel, 
Zachary. Saul, Aaron, Japhet, Jacques, Isaiah, 
Simon/ Aminadab, Hezekiah, Chiistian, Zatthu, 
Ahimelech, Sheckaniah, Jobias, Jeheil, Selah, 
Manna, Eleazer, Ishmael, Yilellius, Zered, 
Israel, Amphilius, Gabriel, Promise, Gilead, 
Zack, Kesian, Mathias, Pious, Ma lee, Jc'sophat, 
Issachar, Shem, &c." 

There arc several publications intended for 
militjiry ser%'ice penned by ministers: — "Tlie 
Soldier's Catechism, by Robert Ram, Minister, 
published by authority'' ; another, *' A Spiritual 
Knapsack for the Parliament's Soldiers.' The 
most extraordinary specimen of the temper of 
the times is one entitled *' Militarj)r and 
Spiritual Motions for Foot Companies, with the 
Kxercise of a single Company as they now 
ought to be taught, and not otherwise, by Capt. 
Lazarus Howard, 1645." 

'*It was a project of drilling and exercising a 
company of infantry at the same time by a 
double motion of soul and body. This full and 
whole exercise of a foot company spiritual and 
temporal may make us, like the Israelites, go up 
as one man, with one heart and in one form, a 
soldier of that Great Captain, Christ Jesus !" 

"His scheme is to give the word of command 
to produce the military movement, and to every 
letter in that word he affixes some pithy and 
pious sentence to produce the accompanying 
spiritual one." He forms acrostics of 

"To the Right About !'*—»' As You Were !" 
as thus :— 



The Devil is let loose fur a season, to try the patience 

of God's Chnrch. 
Onr Enemies, O Lord, are near to hurt us, but Thou 

art near to help us. 
The sword never prevailed, but Sin set an edge upon. 
Hasten from the company of the wicked. 
Every man shall sit under his own vine, nor hear any 

news or noises to affright us. 
Religion made a stalking-horse for politics is odious. 
It is a grievous judgment upon a nation when teachers 

sent fur man's salvation Hhall bc?ome means of 

their confusion, drc, d'c. 

In the Royal army they had the field- word 
given to know their friends in the heat of 
battle, "For God and the King," but the Par- 
liamentarians Lad no woi*d to recognise their 
fellows from the enemy, and several inst nces 
occurred of their firing on each other. This 
error was no doubt soon corrected. At the san- 
guinary battle of Marston Moor the field- word 
of the Parliamentarians, in con ti-adisti notion to 
the King's, was *'Ood Mith us !" On that day 
the soldiers seoni to have depended on the colour 
of their coat^ us a signal of recognition ; these, 
however, were as various as their regiments, and 
it sometimes happened that both parties wore 
the same colour. The King had a red regiment, 
held to be " the Invincible Regiment," consist- 
ing of 1200 men. Among the Parliamentarians 
they had also a regiment of red-coats. (Vicar's 
ParUamentanj Chronicle, Part 4, 200). There 
were regiments of purple, of grey, and of blue. 
The Marquis of Newcastle had a regiment com- 
posed of Northumberland men, called from their 
dress, " White coats." These veterans behaved 
with the utmost gallantry, and though deserted 
at Marston Moor by all their friends they 
formed a ring to oppose Cromwell, and the 
White Coats fell in their ranks without the 
flight of one man. Whether from the colour 
of their coats, or their desperate courage, they 
also obtained the title of "Newcastle's Lambs !" 
There were 20 regiments of Foot, under as many 
colonels, including general officers, and 75 troops 
of horse under as many captains. These last 
were formed into regiments containing as many 
troops as occasion required. The complement of 
the regiment of Foot was probably 1000 men. 
Each troop of horse was to consist of GO men, 
but the numbers were never full. There were 
five troops of Dragoons, each of 100, besides 
officers, and a troop of 100 Cuirassiers as a body- 
guard for the Earl of Essex. The two chaplains 
were Dr. Burgess and Mr. Stephen Marshall. 
Hampden was colonel of the 20th Regiment of 



36 



The Gkncbals and their Forcis. 



Foot, with llicUard IngoldHby as his criptain. 
Among the captains of Horso were, bcnidos those 
who had also Foot regiments. Of the (57th Troop, 
Oliver ("romwcll, with John Desborough as his 
Quarter-Master ; of the COth, John Fiennes, 
third son of Lord Saye, with Oliver's cousin, 
Edward AVhally. as his comet ; of the ITith, Sir 
Wm. "Waller; of the 8th, liOrd St. John, with 
Oliver Cromwell, eldest surviving son of the 
member for (Cambridge, as his cornet ; of the 
36th, Nathaniel Fiennes. The Parliamentarian 
colonels who had regiments appointed them 
were generally country gentlemen or students 
from the Inns of Court. The Parliament had 
recourse to militiry men, who had seen service 
in the Netherlands, to discipline their raw levies. 
Amongst these were many Germans, and in 
some accounts from the country we find noticed 
**the honest German*' who drilled them. Crom- 
well writes, "Heed well your motions, and 
laugh not at Rose's Dutch tongue ; he is a 
zealous servant, and we may go farther and 
get a worse man to our hand than he is.'* At 
York the King raised a body-guard, in which 
the young Prince of Wales was a captain, and 
which was under the command of Lord Bernard 
Stuart, the brother of the Duke of Richmond. 
The King used to say that the revenues of 
those in that single troop would buy the estates 
of my Loid o2 Kssox and of all the officers 
in his Army. Oliver Cromwell writes thus : 
" Buy those hprses, but do not give more than 
18 or 20 pieces each for them, that is enough 
for Dragooners. I will give you 60 pieces for 
that black one you won at Homcastle, if you 
hold to a mind to sell him for my son, w^ho 
has a mind to him." 

A pair of spurs cost Ss. ** a feather for my 
basnet (i.e., helmet), 2 6d."; and **a new staffs 
for ye colours, Is. 4d. 

By an order made in 1029, the following 

prices were fixed for offensive and defensive 

arms and armour : — 

£ s. d. 

A breast of pistol proofe 11 

A backc 7 



A close ca.skc (helmet) linod 17 

A payreof pouldrons 12 

A payre of vambraceB 12 

A pavre of ji^uiwetB 17 

A cullett or guarderino ^^ 7 

Agorgetlyncd <• 3 

A gaiintlett gloved 3 

Soe the whole price of the cuirasaier^s 

armour axnonnteth to 3 10 








G 

t; 



I 



The prices of the parts, and of the whole 
corslet or footman's armour ruasetted, viz. : — 

i! p. d. 

The breast 5 

Thebacke 4 6 

Thetassets 6 

The combed head piece, lyned 4 6 

The gorgett, lyned 2 fi 

The total of the footman's armour 1 2 

If the breast, back, aad tassets be lyned with red 
leather the price will be 1/. 48. Od. 

The prices of the parts and of the whole 
armour for a harquebuzier on horseback rua- 
setted. viz. : — 

£ 8. d. 

A breast of plstuH proofe 1» 

A backe 7 

A gorgett 3 

A headpeece, with great cheeks and a barr 

before the face 11 

The totall of the whole and all the parts 
of a harquebuzier or light horse- 
man*s armour is 1 12 

A combed headpeece for a muskettier, rus- 

setted and lyned 5 

Price of the pike : — 

Thestaffe 2 li 

The head 18 

Socket and colouring 1 

Snmme 4 6 

For a new musket, with mould, worm, and 
scourer 16 

For a new bandalier, with twelve charges, a 
prymer, a pryming wyre, a bullet bag, and 
a strap or belt of two inches in breadth ... 2 6 

For a pair of horseman's pistols, furnished 
with snaphances, mouldes, worms, scourer, 
flask, a charger, and cases 2 



VI.— Events in Portsmouth. — Colonel Goring Declarks for the Kino. — Skirmishes 
NEAR Southampton and in Isle op Wight. — Capture of Southsea Castle. — 

Surrender op Portsmouth. 



Before proceeding further it will be well for 
08 to note a few facts relating to this fratricidal 
strife not yet recorded in this o'er true tale. As 
early as June 2l8t the Deputy-Lieutenants, 
Colonels, and Captains of the County had made 
a Declaration in favour of the Parliament, which 
was assented to and with great cheerfulness 
approved of by the soldiers of the Trained 
BeuidB, about 5000 in number, who werespeediy 
increased by the addition of numerous volun- 
teers, who offered to serve in person. 

On August 8th word was brought to the 
House of Commons that Colonel Goring had 
tendered an oath of allegiance to the King to 
the Mayor and Aldermen of Portsmouth, most 
of whom took it willingly. But Mr. Peck, a 
minister, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Odell, Mr. Good- 
fellow, and several others refused it, and were in 
ooDsequence obliged to leave the town. The 
Mayor took his wife and family to Salisbury, 
intending to leave them there, and to return 
himself to Portsmouth, after doing his utmost 
to raise men and money for the King. Twenty 
horsemen were posted at Portsbridge to keep 
watch and ward both by night and day. Four 
guns swept the approaches to the bridge, which 
was also protected by a strong frame of timber. 
The guns belonged to the Maria^ pinnace. In 
order to encourage the townsmen, Colonel 
Goring showed them 3000Z., and a rumour was 
current that 6000 French soldiers would speedily 
arrive as a reinforcement. The garrison was 
by no means unanimously in favour of theKin^. 
A certain Captain Wiles tried to win over his 
soldiers, but completely failed. After much 
discmeion thejr fell upon him and slew him, the 
chronicler adding, ** Alas, who knows whether, 
vith his body, they slew his soul also !" 

On August 2nd, 1642, the date of Goring's 
Declaration for the King, there were 300 men 



in garrison, 100 townsmen able to bear arms, 
and in the remainder of Portsea Island about 
100 more. There were about 50 officers, with 
their servants. The Governor and officers pos- 
sessed more than 50 horses, but there was only 
two days* provision in the town, which was 
unfortified and very weak in many places. Col. 
Goring ordered all men able to bear arms or to 
find substitutes to meert in the Bowling Green, 
on pain of imprisonment, knowing full well that 
only Cavaliers would put in an appearance. The 
friends of the Parliament were speedily dis- 
armed, and 40 horsemen with pistols and carbines 
admitted into the garrison. At three o'clock on 
that August afternoon the Colonel addressed 
the meeting, urging them to stand fast for the 
King, promising money to the Cavaliers, and 
leave to depart to the adherents of the Parlia- 
ment. The military chest was not empty, for 
Goring had receivea 3000/. from the Parliament 
for the payment of arrears to the garrison, and 
9000/. from Mr. Weston, brother to the Earl of 
Portland, the Royalist governor of the Isle of 
Wight. At the conclusion of his harangue 
some of the soldiers shouted in token of assent, 
but others were discontented, and strife ran 
high in the town. Col. Goring at once sent out 
an officer to enlist recruits in the county, but 
only those who professed their willingness to 
fight for the King were admitted within the 
walls. All the soldiers and every townsman except 
three or four declared for the King, but withm 
less than ten days more than half of them had 
found means to escape. The Parliament acted 
promptly. Orders were at once given to the 
Earl of Warwick to blockade the harbour with 
a squadron of five ships, and preparations for 
an attack on the land side were not forgotten. 
The Commission of Array was not put in force, 
but the Militia was duly embodied, with the 
result of making one or two companies of 



38 



Skirmishes near Southampton and in Isle of Wight. 



trained bands desert the cause of the King for 
that of the Parliament. 

Many Hampshire gentlemen who had pro- 
mised to bring in reinforcements of horse and 
foot were stopped en ronte, as was also Sir 
Kenelm Digby, one of Colonel Goring's prin- 
cipal allies and confederates. Onl^ two days 
had elapsed before the County Militia began to 
blockade Portsbridge,Tendering the provisioning 
of the garrison a matter of difficulty. On 
Saturday, August 6th, the supplies of pro- 
visions from the Isle of Wight were cut off, 
and on Monday, August 8th, the Earl of War- 
wick appeared off the mouth of the harbour 
with his blockading squadron. The Earl of 
Portland, Governor of the Isle of Wight, was 
committed to the custody of Sheriff Garret. 
His mother and most of his friends were Roman 
Catholics, and he was believed to be a member 
of the same communion. The Earl of Pem- 
broke was duly appointed as his successor, and 
the House sent a messenger with orders to 
Colonel Goring to surrender Portsmouth to their 
authority. 

The King despatched a gentleman to Ports- 
mouth, with promises of help and reinforce- 
ments, but the gentlemen of Hampshire at once 
raised a besieging force, asking for the authority 
of Parliament, and offering to hazard their 
lives and fortunes in the maintenance of the 
true Protestant religion and the just privileges 
of Parliament. One hundred carbines, pistols, 
saddles, and much ammunition for the garrison 
were intercepted by the forces of the Parliament. 
The Bishop of Winchester sent five completely 
armed horsemen to Portsmouth, and Dr. Hin- 
aham, one of the Prebendaries of Chichester, 
supplied the garrison with a load of wheat. 
Hackney coachmen were offered commissions, on 
condition of using their horses for the King^s 
service. On August 11th the garrison was 
estimated to be 500 strong ; ** Papists and those 
ill affected to Parliament." The Grand Jury at 
the County Assizes in August presented a most 
loyal petition to the King, asiing for aid against 
the Parliament. 

On August 10th seven straggling Cavaliers 
robbed two Wiltshire gentlemen on the highway, 
about three miles from Winchester, of about 
80^. in gold and 101. in silver, shooting their 
horses dead and riding off. Pursued by two 
gentlemen of the county and their servants, they 
at length entered an inn in Romsey. Ajmed 
assistance having been obtained, they were 



promptly secured and imprisoned at Winchester 
to await their trial. 

On Thursday, August 11th, there was a fight 
at Hosdown, a nule out of Southampton. The 
High Sheriff of Hampshire, escorted by some 
80 men, endeavoured to raise the County Militia 
for the Parliament, but was attacked by 60 and 
odd Cavaliers and about 100 persons who disliked 
his proceedings. The fight lasted about an 
hour. Fifteen of the King's party were killed 
and nine mortally wounded, with a loss of five 
killed and none wounded on the other side. The 
country people came in great numbers to assist 
the Sheriff, as did also numerous well armed 
volunteers from the town of Southampton. At 
length many of the Cavaliers were captured, 
and put into safe keeping. The Mayor of 
Southampton addressed the assembled multitude, 
urging them to act only in a strictly legal 
manner, but most cautiously guarding himself 
from saying anything which might hereafter be 
construed to his hurt by either the King or the 
Parliament, *^and so, taking his leave of the 
Sheriff, he returned home.*' Mr. Parker, a 
gentleman living at Upper Wallop, records all 
these proceedings with great satisfaction in a 
letter to a friend in London. 

Meanwhile the Isle of Wi^ht was preparing 
to rise in favour of the Parliament, cr' Tiany 
of the leading men in it were favouiable to 
the King. This was especially the case with 
the governors of the fortresses. Captain 
Burley, at Yarmouth, the Governor and Porter 
of Hurst Castle, and the Countess of Portland, 
at Carisbrooke, left no doubt as to which cause 
they favoured. Sir Robert Dillin^n tried to 
send over corn to Portsmouth, but it was inter- 
cepted on the way by one Master Bunckley. 
The adherents of the Parliament sent up a peti- 
tion for horse and arms, saying that "they 
would serve the King in a Parliiunentary way 
only." Whereupon 500 foot and two troops of 
horse were ordered to march to their aid, and to 
besiege Portsmouth. The arrival of the Earl 
of Pembroke was anxiously awaited, so that the 
malcontents might take active measures against 
Goring and his Cavaliers. On August 16th the 
Cavaliers made an attempt to secure the Isle of 
Wight under cover of darkness. The precise 
locality of the attack is not specified, but the 
people assembled, and Captain Johnson, "a man 
of most puissant courage, sallied from the town 
with 300 very well armed men. The assailanta 
opened fire, wounding two men, but were at 



Blockade of Portsmouth Harboub by the Eabl of Warwick. 



39 



'ength obliged to retire. Abont 9.0 a.m. they 
began to Jiow themBelves in battle array, and 
'^ id^r Bome parley they fell to it like fnriouB 
lions, and when they had felt the angry bnlleta 
on both sides tiiey rested for the space of two or 
three honrs,and tiien fell on again with asmnch 
fnry as they did at first." 

After a long skirmish the Cavaliers fled, 
having many killed and wounded. Only ax or 
seven of Gaptam Johnson's men needed the aid 
of a snrgeon. The defences of Newport \(ere 
but weak, and Garisbrooke Gastle was in sad 
want of ammunition and other necessaries. 
The Earl of Pembroke was ordered to proceed 
thither at once, and he accordingly started from 
Wiltshire on Monday, August 2^h. On August 
18th there were seven men-of-war, all of great 
force, blockading Portsmouth. In this squadron 
there were the Paragon, the Ceeiar, the Black 
James, and four others. A letter from someone 
on board the Paragon says that the greatest 
harmony was the thundering of cannon both by 
day and night. On the arrival of the anxiously- 
expected land forces a general attack both by 
sea and land was to take place. Desertions 
from the garrison, which the worthy seaman 
estimated at 200, were of nightly occurrence. 
There were 100 guns mounted upon the works ; 
only troops to man them were wanting. One 
ship of war was commanded by a Scotch noble- 
man, who, throughout the operations, did good 
service. On Tuesday, August 16th, he sent out 
his long boat and took prisoners Gapt. Tomey, 
the Governor of " Gowes Gastle," and two other 
gentlemen, one of whom was brother to the 
Earl of Portland. They being safely secured, 
a body of seamen was landed, who took posses- 
sion of ihe Gastle, placing in it a garrison favour- 
able to the Parliament. This same Scotch 
nobleman kept back provisions from Ports- 
mouth, and captured a boat going to the 
Island Laden with light horses, saddles, 
and equipments for the use of Gavaliers. 
The boatman sa3ring that his fare was 
nine shillings, this active commander paid 
him, telling him at the same time that if he 
woidd bring the horses also alongside, he would 
give him another freight. This nobleman went 
on shore and threatened Gaptain Newland, " a 
great, fat tall man of a very heathenish be- 
haviour," who had sent some com to the garrison 
of Portsmouth, that if he offended again he 
should be sent up to the Parliament as a prisoner. 
"A captaine that is possessed of a castle near 



the Gows" persuaded the countrymen to bring 
in their arms for safe keeping against the 
Gavaliers. Having got possession of them, he 
declined to surrender them until the ubiquitous 
Scotch nobleman threatened to batter the castle 
about his ears. This threat had the desired 
effect. Ships' guns were landed for the purpose 
of battering Portsmouth, and a naval brigade, 
400 strong, took part in the operations which 
compelled the surrender of Gansbrooke Gastle. 
The Gountess of Portland, who held conmiand 
there during the enforced absence of her husband, 
and who, as we have already seen, displayed con- 
siderable courage, was permitted to occupy a 
few rooms in the castle, and was at length 
indebted to the kindness of some seamen for 
the means of leaving the island. Golonel Brett, 
the Governor of the castle, Master Nicholas 
Weston, brother to the Earl of Portland, and 
the garrison received free passes to repair to any 
part of the island which they might think fit. 
Gaptain Browne Bushell was put in charge of 
the castle by Gaptain Swanley till further order 
of Parliament, and on August 27th, 1642, a 
letter from Newport thus ends : — 

" So now our whole Island is at peace ! " 
Golonel Norton at once raised a force of 
musketeers, who took post at his house at South- 
wick Park. Some of the trained bands and a 
force of cavalry from the county speedily 
assembled, and more were expected. Sir 
William Waller and Golonel Urrey were each 
in command of a troop of horse, and '^ there are 
some 20 firelocks that look like desperate 
soldiers.'' Golonel Goring made a proclamation 
that all women and children who were afraid 
should leave the town by noon on the following 
Sunday, and good cause had women to quit 
Portsmouth when troopers like his held sway in 
it. Terrible indeed are the accounts given by 
ancient journalistic scribes, too bad, indeed, to 
be quoted here I 

Of the 200 men said to compose the garrison 
on August 15th, it was believed that fully one 
half would at once desert if opportunity offered. 
One man who went to sell his butter at Ports- 
mouth was forcibly impressed, and there were 
many similar cases. Lord Wentworth was at 
Portsmouth, " and some say Lord Goring; how- 
ever his soul is there we may be assured." 

Golonel Goring sent an officer to Salisbury 
with a party of 30 or 40 horse, in search of 
plunder and reinforcements, but on their arrival 
they were ail captured and imprisoned. 



40 



Pillaging in Portska and Portsmouth. 



Orael, indeed, was the pillaging of Portsea 
Isle, which had then 2000 acres of standing com 
npon it. One thousand cattle and more than 
a thousand sheep were cairied off by the all- 
devonripg garrison. Bread, cheese, bacon, and 
everything shared the same fate, the plunderers 
not even leaving half loaves behind them for the 
starving population. The owners were obliged 
to drive their own cattle within the walls, and 
were then themselves retained for military 
service. 

On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
August 10-12, this plundering was at its 
worst. To aid the miserable rustics, the Earl of 
Warwick landed men from the blockading 
squadron at the east end of Portsea Isle, with 
two guns. Goring*s horse were thus held in 
salutary check, whilst the seamen ferried numer- 
ous women and children over to Haylinff Island. 
About200sheep and 1 OOcattle were zUso taS:en over 
to the same place of refuge, ropes being thrown 
over the horns of the cattle to make them swim 
after the boats. One hundred and thirty-five 
quarters of wheat were bound from Fareham to 
Portsmouth, but one Master Allen, of G-osport, 
succeeded in stopping the carts upon the road 
and altering their destination, by the aid of a 
few watchmen. Great was the rage of Goring. 
He threatened to bombard and utterly destroy 
Gosport with the gunsof Portsmouth,andit was 
only after the humble prayer of the Mayor and 
others, upon their knees, that he consented to 
desist from his purpose for the sake of the 
women and children dwelling there. As it was, 
he terrified the Gosport people exceedingly. 
His gunner, Meader by name, had already fled 
from the town, but he summoned **a can- 
noneer," and ordered him to fire at Gosport. 
Upon his refusal the Colonel threatened to run 
him through, whereupon he shot, " but it was 
over the houses, and did no harm." 

But deliverance was at hand for the un- 
happy, plundered dwellers in Portsmouth and 
Portsea Island. About 6.0 p.m. on Friday, 
August 15th, 1642, twenty soldiers made an 
attack upon Portbridge, not knowing what re- 
sistance they would meet with. They found 
but eight men on guard, one or two of whom 
were taken prisoners, the rest making their 
escape. One who saw the attack said that it 
would make a faint-hearted man a soldier to 
see their spirit and resolution. Colonel Hurry 
and Sir William Waller behaved themselves 
bravely on this occasion. The attack would 



have taken place before if the weather had not 
been very wet, confining the besieffiag forces 
to their quarters at Southwick and Havant. 
This success not a little encouraged the friends 
of the Parliament, and further measures were 
at once taken. 

Captain Browne Bushell, a very active com- 
manaer, held a consultation with Captains 
Martin and Swanley as to the possibility of cut- 
ting out the Henrietta Maria pinnace from under 
fche guns of Portsmouth. They agreed with 
him that the enterprise was feasible, though the 
service was desperate and beset with difficulties. 
Nothing daunted, and encouraged by the taking 
of Portbridge, Captain Browne Bushell the 
same night manned some long boats, and under 
cover of the darkness pulled for the Henrietta 
Maria. She had a crew of 14 men, two of whom 
were officers, according to Groring^s account, 
and Goodwin, the master, was suspected in the 
garrison of Parliamentarian leanings. On the 
other hand, the newspaper account says that she 
mounted eight brave pieces of ordnance, and 
had forty soldiers on board, being fitted for 
service. Goring says that the pinnace sur- 
rendered without receiving a blow, but his op- 
ponents say that the crew were overpowered and 
driven below. At any rate the capture was com- 

Slete. Sail was at once made, and the Henrietta 
(aria began to stand out of the ..arbour. 
When out of range of the batteries two ships 
were descried, laden with com for the garrison, 
which were summoned to surrender, and at 
once struck their colours. Four days pre- 
viously the blockading squadron had intercepted 
a ship, on board of which were several hundred 
bari'ds of powder and 41 ''most stately horse.*' 
The steeds were forthwith sent to London. 

On Saturday, August 16th, Colonel Norton^s 
forces marched from Portbridge almost to the 
gates of Portsmouth, whereupon Colonel Goring 
sent out two guns loaded with musket bullets, 
and two gunners to guard one of his guns, 
which he had been obliged to leave behind a 
mile distant from Portbridge, when he withdrew 
his guns on the preceding Wednesday. Watch- 
ing his opportunity, a Parliamentary trooper 
rode between the guns and the town, his carbine 
being charged with two bullets, and shot one of 
the gunners, he himself escaping uninjured. 
Many now began to desert to the besiegers, 
offering to prove their sincerity by serving in 
forlorn hopes against the town. A contingent 
from Chichester had reached Portsmouth, who 



State of Ouiciiesteb. 



4] 



treated the townsmen with considerable severity. 
On Angnst 17th there were said to be only 80 
or 90 horses and no great strength of men in 
the town, whilst the Parliament had nnder its 
command 240 traopers and 500 infantry. The 
town was well provisioned, and ammunition was 
plentiful. Numerous were the devices em- 
ployed to convey intelligence from the be- 
leaguered town. A woman was caught at Port- 
bridge carrying a bundle which looked like a 
baby, in the head of which was a black box full 
of letters. About 5.0 p.m., on Saturday, 
August 16th, a suit of clothes was intercepted 
at Havant, going to Mr. Bellingham, in Ports- 
mouth, with ten letters sewn up in the linings. 
The man carrying it was detained, together 
with his horse. Letters from Lord Wentworth 
and others in Portsmouth likewise fell into 
Norton's hands. 

The Rojalists at Chichester were in the 
meantime not idle in seeking to aid iheir 
friends at Portsmouth. On August the 
19th Sir Tbomas Boyer, Sir William Morley, 
Mr. Lewknor, the Becorder, and others 
demanded the city magazine for the ser- 
vice of the King. Captain Chitty, a staunch 
adherent of the Parliament, refused to surrender 
it, and placed a strong guard over it. Mr. 
Lewknor and the clergy of the Cathedral made 
OTertures to Colonel Goring, who asked them 
to aid him to the utmost of their power. One 
Mr. Bellingham, a young gentleman, rode fully 
armed from Chichester to Portsmouth. He 
afterwards tried to make his escape from the 
garrison, keeping a boat in readiness, for which 
he paid 5s. per diem. The Bev. Mr. Bringsted, 
parson of Havant, "a most pestilent man," had 
sent a light horse to Portsmouth. For this 
Colonel Norton made him pa^ dearly. Ton 
light horse were quartered on him, " and lately 
one of the Scotsmen, being aggrieved with him, 
fell upon him, basted him well-f avouredly, and 
fain he would be gone ; but they will not let 
him. So he is forced to stay, waits upon them 
daily, gives them good words, and tells them 
that he will gladly lie out of his own bed to 
make them room 1" 

On August 10th a letter brought in with diffi- 
culty from the King, promising relief, had 
greatly cheered the garrison, but communication 
with the outer world became day by day more 
difficult. "Three gallant gentlewomen" tried to 
get a boat for Stokes Bay. They failed to reach 
their destination, and were brought back in a 



friendly manner to Sir Thomas Boyer*s house 
in his coach. Having no man with them, they 
were strongly suspected to be men in women's 
apparel. Those were evidently not times for 
ladies to travel alone. At Havant a traveller 
was caught with letters from Portsmouth con- 
cealed in his boots. The letters were taken from 
him and given to Colonel Norton, who sent out 
" a few lusty men with muskets " to arrest the 
messenger. Another envoy coming from 
Chichester to Portsmouth through bye lanes 
was met by apparently a most boorish rustic, 
who proved to be an officer in disguise, and who 
carried him and his despatches to Colonel 
Norton, at South wick. 

On August 2 ^th Chichester declared for the 
Parliament, but the Cavaliers there continued 
to intrigue, the Cathedral clergy being especially 
active. The power of the pulpit was ener- 
getically used on behalf of the King. Parlia- 
ment at once ordered that all Popish recusants^ 
all who should put in force the King's Com- 
mission of Array, or any who should furnish 
horses, arms, money, &c., to the King should be 
disarmed. Dr. Hinsham, a Prebendary of 
Chichester, sent a load of wheat to the Ports- 
mouth garrison, and there was daily drilling in 
the Close of light cavalry raised by the Cathedral 
clergy. The Mayor, Mr. William Cawley, firmly 
refused to listen to any Boyalist overtures what- 
ever made to him by the Bishop and clergy. 

On Friday, August 26th, information was 
given to both Houses of Parliament of a ship 
coming from St. Domingo with a cargo, valued 
at 600,000^. Her name was the Sancta Clara, 
and she was laden with silver, cochineal, &c. 
Prevented from entering Portsmouth harbour 
by the Earl of Warwick's squadron she was, 
according to Cavalier opinion, treacherously 
carried into Southampton by Captain Bennett 
Strafford. The cargo was seized by order of 
the Parliament and sent up to London, the 
silver alone requiring three waggons and a cart 
to convey it to the Guildhall, in charge of 
Major Burrell and a troop of horse. Don 
Alonco de Cardenes, the Spanish Ambassador, 
remonstrated, and on January 2nd, 1643, the 
King issued a proclamation, warning all his sub- 
jects against iUegal handling of the silver, &c., 
in question. The ultimate fate of this prize 
money does not appear. 

On August 27th the siege works at Ports- 
mouth were almost ready to open fire. Strong 
forts had been constructed, which commanded 



42 



Captukk of Soutiisea Castle. 



the town, and from which it woold be easy to 
batter the walls. On this day a soldier '^ much 
drank" found means to pass the line of the 
besiegers' sentries, thinking to take the town 
single-handed. With a lantern and candle in 
his hand he advanced, the garrison firing more 
than 40 cannon shot in the d&ection of the light, 
all of which missed him, ** but he approaching 
nearer the walls was laid asleep with a musket 
shot I" Letters were intercepted showing that 
the Chichester Cavaliers were strongly bent 
upon the relief of Portsmouth. 

On August 29th a messenger from Portsmouth 
brought up to the House of Commons a Bomish 
priest, two other ministers, and the Town Clerk 
of Portsmouth, who were committed to various 
prisons until further order. 

On Saturday, August 27th, Colonel Goring's 
trumpets from withm the town sounded twice 
for a parley, which took place on the following 
day. Colonel Goring " entertained the Com- 
missioners very nobly, and carried himself like a 
gentleman.'* He asked leave to send a mes 
senger to the Kinff, asking for relief by a certain 
day. Failing such relief, he expressed his will- 
ingness to resign his allegiance to the King, and 
to hold the town for the Parliament, as he had 
previously done. He refused to surrender at 
once without orders from the Kiuff, and the 
parlev closed without result, Goring threatening 
to hold out to the last. That night the cavalry 
of the garrison attacked the besiegers, but were 
repulsed. Their leader was slain, two men 
were wounded, two taken, together with three 
of the best horses, and the whole party was 
chased back to the gates. One estimate con- 
sidered the number of soldiers in the town at 
this date to be 300. The want of salt and corn 
now began to make itself felt in the garrison, 
and the Parliament despatched 1000 soldiers 
into Hampshire, who as they marched found 
profitable amusement in pillaging the houses of 
any whom they chose to consider Papists, and 
making them ny. Sir John Meldrum gained 
considerable credit as an engmeer for his con- 
struction of batteries against Portsmouth at 
this time. The soldiers of the garrison, dis- 
appointed of relief, were on the point of mutiny, 
and their discontent was still further increased 
when batteries from Gosport, one of which may 
still be seen upon the oeach, opened fire on 
September 2nd, and continued their bombard- 
ment until the morning of Sunday, September 
5th. 



On Saturday, September 4th, after long con- 
ference and discussion, Colonel Norton decided 
to attempt Southsea Castle, then considered to 
be the strongest fort in England for its sice. It 
was surrounded by a wall three or four yards 
in thickness and about 30 feet in height. The 
moat was three or four yards deep and five yards 
broad. The Castle mounted 14 guns, all of 
which, with the exception of two, were 12- 
pounders, besides other smaller pieces of 
artillery. '^It hath dainty chambers fit to 
entertain a Prince." Another account says 
that there were nine or ten guns actually in 
position, and as many more ready for mounting. 
The Governor of the Castle was Challender, a 
suspected Roman Catholic. On this Saturday 
night he remained in Portsmouth carousing 
with Colonel Goring until 11.0 p.m. 

The storming party consisted of two troops 
of horse and 400 infantry, who were provided 
with 20 scaling ladders. Marching from their 
quarters about 1.0 a.m. on Sunday morning, 
singing psalms as they went, the garrison of 
Portsmouth opened a random fire upon them, 
which did no harm. At 2.0 a.m. they arrived 
within a couple of bow shots from the Castle, 
and halted for an hour. Meanwhile a feigned 
attack upon Portsmouth from Gosport was in 
progress. Two men were killed in the town, 
and in addition ^' we heard a very pitiful lamen- 
tation." At 3.0 a.m. the storming party ad- 
vanced, and got between the Castle and the sea, 
as all the guns were pointed landward. They 
then jumped into the moat, some men falling 
and hurting themselves. Capt. Buahell and a 
trumpeter then went to the Castle, and stand- 
ing upon the bridge the Captain ordered the 
trumpeter to sound a parley. The parley com- 
menced, the assailants offering fair quarter to 
the garrison. Governor Challender, '* being 
something in drink, and withal newly awakenea 
out of his deep sleep" suggested that if they 
would kindly defer their visit until the morn- 
ing he would take the matter into consideration. 
The infantiry then scaled the walls, Challender 
begging quarter for himself, lieutenant, ensign, 
and small garrison. This was granted, and the 
garrison was disarmed, without the loss of a 
man on either side. Challender, nothing loth, 
at once began to drink tihe health of the King 
and Parliament with his new friends, whom he 
requested to fire three guns as a signal to Goring 
that the Castle was taken. 



SUKRENDER OF PORTSMOUTH. 



43 



Goring replied with at least 30 shot, one of 
which narrowly missed the leader of the storm- 
ing party. Ten men retreated behind a piece 
of tmiber npon the drawbridge, which was im- 
mediately afterwards struck by shot. No one 
was, however, injured. Some 80 men were left 
to keep the Castle for the Parliament, and a 
mutiny at once broke out in Portsmouth. Tho 
Mayor, a lieutenant, an ensign, and many 
soldiers fled from the town, and nearly all the 
rest of the garrison threw down their arms. 
Only some 60 were still willing to fight, most 
of whom were gentlemen and their servants, 
who were unskilled in the use of muskets and 
in the working of heavy guns. Colonel Goring 
therefore sent a drummer to solicit a parley, and 
surrendered Portsmouth on the following con- 
ditions : — Two companies of Parliament troops 
were to be posted in the town about ().0 a.m., 
on September 7th, for the prevention of dis- 



order and the safety of the magazine. The 
garrison to have free passes to any place except 
to an army in arms against the Parliament, with 
horses, swords, and pistols, but with no other 
arms. Twenty days to be allowed for the 
journey. All stores to be delivered up un- 
injured. Free passes, without arms, to be granted 
to those wiihing to proceed beyond sea. Those 
belonging to the old garrison of Portsmouth to 
remain or depart at their pleasure. An amnesty 
to be granted to all except deserters from the 
Parliament. The magazine to be 1 eft unin j ured . 
Carriages to be provided on payment, if re- 
quired, for those leaving the town. The 
prisoners on botb sides to be released, except 
those that are to be sent up to the Parliament. 
The Governor, if he wishes, to send a gentle- 
man elected by him to the King. After the 
capitulation Colonel Goring, as we already 
know, took ship for Holland. 



Chapter VII.— -Outrages jn Wiltshire. — Surrender op Farnhah and Winchester. 

— Southampton Declares for the Parliament. 



Whilst Colonel Goring was fighting at Ports- 
mouth, some of his friends had been trying to 
aid him by making varions plundering forays 
in the neighbouring county of Wiltshire. After 
the surrender of Portsmouth, the Earl of Pem- 
broke proceeded to deal summarily with these 
disturbed of the public peace. We have already 
noted his departure for the Isle of Wight. 
Having reduced that portion of his government 
to tranquillity he returned towards Wiltshire at 
the close of September. Cavalier marauding in 
those districts was at its height on October Ist, 
1642, but was speedily destined to receive a 
severe check. The Earl of Pembroke brought 
with him from Hampshire three hundred horse 
and foot, and was joined on his march by some 
of the trained bands. On October 4th, at 
some place unspecified by the annalist, he found 
himself confronted by Lord Coventry and 1000 
Cavaliers. The contest was short, but decisive, 
forty Cavaliers being slain and 10 captured, 
Lord Coventry himself escaping in disguise. 
Ten men were lost by the Parliament, and the 
Earl, having "settled that county in a very good 
posture and peaceable condition," returned 
home to Wilton House on October 13th, with 
much honour. A week later the three counties 
of Berks, Hants, and Suri'ey were raising troops 
of Dragoons, some of which had already reached 
Windsor Castle, whilst others wore on their 
march thither, intending to fortify it on behalf 
of the Parliament. Throughout the war the 
excesses committed by those who, rightly or 
wrongly, styled themselves Royalist partisans 
did much to strengthen the cause of the Parlia- 
ment in these counties. 

Hampshire men of those days were by no 
means devoid of either military spirit or experi- 
ence. Only three years before the county had 
sent forth, at the King's command, against the 
Scottish foe 1000 foot and 100 horse, and in 



1640 no fewer than 1200 Ebmpshire soldiers 
marched beneath the banner of the Earl of 
Northumberland, stout old Sir Jacob Astley 
commanding another hundred meanwhile. 
These military companies seem to have been 
considerably wanting in discipline, for on Octo- 
ber 11th, 1642, a letter written to Lord G-rey 
by Lord Stourton was read in the House of 
Lords, complaining of " the great unruliness of 
the soldiers in Hampshire," especially finding 
fault with the infantry, who were then on the 
march between London and Portsmouth. The 
unfortunate nobleman complained that he had 
been plundered of his property^ and that the 
robbers had threatened him with repeated 
visits. He therefore asked for protection to his 
house, stating that in Wiltshire also the soldiers 
had paid him four most unwelcome visits. On 
two occasions he bribed them to depart. Once 
they came to the number of 300, hacking and 
hewing at his ffates, and vowing that they 
would, if refused admittance, cut the throats of 
men, women, and children indiscriminately. 
The county trained bands were usually about 
600 in number, but on October 19th, 1642, those 
of London obtained permission to double their 
effective strength. The Committee for the De- 
fence of the Elingdom wer^ ordered by the 
Upper House to afford hapless Lord Stourton all 
necessary protection. Soldic. s who had been 
woundea or maimed in the service of the Par- 
liament used to attend daily at the Savoy Hos- 
pital to receive the aid of a physician and certain 
surgeons. These sufferers were allowed 8d. per 
diem till cured. 

On November 6th the Earl of Essex was 
ordered to draw out his army at once to check' 
the plundering of Rupert and his troopers. On 
the 24th of the month Prince Rupert was in bed 
suffering from an attack of measles, but squad- 
rons and parties of horse were sent every day 



Surrender of Farnham and Winchester. 



Aii 



into Hampshire, retarning to Reading and 
Oxford with hostages and prisoners. Sheep,oxen, 
horses, carts hiden with com, and plunder of 
every kind were to be met with in many a 
oonntry lane. Chichester was at this time very 
weak in defences, but early in November, 1642, 
the inhabitants presented a petition to Parlia- 
ment expressive of their willingness to fortify 
the city. Permission was at once granted, and 
the citizens were allowed to retain seven guns 
with which they had been furnished by Sir Wil- 
liam Lewis, the Governor of Portsmouth. Ten 
barrels of powder were also ordered to be issued 
from the magazine at Portsmouth for the do- 
fence of Chichester. £1000 had been collected 
for the payment of the Portsmouth garrison 
whilst Goring held command in the town. This 
sum was now handed over to Sir W. Lewis to 
be paid to his soldiers. A year's pay for the 
garrison amounted at this time to 5030/. 

On November 18th the Commission of Array, 
as attempted to be carried out in Sussex by Sir 
Edward Ford, the Royalist High Sheriff, was 
declared to be illegal, and he himself was to be 
arrested as speedily as possible. The Commis- 
sion of Array was declared to be illegal through- 
out Sussex, and Captain Ambrose Trayton was 
ordered by Parliament to raise and command 
200 men, volunteers or otherwise, for the 
defence of Lewes. One-fifth of the proposi- 
tion-money, plate, &c., collected in Lewes was 
to be applied to the protection of the town, 
and the security of the public faith was 
offered to all Sussex men willing to lend 
money or plate to the Parliament. 

On Wednesday, November 30th, Farnham 
Castle was taken by Colonel Brown and his 
Dragoons, in the manner already described in 
these pages. Eighty, or, according to another 
account, 120 prisoners taken on this occasion 
were sent to Windsor Castle, and from thence 
to London, in carts which were hired for their 
conveyance. Forty of them arrived in London 
on December 1st without having suffered the 
loss of any of their clothes. Distributed 
amongst various prisons, they were released 
next day, and every man of thorn had money 
given him. Very different treatment to that 
received by prisoners on both sides at later 
periods of the war I Winchester House, in 
St. Mary Overies, Southwark, was taken as 
a prison for Cavaliers on November 14th ; 
Lord Petrels house in Aldersgate-street, and 



the Bishop of London's house, near St. Paul's 
being similarly appropriated on January 5 th, 
1643. 

On December 17th, 1642, Winchester sur- 
rendered, as we have already seen. Contem- 
porary accounts give certain additional details. 
On the preceding 18th of November the Corpo- 
ration had voted money for " swords, bullets, and 
providing the Citie armes." Two Regiments of 
Foot which belonged to the King's Life Guard 
made a sortie from the city, and were nearly all 
captured, and Sir WilliamWaUer reports " we cut 
off two regiments, one of horse, another of dra- 
gooneers, 600 of which were gallant horse. We 
began our fight five miles wide of Winchester, 
toward Salisbury way, in pursuit whereof we 
took fifty commanders, besides Viscount Grandi- 
son, and killed divers, but the number we know 
not. The city joined against us, yet. pursuing 
them into it, wo took them all prisoners, and 
when they wore taken they gave us all the gold 
and silver they had, and the city compounded 
with us for 1000/." Comet Stcrly, who was 
present, writes that Winchostor offered 2000/. 
to be saved from pillage. One account says that 
Lord Grandison, 65 other oflficers and com- 
manders, 1000 foot, 600 horse, 200 dragoons, and 
600 arms fell into the hands of Sir William 
Waller. Lord Grandison had the rank of 
Lieut.-Goneral in the King's army. He was 
afterwards mortally wounded at Bristol on 
July 26th, 1643. Dying at Oxford on Sep- 
tember 29th, 1643, he was there buried beneath 
a stately monument in Christ Church Cathedral. 
One who took part in the assault says : — " The 
most part of our regiment assaulted the city at 
one side of it, where the wall was broken down. 
The greatest part of the opposition was from 
the townsmen, who have since sufl&ciently paid 
for it (for they have been the greatest opposorrf 
of us), having been plundered by our uniuly 
soldiers. We stood in arms all that night." 

The writer goes on to admit, with evident 
disgust, that the prisoners were despoiled, con- 
trary to the articles of capitulation, even of their 
clothes, *' four or five pulling at one cloak like 
hounds at the leg of a dead horse." Ci old was 
given to the soldiers by the hapless Cavalicis by 
the handful, and Cornet Sterly says that only 
the officers were retained, all the rest being 
stripped and sent awav. The writer of the 
above quoted letter speaks of " many other dis- 
orderly passages," and says that only his zeal 



46 



Southampton Declarbb for the Parliament. 



for the right cause prevented his quitting the 
army. Comet Sterly gives the best list of 
prisoners, whose names were, according to him, 
as follows : Colonel Lord Grandison, Sir Richard 
Willis, Sir John Smith, Major Haybome, 
Captains Garret, Honeywood, Barty, Booth, 
Brangling, Wren, Beckonhear; Lieutenants 
Williamson, Rogers, Elverton, Rodham, Booth, 
Cornets Bennet, Savage, Ruddry, Gwrnn, and 
Bradlines. The county gentlemen taken with 
the Cavaliers were : Sir John Mills, Sir Thomas 
Phillips and his brother. Sir Francis Powre ; 
Masters Ranford, Saunders, Griflin, Foyle, and 
his son, Powlet, and his son. Some of the 

?risoners taken at Winchester were confined at 
Portsmouth, whilst others were committed to 
the charge of Dr. Layton, the keeper of the 
Lambeth House Prison. On February 24th, 
1645, it was ordered that all standards which 
had been or should hereafter be taken by the 
forces of the Parliament should be committed 
to the care of W. Riley, Esq.« Lancaster Herald 
at Arms at the Herald's College. 

Winchester Castle, which played no unimpor- 
t-ant part in many a Hampshire contest, is said 
by Milner and others to have been about 850 
feet in length north and south, and 250 feet in 
breadth, east and west, becoming much narrower 
at its northern extremity, where a wall that 
followed the slope of the ditch united it to the 
West-gate. The keep was about 100 feet 
square, and connected by a wall with the 
southern defences of the city. It was flanked 
by four towers, one at each comer, and another 
tower above the entrance faced the north. The 
main gate of the castle faced the west, and 
stood near the centre of the west front of the 
more modem King's house. Directly opposite, 
on the other side of the ditch, was a strouff 
barbican or turret, in which a gVLtLrd was posted, 
and in front of which wasthe place of execution. 
Square towers at intervals looked down into 
the moat, which was of varying depth, but 



which near the keep must have been at least 
100 feet deep and as many wide. There was a 
good deal of anxiety felt at Southampton at thia 
time. Master G^ter sent a letter to a merdliant 
of good quality in Lombard-street, on Dec. 9tili« 
1642, from which we learn that Captain Richard 
Swanley, an active partisan of the Parliament, 
had summoned the Mayor and Corporation to 
decide as to their future course, teUing them 
that on December 3rd, 1642, he was in posaea- 
sion of Calshot Castle, and had disabled Nutlej 
(Netley) and St. Andrew's Castles, having also 
stopped the boats going with provisions to 
Southampton from the Isle of Wight and 
Hythe. Calshot Castle had a chief captain in 
receipt of Is. 8d. per diem, an under captain, 
four soldiers at 8a., one porter at 8d., and eight 
gunners at 6d. each per diem. The whole 
annual expenditure was 107/. 7s. 6d., whilst St. 
Andrew's Point fortress was maintained for 
85/. 3s. 4d. per annum. Southampton had been 
for the levying of shipmoney assessed at 1952., 
Winchester paying 190/., Portsmouth 60/., 
Basingstoke 60/., and Romsey 30/. The whole 
county was required to provide one ship of 600 
tons burden, with a crew of 260 men, at a cosi 
of 6000/. The Parliament had many friends in 
the town, and when Prynne and Burton landed 
at Southampton, on November 28th, 1640, after 
their release from their prison in the Channel 
Islands, they were esoortea in triumph through 
the town towards London. The Mayor and 
some of the richer burgesses were, however, 
inclined to favour the Royal cause, and when 
Captain Swanley's letter was read an animated 
discussion took place. The result, however, was 
that a deputation was sent to Portsmouth to 
declare that the town would henceforth submit 
to the authority of the Parliament. '' Tet 
every man underwrit it not ; it was thought 
that Swanley would have come up the river 
with his ships, and beat the town about our 
ears ! " 



Cbaptsb Vin. — ^BiYAL Pakties in Sussex — The Capture of Arundel and Chichester. 

— ^Desecration of Churches. — ^Hampshire Defences. 



We must now march with victorious Sir Wil- 
liam Waller for awhile over the pleasant Sussex 
Downs, taking with us as most trustv and 
withal right pleasant guides W. H. Blaauw, 
Esq., If .A., F.S.A., and G. Hillier, Esq., who have 
most successfully investigated the whole sub- 
ject Nor shall the Bev.H.D. Gordon be left out, 
who has also laboured in the same field. Through 
the exceeding kindness of J. Dudmey, Esq., 
Secretary of the Sussex Archieological Society, 
and Mr. St. Leger Blaauw, who have aided me 
greatly, we need not dread losing our way in 
any historic by-road. Sussex had shown its 
loyalty in 1640, when the clergy of the diocese 
contributed 9851. 16s., and the county sent 640 
foot and 80 horse to swell the ranks of the 
army which marched against the invading Scots. 
But on February 17tn, 1643, there was an 
ominous sounding petition sent up to the House 
of Commons praying for *' a thorough reforma- 
tion of religion " in the county. Arundel and 
Chichester took opposite sides. The former, 
together with Portsmouth and Winchester, was 
in safe Cavalier keeping, but Chichester was 
devoted to the Parliament, being considerably 
mider the influence of a great brewer, William 
Cawley by name, whose memory is still pre- 
served by *'Cawley'8Lane,"atBumbold8wyke, 
where he possessed certain broad lands. The son 
of an Alderman of Chichester, he sat in Parlia- 
ment, first for Midhurst, and afterwards for his 
native city, steadily opposing the King when- 
ever opportunity offered, and resisting all 
Boyalist overtures. He signed the King's 
death warrant, but represent^ Chichester in the 
Convention Parliament of 1660. Being ex- 
empted from ^rdon at the Bestoration, he died 
in exile in Switzerland, his estates being granted 
to the Duke of York. Lewes was represented 
in Parliament by Colonel Herbert Morley, who 
was a firm Puritan partisan, and possessed im- 



mense influence in the county. On November 
7th, 1642, the King published a general amnesty 
for Sussex, from which Colonel Morley and 
Henry Chittey were specially excepted. 

On August 28th, 1642, it will be remembered 
that a parley took place between the besiegers 
of Portsmouth and the beleaguered garrison, in 
which Mr. Christopher Lewknor took part. He 
was the Becorder of Chichester, and is styled 
" the man appointed by his Majesty to take in 
money and plate on his behalfe.'' After the 
surrender of Portsmouth, Goring was allowed 
six days, Lewknor and the other officers two, to 
leave Portsmouth. Goring finished his restless 
life as a Dominican monk in Spain in the year 
1 662. In August, 1 642, Chichester was reported 
to be " in a good state of defence, and resolved 
to maintain the Protestant religion, but some 
ill affected persons had plotted to betray the 
town, and some ministers had made seditious 
sermons, saying that the irreverent clergie had 
preached down the bishops, and the reverend 
tradesmen had preached down the clergie." 
When the King's scouts, ten in iiumber,appeared 
in Hyde Park on November 16th, and his army 
was at Brcntf ord,there was a general expectation 
on both sides that it would have turned towards 
Chichester, and the party in possession prepared 
for defence. An ordinance had been passed 
for associating the forces in the four counties 
of Hampshire, Surrey, Sussex, and Kent under 
Sir W. Waller as Major-General, and the 
Parliamentary journalist states that a popula.* 
dread of the cruelty of the King's army pre- 
vailed in Chichester. '* Such was tho fciiro ot 
the townsmen ; yea, and of the cathedral men 
too (having heard of their plundering at Brain- 
ford), that they put themselves in armes, and 
out of their subscribed monies mamtaineda 
considerable strength." Captain Ambrose 
Trayton was, on November 18th, authorised to 



48 



Capture of Abundel. 



call in 200 men, or more if necessary, for the 
defence of Lewes, and to command them. By 
an ordinance hastily passed on November 21 st, 
Mr. Morley and others were sent down to put 
Sussex " into the like posture of defence as is 
Kent, and to disarm all such as shall refuse to 
join with them in securing the county." In 
West Sussex the Royalists mustered strongly, 
whilst Colonel Morley was supreme in the 
Eastern Division. Several of Colonel Morley 's 
relatives, Sir Edward Ford, of Up Park, and 
many other gentlemen, were on the side of the 
King. It was remarked of Sussex, as of other 
counties in the south and oast of England, that 
though many of the chief gentry were for the 
King, yet the freeholders and yeomen being 
generally on the other side, as often as they 
attempted to show themselves they were 
crushed and their efforts defeated. Sir Edward 
Ford had been just made High Sheriff of 
Sassex, not three days old in his place, accord- 
ing to Vicars, and had offered the King a 
thousand men, and to undertake the conquest 
of Sussex, though GO miles in length. 

The Mayor of Chichester (Robert Eaton) had 
been too loyal to please the prevailing party 
in the city of Chichester, of which the Bishop 
and Christopher Lewknor (the Recorder), with 
many of the clergy, were Royalists, and after 
publishing the Royal Commission of Array had 
fled to join the King, though he afterwards, in 
September, made his peace by paying a fine of 
150/. His successor, William Bartholomew, 
had bsen active on November 2nd in procuring 
seven pieces of ordnance from Portsmouth, with 
license to introduce 200 men from the County 
Militia for the defence of the city against the 
Cavaliers, but nevertheless by a concerted move- 
ment the Royalists assembled in such numbers 
on November 22nd as to seize the cannon and 
the magazine, take the city keys away from the 
Mayor, and imprison some of the trained bands 
of the enemy. The news of this surprisal was 
sent up to Colonel Morley in Parliament next 
day. The two M.P.'s for Chichester (Sir W. 
Morley and Christopher Lewknor) were expelled 
the House. "An impeachment was ordered 
November 23rd against Sir William Morley, 
while Sir John Morley and Sir E. Ford were 
voted delinquents and ordered into custody." 

The report to Parliament was of course from 
a hostile pen. Parliament was then also in- 
formed that " the county of Sussex is in a great 



combustion, and that there is some thousands of 
the Papists and malignants in the county 
gathered together in Chichester, it being also 
reported that a great number of the Cavaliers 
are come in thither to assist the Array men in 
opposing the ordinances of Parliament." In 
structions were at once given to seize High 
Sheriff Ford, to exact money from Papists, and 
to take other precautions. 

After the surrender of Winchester in Decem- 
ber, 1642, Sir William Waller, in spite of 
rumours that Prince Rupert had led 20 troops of 
horse towards Chichester marched against 
Arundel Castle. A few days previously the 
forces of the Parliament had gained a consider- 
able success. On December 8th news reached 
London that the High Sheriff, Sir Edward 
Ford, when marching from Chichester to Lewes 
in company with the Earl of Thanet, had 
ordered all men capable of bearing arms to join 
him on pain of death, and of having their 
houses burnt to the ground. Some recruits 
were obtained by this summary order, but they 
were by no means zealous for the Royal cause. 
At Hayward's Heath, some two miles from 
Cuckfield, the Cavaliers were faced by a some- 
what less numerous force. Neither party had 
any artillery. The fight began by a fierce attack 
by the Parliamentarians, and lasted at least one 
hour. "The fight was performed with their 
muskets at first, and after some volleys our 
horse broke into their van, our footmen just at 
that instant charging courageously into their 
quarters." The Parliamentarian reserves now 
came up, and completed the rout, the Cavaliers 
losing, it is said, not less than 200 men. The 
countrymen who had been forced into Sheriff 
Ford's ranks threw down their arms and ran 
away as fast as their legs could carry them to 
Hurst, Ditchling, and the neighbouring \ .^ages, 
Sir Edward Ford and the Earl of Thanet's 
horse '* flying with all speed up to the not dis- 
tant downs, and so to Wissum (Wiston ?) to the 
Earl's house," and from thence to Chichester. 
The victors marched to secure Lewes. The 
troops which had taken part in the capture of 
Winchester marched from thence to Havant, 
many deserting on the i*oad, their pay being in 
arrears, and returning to London, intending 
there to re-enlist in other regiments. At 
Havant Sir William Waller and Colonel 
Ramsay joined them at the head of 2000 men. 
The prisoners taken at Winchester having been 



Captuke of Chichester. 



49 



Bafely disposed of at Portsmouth, and at Lam- 
beth House, London, the whole force was ready 
to march towards Chichester and Arundel on 
the morning of Monday, Dec. 17th, when a 
sudden order was received from the Earl of 
Essex, recaUing Colonels Hurrey, Goodwin, and 
Browne, with four regiments. These troops 
howeyer, seem to have remained a few days 
longer under Sir W. Waller's command. The 
march into Sussex was by no means unopposed. 
There are somewhat vague accounts of a fight 
*^ with a great party of the King's army in a 
great field for seven hours very courageously." 
At length Sergeaut-Major Skippon came up 
with eleven troops of horse, and the Cavaliers 
fled, many of them being captured, and some 
200 slain. The loss of the victorious army is 
said to have been about 40. Sir William Waller 
and Colonel Browne, his energetic second in 
command, then marched with the main body of 
their troops to Chichester, sending at the same 
time a detachment of 100 men to make them- 
selves masters of Arundel Castle, which had "^ a 
garrison, though not numerous or well provided, 
as being without apprehension of an enemy, ^' 
and which had been during the previous year 
abandoned in despair by its owner, Thomas 
Earl of Arundel, the friend and patrcn of the 
artist Hollar. Whilst the remainder kept the 
Boyalist townsmen in check, 36 daring spirits 
assaulted the castle, which, if well garrisoned, 
would have been impregnable. Their arrival 
was unexpected, but the gates of the castle 
were, nevertheless, closed. Thereupon *' they 
set a petard to the gate^ and blew it open, and 
80 most resolutely entered the castle, surprising 
all there, amongst whom they took one Sir 
Richard Lechf ord and his son, a great Papist, 
and one Captain Goulding, raising men and 
armes in Sussex to assist the malignants in 
Chichester, which said prisoners," being sent up 
to London, were speedily placed in durance vile. 
Another account styles these prisoners Sir 
Bichard Rochford and Mr. Rochford. The 
capture of 100 horse, together with aims and 
stores, rewarded the victors, who claimed to 
have captured this important stronghold with 
out the loss of a man. Weapons having been 
sent from London, the Trained Bands of 
Sussex, who had been disarmed by Sir Edward 
Ford, the Royalist High Sheriff, informed the 
Parliament that they were resolved '*to legain ' 
and fetch their arms from Chichester, or else to 



lose their lives in*the attempt thereof !" They 
were as good as their word. 

After the fall of Arundel Castle, the fate of 
Chichester was sealed. The newswriter of the 
day says of the Royalists: — ** These silly per- 
sons, being deluded with expectation of the 
Cavaliers to assist them, would gladly submit, 
if it might be accepted, with satisfaction out 
of their estates." Mr. Blaauw says, '* Although 
Clarendon speaks of the city as being encom- 
passed with a very good old wall easy to be 
fortified (B. vi.), yet soon after Waller and 
Sir W. Lewis had blockaded it, they informed 
the Parliament that they find it of no great 
strength to hold out long." Clarendon thinks 
it would not have yielded *'if the common 
people of the country, out of which soldiers 
were to rise, had been so well affected as was 
believed;" but he confesses that the cause was 
unpopular, and that in fact *' their number of 
common men was so small that the constant 
duty was performed by the office: s and gentle- 
men of quality, who were absolutely tired 
out." Colonel Browne (who is called by Sir 
Philip Warwick "a woodmonger," and "a 
man of a clear courage and good understand- 
ing, and very crafty," and who was after- 
wards knighted by Charles II. on account of 
his civil usage of his father when a prisoner, 
was during the siege withdrawn to resist a 
pressing danger at Windsor, leaving Waller 
only 1000 horse, 300 dragoons, and six guns; 
but Sir Arthur Haslerig was present, and was 
both now, and again in 1647 when invited by 
W. Cawley, "the especial scourge of the 
city." 

Vicars has, fortunately for posteiity,preserved 
in his Parliamentary Chronicle (pp. 234-240) 
Sir W. Waller's own account of the siege as given 
in a letter written to the Earl of Essex. From 
this letter it appears that Sir William was joined, 
on the evening before his arrival at Chichester, 
by three troops of horse and two companies of 
*^ Dragoneers" under the command of Colonel 
Morley and Sir Michael Levesey, making his 
troops amount to some 6000. On his arrival 
before the town xm December 21st, 1642, the 
garrison made a sortie, but were repulsed, one 
of their number being slain, and another taken 
prisoner. The besiegers suffered no loss, and 
secured their position " upon aDowne called the 
Broils, the onely commanding ground about the 
towne." The guns of the town were not silent, 



60 



Gaptube of Chichester. 



and the rest of the day was' spent in the con- 
stmction of siege batteries. With the approval 
of Sir Arthur Haslerig and other officers, Sir 
William Waller summoned the garrison to sur- 
render. A parley took place. Says Sir William, 
« The persons I sent were Major Horatio Carey 
and Captain Catre : the hostages from them 
were Colonel Lindsay and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Potter.'' Sir William Waller demanded an abso- 
lute surrender of the city, with the giving up of 
Sir fidward Ford, of all Papists and of lUl per- 
sons considered by Parliament as delinquents. 
The soldiers were to depart without arms ; but 
officers were to retain their swords and horses, 
giving a pledge never again to take up arms 
against the Paniament. 

After long debate, the garrison declined to 
accede to these terms, but offered to give up 
any Roman Catholics within the walls. "Where- 
upon the next day our battery played, but our 
cannoneers overshot the towne extremely." 
Cannonading continued, and towards evening 
tiie besiegers received a letter firom the 
Earl of Essex, announcing the approach of 
Prince Rupert. Scouts were immediately sent 
out, and on the following day Waller brought 
his guns nearer the town. The suburbs of 
the West Gate were occupied after a fierce 
struggle, but the burning with wild-fire of 
certain houses by the garrison obliged the 
besiegers to beat a retreat. The garrison also 
fired some houses at the East Gate, " but we 
got possession of the Almes Houses, within 
half e musket shot of the North Port, and then 
planted our ordnance very advantagiously, 
which played through the gate up into the 
Market Place of the City." Two companies of 
foot and two troops of horse which Lieut.-Col. 
Roberts had brought from Arundel took post 
after vigorous opposition at the South 
Gate. The suburbs of the East Ghite were also 
occupied by the besiegers, who kept up a brisk 
fire upon any of the defenders who showed 
themselves upon the walls. A whole culverin 
was now placed in position within pistol shot of 
the East Gate. The West Gate was also to be 
set on fire, and Sir William intended *' to po^^ard 
a back gate that issued out of the De:niery 
trough the town wall into the fields, and was 
walled up by a single brick thick." But whilst 
arrangements were being made for the attack a 
trumpet was sent out of the city at ten o'clock 
at night asking for a parley at nine o'clock the 



next morning. This request was granted, and 
at the appointed hour Sir William Balnidine 
and Captam Wolfe were sent from the garrison 
to treat for a surrender. A cessation of anna 
was agreed upon during the progress of the 
negotiations, but Sir William Waller declined 
to grant anv more favourable terms than 
" Quarter, and with it honourable usage." This 
being refused, *' not without hot indignation," 
the besieged prepared to sell their lives dearly, 
and Sir Wuliam "to proceed roundly and 
speedily with them." But at the last moment, 
before the assault, a trumpet was sent out of 
the city desiring a respite until seven o'clock on 
the following morning, at which hour a sur- 
render was agreed upon. In spite of the 
futile opposition of some of Lord Crawford's 
Scotch troopers, the city was delivered in 
the afternoon to Sir William Waller, 
" the gates being set open for ua 
and then set fast againe. Then the first thing 
we did was to release and fully set at Ubertie 
all the honest men of the towne whom they had 
imprisoned, who being thus enlarged, we im- 
ployed in places of trust in the city." In the 
evening a train of powder was discovered near 
Sir William Waller's quarters, but the gunner* 
on being apprehended, and all the Royalist 
leaders disclaimed all knowledge of the matter. 
During the eight days that the siege lasted no 
rain fell, which greatly facilitated the operations 
of the besiegers, but within half-an-hour after 
the victors had entered the gates there were 
"continual incessant showers." Yicars also 
records with exultation that the Furrender took 
place at the very time of the observance of a 
solemn fast. Sir William Waller at once sent 
up to London Sir Edward Ford, who was soon 
afterwards released, through the influence of 
his sister Sarah, who had married tne Parlia- 
mentarian General Ireton. Sir John Morley, 
Colonel Shelley, Christopher Lewknor, Colonel 
Lindsay, Lieutenant-Colonel Porter, Sergeant- 
Major (t.e.. Major) Dawson, and Major Gordon 
were amongst the prisoners, with some 60 other 
officers and commanders, who were for the most 
part Scotchmen, "with all their brave horses, 
which were dainty ones indeed." About 400 
"excellent dragoneers" and throe or four 
hundred infantry laid down their arms. Most 
of the humbler captives were sent up by sea 
and speedily imprisoned in London. 
Dr. King also (" a proud Prelate, as all the 



Desecration of Churches. 



51 



rest are, and a moBfe pragmaticall malignant 
against the Parliament, as all his cater-capt 
companions are") did not escape. Seventeen 
captains, thirteen lieutenants, and eight ensignB 
were f oond in the garrison. Mr. Blaanw sajs, 
^* The Parliament accompanied their thanks with 
a special charge to the commanders at 
Chichester ' to be carefnl of the prisoners ;* and 
they were hurried ofE to London, where they 
were confined in the deanery of St. Paul's, and 
in Lord Petre's house, in Aldersgate-street, 
until January 11th, 1643, when some were sent 
to Windsor Castle. Ensigns Richard and 
Thomas Shelley were in March removed from 
Lord Petre's to Plymouth for security. Lewknor 
was kept as a close prisoner, and none allowed 
to speak to him in private. The prisons often at 
this period overflowed, and Colonel Morley was 
one of a committee ' to dispose of the prisoners, 
either by sending them to the Indies or other- 
wise.* Some were kept in vessels at Gravesend, 
and Colonel Goring was kept in custody at the 
' Bed Lion' Inn, Holbom, even though Parlia- 
ment considered it not safe, and wished him to 
be removed to the Tower, but it was courteously 
resolved that * Lady Goring shall have liberty 
to see her son, Colonel Goring, a prisoner to the 
Parliament, in presence and hearing of his 
keeper.' He was released March 12th, 1644, by 
exchange with Lord Lothian.** 

Dr. Bruno Reeves, the Dean of Chichester, 
was fined 120/., and received no benefit from his 
deanery for many a long year. He has left an 
account of the damage done to the Cathedral, 
which was printed in ^'MercuriusRusticus.*' We 
may add that at the invitation of Mr. William 
Cawley a party was sent in the year 1647, under 
the command of Sir Arthur Haslerig, to finish 
the work of destruction, which it was alleged 
had been left incomplete, and they did finish it. 
Dr. Reeves says that on the day after the sur- 
render of the city the Marshal and some other 
ofScers entered the vestry, and took possession 
of the vestments and church plate, leaving " not 
*o much as a cushion for the pulpit, nor a 
chalice for the Blessed Sacrament. ... As 
ihey broke down the organs and dashed the 
pipes with their pole-axes they scoffingly said, 
* Hark, how the organs goe !* ** They broke tho 
tail and the Communion Table to pieces, together 
with the Ten Commandments, and tho pictures 
of Moses and Aaron. Prayer-books and music- 
books, torn to pieces, were everywhere to be 



seen, whilst gowns and surplices were appro- 
priated, with a view to their speedy conversion 
into shirts. The portraits of bishops and kings 
were destroved, and " one of those miscreants 
picked out the eyes of King Edward the Sixth's 
picture, saying * That all this mischief came 
from him when he established the Book of 
Common Prayer.* " 

On the following Tuesday there was a solemn 
thanksgiving in the Cathedral for Sir William 
Waller*s victory, and after the sermon "they 
ran up and down the church with their swords 
drawn, defacing the monuments of the dead, 
hacking and hewing the seats and stalls, scratch- 
ing and scraping the painted walls.** Sir 
William WaUer stood by with his sword drawn, 
as if in fear of his own men, whereat Dean 
Reeves makes merry. The Sub-Deanery Church 
in the north transept was then treated in a 
similar manner, the Bible being "marked in 
divers places with a black cole,** prayer-books 
torn up, the surplices appropriated, and the 
chalice broken in pieces as fair and lawful 
plunder. Five or six days afterwards Sir 
Arthur Haslerig, who had been informed " by a 
treacherous officer of the churdi of the hiding- 
place of the remaining church plate, entered 
the Chapter House at the head of a party duly 
provided with crow-bars and ordered them to 
break down the wainscot. Sir Arthur*8 tongue 
was not enough to express his joy, it was 
operative at his very heels, for, dancing and 
skipping (pray mark what musick that is to 
which it is lawful for a Puritan to dance^, he 
cryed out * There, boys, there, boys ; harK ! it 
rattles, it rattles, it rattles!' and being much 
importuned by some members of that church 
to leave the church but a cup for the administra- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament, answer was 
returned by a Scotchman standing by 'that 
they should take a wooden di^.' ** 

Mr. Blaauw says : " Before quitting Chichester 
it is fitting that antiquaries should especiaUy 
lament some of the accompaniments of this 
capture, such as the loss of the ancient city re- 
cords, and the destruction of the north-west 
tower of the Cathedral. After a few years* 
trial as a garrison town, part of the time under 
the famous Algernon Sydney, as governor, the 
Parliament fortunately resolved to disgarrison 
Chichester, March 2nd, 1646, and its ordnance 
was transferred to Arundel.** The bastion of 
the Korth Wall of Chichester between the two 



52 



Hampshire Defences. 



West Lanes was built at this time with the 
stones of the two churches of St. Pancras and 
St. Bartholomew, which stood without the walls 
Sir William Waller after the surrender re- 
quested permission to visit London, he himself 
being in bad health and his troops being worn 
but with fatigue. 

A curious extract from an old register throws 
some light on the route taken by Sir William 
Waller*s troopers on their way to Chichester 
from Winchester. Some few years since in a 
shop at Bishop's Waltham an old book was 
rescued from destruction, which upon exami- 
nation proved to be one of the registers 
of the neighbouring parish of Upham. 
It contains the following entry, for which, 
together with very much valuable infor- 
mation, I am indebted to F. Baigent, Esq., of 
Winchester : " Item, for cleansing ye church 
against Christmas (16i2), after ye troopers had 
abused it for a stable for their horses, 2s." 
This entry proves that local traditions of some 
of our Hampshire churches having been used 
as stables are not without foundation. The 
old register above-mentioned contains frequent 
entries of relief given to sick and wounded 
soldiers, and in the year 1647 certain soldiers 
were relieved " on their march home." A year 
or two afterwards the writer of the entry refer- 
ring to the troopers, altered the words " had used 
it for a stable" into " had ibused it for a stable." 
A slight alteration, but clearly indicative of the 
political creed of this rural keeper of the 
records. 

Churches in Winchester fared no better, for 
in 1660 we read *'the little church of St. 
Clement having be on much dilapidated while 
the soldiers occupied it as a guard-house, was 
used as a place to lay faggots in, yea, to keep 
hogs in, and wherein to receive oxen, horses, 
&c., at times of fairs." On January 1st, 1643, 
it was ordered by the Parliament that the Cava- 
liers taken at Chichester should be sent to 
Windsor Castle, and other prisoners outside the 
City of London. Lambeth House was already 
BO full of Royalist captives that Lord Pf-^re*8 
house in Alderagate-street was utilised as a p i' son 
on January 5th, 1643. 

On Wednesday, January 4th, 1643, it was 
ordered *' bells and expressions of joy this night 
to be done as is usual," and on Sunday, January 
8th, a solemn thanksgiving for the taking of 
uhichester was appointed in all churches within 



the City of London. On January 16th Colonel 
Herbert Morley received the thanks of the 
Speaker in his place in Parliament ^' for the 
great service he aid in the taking of Chichester/ ' 
Other members of the Paulet family, beside the 
Marquis of Winchester, had meanwhile been 
doing the King good service. On December 
10th, 1642, the Earl of Pembroke was, by a de- 
claration of both Houses of Parliament, ap- 
pointed Lieutenant of Wilts and Hants, ** as the 
Lord Paulet, Sir Ralph Hopton, and others, their 
accomplices, have gotten together great forces in 
the western parts of this kingdom." We already 
know that Lord Paulet was with Sir Ralph 
Hopton and the Marquis of Hertford at the out- 
break of the war, and after the surrender of 
Portsmouth by Goring retired with them into 
Glamorganshire. In Ireland also Sir John 
Paulet gained a great victory over thelrish rebels 
near Bandon Bridge, in the county of Cork, on 
November 23rd, 1642. After Alderman Gallop 
and another burgess had, as we have seen, signi- 
fied at Portsmouth the fidelity of the town of 
Southampton to the Parliament, Calshot Castle, 
which was considered a place of considerable 
strength, was duly supplied with shot. Windmill 
fortress, near Portsmouth, had a cantain 
who received Od. per diem, two soldiers at 6d., 
and eight mariners at 8d. per diem. The 
annual cost was 109/. 10s. Portsmouth had a 
captain with 13 gunners, the latter receiving 
6d.per diem. Annual cost, I (}( ) .'. * ^Sportsmaking," 
a bulwark, had three giinnois, whose daily pay 
was 6d. each. Calshot Point had a chief- 
captain at Is. 8d. per dioni, an under captain at 
8d., four soldiers at 8d., one porter at 8d., and 
eight gunners at 6d. each per diem. The annual 
cost was 107/. 7s. 6d. Hurst Castle had a captain 
at Is. 8d. per diem, an under captain at lOd., 
ten soldiers at 6d., a chief gunner at 8d., one 
porter at 8d., and six gunners at 6d. per diem. 
Total yearly cost, 264/. ISs. 4d. St. Andrew's 
Point fortress cost 85/. 3s. 4d. per annum. At 
Portsmouth town and isle there was a new fort- 
tress, with a captain whose pay was lOd. per 
diem. The daily pay of the 20 soldiers under 
his command amounted to 13s. 4d. Sandown 
Castle in the Isle of Wight had a captain at 
4s. per diem, an under captain at 28., 
thirteen soldiers at 6d. per diem, one porter at 
8d., a master gunner at 8d., and seven gunners 
at 6d. each. Annual cost, 363/. 6s. 8d. The 
Captain and Steward of the Isle of Wight 



Blowing up of Farnham Castle. 



53 



received 471. ?& 6d. per annum. The town of 
Lymington, which contained friends to both of 
the contending parties, sent its records about 
this time to Hurst Castle for safe custody. 

On December 27th the Earl of Portland, the 
imprisoned Bovalist Governor of the Isle of 
"Wight, was released from custody, and two 
days before the close of the year 1642 a terri- 
ble explosion announced the partial blowing up 
of some of the defences of Farnham Castle. We 



say partial, because in July, 1648, it was re- 
ferred to the Committee at Derby House ** to 
take such effectual course with Farnham Castle 
as to put it in that condition of indef ensible- 
ness as it may h6 no occasion for disturbing the 
peace of the country." A rate was accordingly 
levied to defray the expense of this service. 
Bishop Morley expenaed 7000/. after the 
Restoration in repairing the damage done at 
this period. 



Chapter IX.— FiGHTiNa at Alton. — Sir William Waller Plunders Winchester and 
Defaces Bomsey Abbey — ^Boad Waggons Seized near Basingstoke. 



On Tuesday, February 24th, 1643, it was an- 
nounced that the counties of Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, and Hampshire had entered into a 
mutual agreement to raise and maintain 3000 
foot and 300 horse for the service of the Parlia- 
ment. On hearing of this project the King, at 
Oxford, issued a proclamation, declaring all 
such levies illegal, and calling upon all soldiers 
already embodied to retire to their homes, under 
pain of being considered guilty of high treason. 

On Feb. 11th, 1643, it was ordered by the 
Parliament that two troops of horse and a regi- 
ment of dragoons should be raised for their ser- 
vice in and about Hampshire, the cost being 
defrayed out of the sequestered estates of 
Papists and delinquents. A committee was ap- 
pomted to manage this business, of which Sir 
Thomas Jervoise, Knight, was the President, 
and John Leslie, Esq., the Beceiver. Sir William 
Waller was also permitted to raise money for 
the maintenance of his army from the four 
associated counties of Hants, Surrey, Sussex, 
and Kent. 

On Sunday, Feb. 5th, "Mercurius Aulicus,'' the 
Court Gazette of the Cavaliers, hears at Oxford 
that there was much discontent amongst the 
soldiers of the Parliament at Portsmouth, 
whose pay was considerably overdue, and that 
numerous desertions had taken place in conse- 
quence. At the end of the month 1500/. was 
paid to Sir William Lewis, the Governor, for 
the supply of the garrison. Frequent entries 
occur dnrlng thistronblons period of large sums 
expended for the same purpose. 

On Monday, Feb. 27th, a petition from the 
Isle of Wight was presented to Parliament. It 
stated that the defences of the island were very 
weak, and that there was good cause for fearing 
a foreign invasion, and adced that all monies 



raised in the island for purposes of defence 
might be expended within its limits. A supply 
of heavy guns, muskets, match, powder, bullets, 
corslets, &c., was requested for immediate issue 
to the various forts and castles, together with a 
guard of ships. The petitioners were also 
anxious that the troops on the mainland of 
Hampshire might be warned to hasten to their 
assistance as soon as an alarm was given. The 
subscribers to the fund for the defence of the 
island seem to have been numerous, and on 
Monday, April 4th, 1643, a Committee was ap- 
pointed by Parliament to carry their wishes into 
effect, consisting of Sir Henry Worsley, Bart., 
Colonel Thomas Came, John Lisle and John 
Bulkley, Esqs., all Deputy-Lieutenants of the 
Isle of Wight. Hearing that Sir William 
Waller was anxious to march towards the West 
Prince Bupert, on Feb. 22nd, rode oat of 
Oxford at the head of a considerable force, and 
tried to intercept four guns and seven cartloads of 
ammunition, which were on their way to join 
the Parliamentary Army. Bupert and his 
troopers reached Basingstoke, and exchanged 
greetings with the stout old Marquis of Win- 
chester, but failed to secure their prize, WaUer 
having received intelligence of their arrival, 
and sent orders to the convoy to halt upon its 
march, whilst he himself retreated to Guildford. 
Detachments of his forces had already reached 
Winchester and Alton, and orders were at once 
despatched to recall them. The party from 
Winchester retired without molestation, but the 
Alton detachment was not so fortunate. It was 
200 strong, and was reconnoitring the roads in to 
Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, and reached 
Alton on February 22nd. Scarcely had the 
wearied troopers unsaddled, before 1500 of 
Bupert's wild riders beset the town. Thinking 



Fighting at Alton. 



55 



thai resifltaiice would be fueleas, they eried for 
quarter, which was Boomfaily refused, where - 
upon they prepared to sell weir lives dearly. 
Having a field-piece with them, they loaded it 
with mnsket bullets, and calmly awaited attack. 
The Cavaliers came boldly within range, the 
gan was fired, and when the smoke cleared 
away 80 of the assailants were seen to be either 
killed or wounded, and the rest retreating in 
confasion. Night was falling fast, bnt on came 
the attacking party once more. Again did that 
mnrderons field-piece scatter its dei^y hail, and 
again did 40 soldiers of the King fall hors de 
combat Darkness put an end to the strife, and 
the Cavaliers deferred their intended capture 
until the f oUowing morning, only to find at 
dawn that the gallant defenders of Alton had 
skilfully e8cape<^ and fallen back in good order 
on the main«body during the night. During 
the last week of February, 1643, Sir William 
Waller was still at Chichester with three or 
four hundred horse, some of his ten troops being 
but 10 or 15 strong. He was asking for and 
expecting reinforcements, as the Cavaliers were 
said to be meditating the re-capture of Win- 
chester and Chichester, and had nearly the whole 
of Wiltshire at their mercy. 

On February 28th he had reached Famham, 
but was said to have only 400 dragoons, all my 
Lord General Essex could spare, and ten troops 
of horse, *^ which being put together, will make 
three good ones," to oppose the Princes Maurice 
and Bupert, who were said to be at the head of 
5000 horse, and at least 2000 Welshmen. Poor 
Hampshire paid weekly 750/. for the service of 
the Parliament, and on Friday, March 3rd we 
have reports of much indiscriminate plundering 
of friends and foes by Prince Rupert's soldiers. 
The county had formerly refused to join the 
Association for Defence entered into by Kent, 
Surrey, and Sussex, fearing to incur the ven- 
geance of the King, whose army had taken post 
in and around Beading. The miseries in- 
separable from civil war at length turned the 
scale, and Hampshire became one of the Asso- 
ciated Counties. Prince Rupert was to a con- 
siderable extent successful in preventing Waller 
from obtaining horses upon which to mount his 
infantry, and would probably have given him a 
severe defeat had not his scouts, who were 
always active and well informed, given him 
timely warning of a threatened attack upon 
either Beading or Oxford. Reluctantly, there- 



fore, he fell back from Basingstoke and Ciren- 
cester, and re-entered Oxfora on March 28th. 
Acooiding to a letter from Henlejr-on-Thame& 
he had on April 7th taken up a position at Bead- 
ing. Prince Kupert having retired, Sir William 
Waller was now at liberty to make, in company 
with Sir Arthur Hasleri^, what Clarendon calls a 
quick march through Wilts. The same authority 
states that he had under his command a light 
party of horse and dragoons some 2000 in num- 
ber, belonging to the army of the Earl of 
Essex. " Mercurius Aulicus " says that he had 
500 foot, a regiment of horse, another of dra- 
goons, six field-pieces, and four cart-loads of 
muskets to be distributed amongst the recruits 
who might join his standard. His banner was 
a somewhat singular one. At the Battle of 
Agincourt one of his ancestors had been fortu- 
nate enough to capture the Duke of Orleans, 
who, after a residence in England of some 25 
years, paid 100,000 crowns of ransom money. 
In memory of this event the Waller family were 
granted as armorial bearings a leafy tree, from 
which was suspended a shield bearing the lilies 
of France. The motto was " Fmctus Vii-tutis" 
(the fruit of valoui*). His second in command. 
Colonel Brown, had upon his banner a skull and 
a wreath of laurel, with the motto "One of 
These!" and his constant associate, Sir A. 
Haslerig, had adopted the device of an anchor 
suspended from the clouds, and the motto " Only 
in Heaven !'* 

On March 3rd, 1G43, Sir William Waller 
marched into Winchester, " and being an inhabi- 
tant and a freeman of the city, he promised that 
no man should suffer any loss or damage by him, 
and he performed it for as much as it concerned 
himself, but when ho went away on Saturday 
(March 4th) he left behind Sergeant-Ma j or 
Carie, with a troop of horse, to levy 600/. 
upon the same. A most unreasonable sum to 
be imposed upon a town so lately and so 
miserably plundered. But say what they could 
in theii' own behalf, no less than 5007. would be 
accepted, and that accordingly was raised, viz.. 
350Z. out of the inhabitants of the city, 150/. 
on one Sir Henry Gierke, a neighbouring 
gentleman." Master Say, a son of a prebendary 
of the Cathedral, who probably fared none tho 
better on that account, had entrusted his horses 
for purposes of concealment to his servant. 
Having been betrayed by some of his neigh- 
bours, he was brought before Sir William 



5G 



Seizure of Boad Waggons. 



Waller, who questioned him as to the where- 
abouts of the steeds. Master Say pleaded 
ignorance, and was forthwith handed over to 
the Provost Manual, who received orders to 
make him confess. This official conducted him 
to the ^* George " Inn, which dates back to the 
days of the Fourth Edward, and led him into 
what is now known as *'the 18-stall stable." 
Placing a halter round his neck, the Marshal 
renewed his cross-examination. Obtaining no 
information, he hoisted him up to the rack, 
allowing ^™ to hang until he was almost 
strangled, and then gave him a little breathing 
space. This process was repeated several times, 
until the spectators of this barbarous scene 
quitted the stable in disgust. Finding torture 
ineffectual, the Marshal with many kicks and 
blows dismissed Master Say, who a few days 
afterwards was reported to be dangerously ill, a 
circumstance scarcely to be wondered at. 

On Saturday, March 4th, Sir William Waller 
aud his army marched to Romsev, t^here they 
ut one began to deface the Abbey Church, 
pulling up the seats and destroying the ors^an. 
^^ Which was no sooner done, but a zealous 
brother of the ministry, dwelling not far off, 
got into the pulpit, and for the space of two 
hours, in a furious zeal, applauded that religious 
act, encouraging them to go on as they had 
begun!'' The chronicler laments that this stately 
church, having escaped destruction at the time 
of the dissolution of the monasteries, had been 
reduced to ruin in these dissolute times. 

From Romsey Sir William Waller marched 
to Salisbury, being constantly joined by numer- 
ous recruits. He seized many horses in various 
places, and by an ingenious stratagem did con- 
siderable damage to the Royal cause. He sent 
out orders as if from Prince Rupert to all the 
neighbouring Cavaliers for a general muster at 
Salisbury. Some 3000 responded to the call, 
and were astonished, on March 10th, 1643, to 
find themselves unhorsed and disarmed by their 
wily opponent. They not unnaturally remon- 
strated, but without effect. Sir William politely 
requesting the loan of the steeds until the con- 
clusion of the war. During the year 1643 
horses were valued at 4Z. each, but they had 
previously been procurable for 30s. and 50s. 



Hay cost 6d. for a day and night, and the price 
of oats was 2s. per bushel. 

On leaving Salisbury Waller's army had in- 
creased to the number of 3000 men, and it was 
said that he had with him, strange to say, two 
troops of French and Dutch Papists under the 
command of Sergeant-Major (t.e.*. Major) Carie 
(or Carew) and Captain Carr. Some of these 
men afterwards came over to the King's army 
and said that when thev were brought over to 
England they fuUy understood that they were 
to fight for the Kin^, and not against him. 
After taking possession of Malmesbury and 
making the small Royalist garrison prisoners, 
Sir Wuliam Waller marched into Dorsetshire, 
putting to flight Sir John Strangeways and the 
Cavaliers of Dorset and Somerset. 

During the month of March, 1643, some of the 
Cavaliers from the garrison of Re^^ding marched 
to Basing House, and in the neighbourhood of 
Basingstoke (another account says near Woking- 
ham) succeeded in intercepting several waggons 
laden with cloth) belonging to certain clothiers 
of the western counties. The spoil was worth 
from 10,000;. to 12,000/., and the merchants 
went to Oxford and petitioned the Eong for 
redress. Their prayer was heard, and on March 
22nd the cloth-laden waggons reached London 
in safety. Certain bales, however, belonging to 
Mr. Aj^ and his brother, who were both mem- 
bers of the House of Commons, were confiscated. 
The merchants, who recovered their property, 
were obliged to take the new protestation of 
allegiance, and to pay their fees, as if they had 
been prisoners to Smith, the Provost Marshal 
of Oxford. This officer seems to have been 
terribly severe, and in fact most brutal in Iub 
treatment of the prisoners entrusted to his care. 
Frequent complamts were made to Parliament 
of his barbarities, and the House of Commons 
addressed a remonstrance to the King on the 
subject. My Lord General the Earl of Essex 
was by a resolution of the House of Commons 
passed on March 16, 1643, officially informed of 
these proceedings, and also that certain passers 
by Basing House had been fired upon from the 
windows. The day of trial for "Loyalty 
House" was now near at hand. 



Chafteb X. — ^Prince Maurice at Salisbury. — ^Fast Day at Southampton and Ports- 
mouth. — Colonel Norton Repulsed. — ^Basing House Becomes a Garrison. 



On Wednesday I April 19th, 1643) we catch a 
passing glimpse of the home-life of a famons 
divine. "Ordered that Mr. Dr. Fuller shall 
have a pass to carry his wife to Salisbury, and 
to return back again." 

On Saturday, April 15th, 1643, the Earl of 
£8sez sat down before Beading, which surren- 
dered twelve days afterwards. The terms of 
capitulation were not faithfully observed, which 
served as a pretext for excesses on both sides on 
various subsequent occasions. On April 2lBt 
''Dalbier, a German Engineer,'' was said in 
liondon to have been slain before Beading. 
Humour spoke falsely, and Colonel Dalbier lived 
io do much harm to Basing House, which the 
emboldened friends of the Parliament hoped 
would speedily share the fate of Beading. 

On Thursday, May 4th, the Hampshire 
Cavaliers were again raising their heads, but 
were once more doomed to disappointment. 
Two ships bound from Dunkirk to Ireland, and 
laden with ammunition for the King's forces, 
were driven into Portsmouth, and were at once 
seized by Sir William Lewis, the Governor. An 
ordinance of both Houses of Parliament passed 
on May 4th provided that the whole of the 
King's revenues from the county of Hampshire 
should be applied to the repair, maintenance, 
|»y, &c., of the garrisons and fortifications of 
Portsmouth, Hurst, Calshot, and Southsea 
Castle. 

On Wednesday, May 13th, a petition was read 
in Parliament which bore the signatures of 
most of the inhabitants of Portsmouth, asking 
for the appointment of Sir William Waller as 
Governor of the town, and declaring their 
<< readiness to serve them in the defence of that 
place with their last drop of blood." The Earl 
of Essex was thereupon recommended to appoint 
aller, but from "Morcurius Aulicus" of June 



28th we learn that Sir William Lewis having 
been superseded ^^ Master Wallop" was tempo- 
rarily appointed. Sir William Waller havmg 
mardied to the westward from Salisbury, Prince 
Maurice, the Earl of Carnarvon, and the Mar- 
quis of Hertford reached that pleasant cathedral 
city about nine o'clock on the morning of Whit 
Sunday, May 20th, with, it was said, 2000 men. 
Before the arrival of the Prince, Lord Seymour 
and some Cavaliers "took divers well affected 
persons prisoners, amongst which Mr. Dutton, 
the Mayor, was one." Sir William Waller, Sir 
Edward Hungerford, Sir John Homer, and 
other friends of the Parliament were preparing 
to offer opposition, "so that now this town, 
which, under the pretence of standing as neuters, 
it is thought hath afforded no small supply unto 
Oxford, is now like to speed no better than 
Marlborough and other places which have been 
utterly ruined by the Cavaliers." Before Prince 
Maurice and his army entered the citv procla- 
mation was made by the High Sheriff of the 
county " that none should be plundered without 
order, which it is confessed was indifferently 
kept, but we were forced to give them free 
quarter." On the following day the Prince, 
Marquis, and Earl of Carnarvon dined at Wilton, 
and there took two special horses, "and shot a 
gallant stallion of the Earl of Pembroke's, 
which they could not take, but the horse is like 
to recover." On their return to Salisbury an 
order was issued that all the citizens should give 
up their arms, on pain of having their houses 
searched. Many useful weapons having been 
thus obtained a collection was made in the city, 
to defray the cost of the Prince's table during 
the stay of the army. On Wednesday, May 
23rd, two g]ans and two barrels of powder were 
discovered by the Cavaliers not far from the 
Council House, and a party of horse brought in 



58 



Fast Day at Sodthampton and Pobtsmouth. 



fonr waggons laden with wool and oil from 
London, together with several pack horses. 
Another detachment found a gun and two or 
three drakes or field-pieces concealed at Wilton, 
which were likewise secured. Next day two 
loads of pikes and corslets arrived, which had 
been collected in the neighbourhood by dint of 
armed search. The following day was Friday, 
May 25th, and Prince Maurice and the Marquis 
of Hertford marched out over Hamham Hill to 
Dogdean, where a general muster of the county 
had been ordered to take place. All partisans 
of the King were at once enrolled as soldiers, 
whilst the friends of the Parliament were either 
disarmed, or, if unprovided with weapons, 
obliged to contribute various sums of money. 
Two loads of arms were brought back to Salis- 
bury in the evening. 

On Saturday, May 26th, the Prince's army, 
now increased to not less than 4000 horse and 
1000 foot, was drawn up in battle array at Dog- 
dean, from which place one detachment marched 
towards Warminster, whilst another was sent to 
plunder the Earl of Salisbury's house at Gran- 
borne. About six o'clock on the morning of 
Sunday, May 27th, the whole army marched 
away from Salisbury towards Dorchester, to the 
great joy even of their own friends in the city. 
The Mayor, who had all this time been kept m 
durance vile, was released when they departed, 
but Master Hunt, a Parliament man, and some 
others were taken away in safe custody. 

On June 6th the Prince, Marquis, and Lord 
Carnarvon were once more at Salisbury, intend- 
ing to join Sir Ralph Hopton on his march 
towards Oxford. A journalist of that day says: 
" They would willingly now give him 2000/. to 
be gone, who before gave him lOOOZ. to welcome 
him. The Canons and Prebends had before 
their first coming taken down their organs them- 
selves, and hid two hundred of their pipes, for 
fear of the Parliament's forces, hoping here- 
after to have them up, and play their old tunes, 
but now they may take them, and help their 
countrymen to play the new tune of * Fortune 
my Foe.' " Sir William Waller, who with Sir 
Edward Hungerford, Sir John Horner, and 
others was striving to keep both the Prince 
Maurice and Sir Ralph Hopton in check, was 
deficient in cavalry, but was early in June joined 
by Sir Arthur Haslerig and a welcome rein- 
forcement of 500 horse. Notwithstanding this 
accession of strength, Prince Maurice and the 



Marquis of Hertford were able to defeat 
Waller's army on Monday, June 12th, to which 
"Mercurius Aulicus" thus refers: " Friday, June 
9th. The rebels had solemn fast at Southamp- 
ton, Portsmouth, and Hursley, for the speeding 
of Sir William Waller's great design against His 
Majesty's forces in the west, where Master 
Strickland, that learned, devout Levite, was 
pleased to say in his prayer these very words, 
* Lord, Thy honour is now at stake, for now, 
Lord, Antichrist has drawn his sword against 
Thy Christ, and if our enemies prevail, Thou 
wilt lose thine honour !' But how God Almighty 
was pleased with this blasphemy and treason the 
issue of Waller's design hath manifested to the 
world 1" On Saturday, June 24th, it was 
ordered that two foot companies, 300 strong, 
should be raised for the protection of the Isle of 
Wight from amongst its own inhabitants. 

On July 7th we hear that Sir William Waller 
had sent a letter to Dorchester, asking that two 
troops of horse and one hundred dragoons 
should be sent to Colonel Norton, of Southwick 
Park, who was already in command of an equal 
number of men, and who was speedily joined 
by this welcome reinforcement. 

On July 15th, after the complete defeat of 
Waller by Sir Ralph Hopton and the Cavaliers 
of the west upon Roundway Down, near 
Devizes, the House of Commons strongly urged 
the City of London and all friends of the 
Parliament in the counties of Hants, Surrey, 
Sussex, and Kent to send money, men, horses, 
and ammunition te the aid of either Fairfax 
or Waller, upon the security of the public faith 
for repayment. Towards the end of July it 
was deemed necessary to raise 7000 men for the 
service of the Parliament. London and Middle- 
sex were to provide a contingent of 1500, and 
the four associated counties just mentioned 
were also to do their part, the Earl of Pembroke 
being appointed to the command of the cavalry 
raised in Hants, Surrey, Sussex, and Berks. Sir 
William Waller was to march to meet these 
new levies, who wore to muster in London, and 
at Windsor, Cambridge, and Bedford. 

On Wednesday, July 19th, 1643, "Mercurius 
Aulicus" tells us that the Parliament had 
ordered all possible aid to bo sent to Sir 
William Waller from Portsmouth and other 
places of Hampshire. "Colonel Norten of 
Southwick, the great incendiary of that country, 
being made a Colonel amongst the rebels, 



OoLONEL Norton Bepui^ied. 



59 



St. Barbe and others having the com- 
mand of some troops of horse," marched to 
Winchester, and plundered it for the third time 
of all arms and horses. From thence he pro- 
oeeded to Salisbnrr, where he arrived on Thurs- 
day, Jnly Idth, where he also seized all the 
horses and arms to be found, and plundered the 
houses of the Cathedral clergy, even taking 
away their servants' clothes, and confiscating 
about 80/., which belonged to an hospital of 
poor people, of which one of the prebends 
was governor. On his march from Salisbury to 
Devizes to join Sir William Waller, hearing of 
the defeat of the latter upon Boundway Down, 
he retreated to Wardour Castle, and from thence 
to Wilton. Preparing to attack Salisbury once 
more, he found the citizens, who had heard of 
the defeat of Waller,in arms to oppose him, and 
thinking discretion the better part of valour 
retumed{to Hampshire by a safer way, because, 
to him, the furthest way about was the next 
way home. Towards the end of July the 
Marquis of Winchester, who since the sur- 
render of Reading had seen his enemies in- 
creasing in numbers, and formiag strong 
garrisons in his neighbourhood, found that 
Colonel Norton was threatening a visit to Basing 
House, ^' as being a place in which he hoped to 
find much spoil and little opposition, for to say 
truth, he is a very valiant gentleman where he 
meets with no resistance." Clarendon, on the 
other hand, speaks of Norton as being a man of 
undoubted bravery. The Marquis made a 
journey to Court, and obtained permission to 
have one hundred musketeers of Colonel Raw- 
don's regiment sent under the command of 
Lieut. -Colonel Peake with speed and secrecy to 
Basing. He then returned home, nor did he 
reach Loyalty House a moment too soon. 
Scarcely had he arrived before " Colonel Norton, 
with Capt. St. Barbe, with his troop of horse, 
andCapt. Cole, with aragged rabble of Dragoons, 
begirt the house and pressed the siege exceeding 
hotly." Within the walls there were, besides 
servants, only *' six gentlemen, armed with six 
muskets, the whole remainder of a well furnished 
armoury." • They had already proved their 
prowess, for with them the Marquis had done 
BO weU that twice the enemies' attempts proved 
vain. 

But now surely, on this Slst of July, 1643, 
the odds are overwhelming, for see, two regi- 
ments of dragoons, under Colonels Harvey and 



Norton, have made their way through the park 
pidings, and are bent upon an attack in force. 
Another half -hour, and the hopeless struggle 
will be at an end. But hark to yonder musket 
shots, and listen intently. Surely that is 
^' Bupert's call" from cavalry trumpets, and see 
how the rebels are flying in all directions. Tes, 
aid is at hand. Lieutenant-Colonel Peake has 
come from Oxford by forced marches, and is 
now beating the foe from Basing village, clearing 
house after house. But the King, hearing of 
Norton's threatened attack, has, although he 
is about to march towards Bristol, and surely 
needs the help of every available man, sent 
Colonel Bard with some troops of horse to the 
relief of beleaguered Basing. The cavalry 
arrive just as the musketeers hkve cleared a way 
to " The Castle," as Basing House was often 
styled by the Cavaliers. iOeut.-Colonel Peake 
deservesf nil credit for his victory ,f or Harvey and 
Norton's two regiments of dragoons " ran quite 
away" from his musketeers. 'Basm^ being thus 
at uberty, Colonel Norton and his allies re- 
treated that night to Famham, and from thence 
to Portsmouth, "plaguing and plundering all 
the country as they passed along, for fear it 
should be thought that he had made so long a 
journey, and lain out so"long, to undo nobody." 
A letter was at once written by the Parliamen- 
tarian Committee at Portsmouth to the Lord 
General Essex, and read in the House of Lords 
on September 7th, asking for more troops for 
the protection of the town, as the Cavaliers 
had succeeded in surprising both Dorchester 
and Weymouth. Colonel Norton's repulse at 
Basing was doubtless another cause for alarm to 
the adherents of the Parliament in Portsmouth. 
Colonel Harvey, who aided Colonel Norton in 
this attack upon Basing, had formerly been a 
captain in one of the regiments of the London 
Trained Bands. He had been unfortunate in 
business, and is described as a " decayed silk- 
man." When the war broke out he was ap- 
pointed to the command of a troop of horse and 
of a regiment of dragoons. The women of 
London presented a petition for peace to the 
House of Commons, and, refusing to disperse, 
Colonel Harvey, with his troop of horse, was 
ordered to charge the unarmed crowd. The 
order was rigorously obeyed, and not a few 
women were killed or wounded. Col. Harvey's 
standard bore the device of a Bible with the 
motto " Lex Suprema" (the supreme law !) and 



60 



Basing House becomes a Garrison. 



below a city, with the motto *^ Salus Patriffi*' 
(the safety of onr fatherland). During the 
Commonwealth, Colonel Harvey was the tem- 
porary owner of Fnlham Palace and of yarions 
revenues belonging of right to the See of 
London. One who knew him says " He came off 
bluely in the end.** 

The standard of the Marquis of Winchester was 
like those of other contemporary commanders, 
square in f orm,bearing a scroll with pendent ends, 
on which was the motto '^Aimez Loyaute." 
The musketeers, who proved so timely a rein- 
forcement to the defenders of Basing House, 
belonged to the Begiment of Foot commanded 
by SirMarmaduke Bawdon, of whom, and of the 
other of&cers of the garrison we will speak more 
at length hereafter. Warburton says (** Memoirs 
of Prince Bupert,"p. 116): "Dunng the early 
part of the Civil War the pikemen held the post 
of honour. The pikemen, as well as the 
musqueteers, wore a leathern doublet, steel cap, 
dotii hose, and square-toed shoes, with a lar|^e 
rosette. The pikeman, when he could get it, 
wore a back and breastpiece of steel, with an 
iron hook on the former, whereon to hang his 
steel cap while marching. The musqueteer wore 
a * ban^lier ' or broad pelt with charges of 
powder hung by little cords. The bullets were 
carried in a little bag or in the mouth for im- 
mediate use, over the left shoulder; a sword belt 
over the right ; his match-lock rest was some- 
times attached to his left wrist, while not in 
use, and sometimes he had a boy allowed him to 
carry this cumbrous piece of artillery for him. 
There were locks to the pistols and petronels 
(the latter so called ' because it hangeth on the 



breast of the Cavalry, but none, I think, to 
the Inrantry musket. The f onner were wound 
up like a watch by an instrument oBiUed a 
spanner, and when let off by the trigger the 
mnt was brought against a rough surface 
that gave the spark by friction. These 
were called * snaphaunoes.' The charges of 
powder suspended from the bandolier being often 
12 in number, were often styled * the twelve 
Apostles.' The pay was 8d. a day for the 
Iniantry and 16d. for the Cavalry." Suoli were 
the men who manned the walls and towers of 
Basing House. 

After the repulse of Harvey and Norton, 
Basing House *'is then beffunne, according to 
the quantity of men now added, to be fortified." 
Cav^esB evidently knew how to use pickaxe 
and spade, as well as musket and pike. The 
whole area of the fortifications was 14^ acres, 
and many a now grass covered rampart is still 
in existence. Whilst batteries were in course 
of construction at Basing, certain ships adced 
and obtained convoy from the Earl of War- 
wick, who was in command for the Parliament 
at Portsmouth. He thereupon ordered Captain 
William Thomas, who commanded the Eighth 
Whelp, to escort these vessels from Southamp- 
ton, Torbay, and Lynn to the coast of France, 
the Charity, frigate, being also in company. Off 
Brest the men-of-war were attacked by one of 
the ships which had gone over to the King's 
party. The result of the fight was the spend- 
ing of prize money at Portsmouth by Parlia- 
ment men-of-war's men. The story is a stir- 
ring one, but comes not within our province. 



1 rr g - ^ T""' 



MKbHMMMHaafl 



Chapter XI. — Alarm at Southampton — Cavaliers Fined and Imprisoned — Colonel 
PowLET Slain near Winchester — Southampton and the Isle of Wight Fortified. 

—Winchester Re-occupied by the Cavaliers. 



Captain Swanley having persuaded Sonth- 
ampion, not without dread of possible bom- 
barament, to declare for the Parliament, the 
opponents of the Royal cause took care to 
make their power felt, not however without 
gome opposition from their fellow townsmen, 
and occasional fears for their own safety. 

On Saturday, August 5th, 1643, '* Mercurius 
Anlicus," at Oxford, had received letters from 
Winchester to the effect that ** Legay, Wolfroy, 
Mercer, and the rest of the pack of the town 
of Southampton have sent their goods into the 
Island, and upon the least noise of the Royal 
army's approach will fly themselves likewise." 
Mnrford, the Parliamentarian Governor, had 
serious thoughts of sailing for New England, 
and had lately exchanged 500/. worth of silver 
for gold, he ** being not worth 5/. when he came 
thither." Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, the 
brother of Lord Say and Sele, who had been 
educated at Winchester College, and had been 
admitted to a fellowship at New College, Oxford, 
in quality of founder's kin, had surrendered 
Bristol to Prince Rupert on July 26th, and on 
the last day of the same month reached South- 
ampton, at the head of 80 horse, each of whom 
had a woman riding behind him. This arrange- 
ment may have been, and probably was, pro- 
ductive of mutual satisfaction, but would sorely 
wound the sensitive feelings of an adjutant in 
this prosaic nineteenth century. Governor 
Mniford at once took measures to secure the 
election of Colonel Fiennes as a burgess of 
Southampton, *' and his (Murford's) chaplain, 
in his sermon the day before, like a desperate 
wretch, charged the King with dissembling pro- 
testations. Murford, fike a brave viUam," 
threatened to imprison a townsman for afi&rming 
that " the Queen's Majesty was joyfully enter- 



tained at Oxford, for (said Murford) it will 
discourage the well affected to hear that the 
Queen is beloved in any place." The poor 
townsman would most assuredly have been placed 
in durance vile had not the wife of the Governor, 
who is described as "the hired Governess," 
been induced, by a seasonable gift, to mollify 
the wrath of her lord and master. A youth, 
who relieved a half-starved Cavalier prisoner, 
had a narrow escape from imprisonment, for, in 
the opinion of Governor Murford, **if such 
were not relieved, there would be fewer malig- 
nantsalivel" 

Before supper one evening he assembled some 
30 young apprentices, whom he ordered to take 
the Solemn League and Covenant. On their re- 
fusal he threatened them with imprisonment, 
saying that "their refusal disparaged his 
Government," and the same night three women 
were arrested, merely for saying that "they 
thought the King was too wise to be led by 
ill counsel." 

On the following day Colonel Whitehead and 
Mr. Fielder, two of the authorities of Ports- 
mouth, came to Southampton, and at once sent 
orders to various Cavaliers to pay them largo 
sums of money. Sir John Mills was ordered to 
contribute 500^., whilst Master Thomas Mills 
was assessed at 200^ Mistress Clerk was to pay 
200^., Alderman Raymond 1002., and others in 
proportion. Those who demurred were im- 
prisoned, plundered, or carried away to Ports- 
mouth, Colonel Whitehead plavf ully remarking 
that " he had been at a great charge to build a 
cage at Portsmouth, where many Hampton 
bi^ diould sing very suddenly !" 

About Augui^ 12th Colonel Powlet, who 
seems to have been a relative of the Marquis of 
Winchester, attacked Winchester with a party 



62 



Cayaliebs Imprisoned. 



of horse, who probably belonged to the garrifion 
of Basing House. He was at first snccessfnl, 
and levied contributions from most of the 
friends of the Parliament within the city. He 
at length retreated, carrying with him some 40 
prisoners, but at a distance of some two or three 
miles Arom Winchester was attacked by a party 
of dragoons from Southampton. In the 
skirmish that followed Colonel I^owlet and two 
of his men were killed, 60 others were made 
prisoners, and the captive citizens of Winchester 
released. "Mercunus Aulicos" loved not the 
Governor of Southampton, and learns on Satur- 
day, August 12th, that ^'Mudford, alias Mnr- 
ford, that infamous Brownisticall Governor of 
Southampton,*' had that week shipped off " Mr. 
Jones, a learned ingenuous gentleman,'* with 
certain others, to New England, " making him 
pass his own door, without allowing him speech 
of his wife, or necessaries from his 
friends.** Another version of this story is that 
Mr. Jones, being suspected of having written a 

Skmphlet in answer to certain observations on 
is Majesty's Declaration, was kept for a long 
time in custody at Portsmouth, on an allowance 
of a penny farthing per diem for bread and 
water, but at length, in company with the 
Town Marshal, escaped to Oxford. Colonel 
Wliitehead is reported to have said that "Cruelty 
to Cavaliers was acceptable work to God,** and 
that he need not fear even if the King should 
prevail, for that he had secured his lands, had 
sufficient to maintain him, and had taken care 
to have a friend at Court, who had undertaken 
to save his life. 

The good people of Southampton were 
strongly urged by Governor Murford's chap- 
lain to take the Solemn League and Covenant. 
Here is a quotation from his prayer : "Bless the 
King, O Lord ; mollify his hard heart, which 
delighteth in blood ; open his eyes, that he may 
see that the blood of Thv servants is dear in 
Thy sight. He is fallen from faith in Thee, 
and become an enemy to Thy Church. Is it not 
he that hath sinned and done evil indeed ? But 
as for these sheep, what have they done ? Let 
Thine hand, we pray Thee, Lord, be on him 
and on his father's house, but not on Thy people 
that they should be plagued." Colonel St. 
Barbe, after taking the Covenant, said aloud, 
before muiy witnesses, that " he had rather see 
the kingdom in a flame than that the King 
should prevail against the cause they have 



undertaken." Governor Murford sent Thorn- 
borough, Biggs, and certain other apprentices 
to a most noisome dungeon at Portsmouth, and 
"the Mayor, a very ancient man,*' was im- 

Erisoned for eleven weeks. Colonel Whitehead 
ad ordered him to give up the keys of the 
town to him for the service of the Parliament, 
the good old Mayor answering him, being a 
Jerseyman, "Me no hang for you Master 
Whitehead, you hang for yourself." When he 
was at lenffth released Muif ord, to please Colon^ 
Whitehead, gave orders to the soldiers on guard 
to prevent the Mayor by force from going out 
through any of the gates of the town. 

" Mercunus Aulicus " remarks : "Aug. 29th a 
seditious Levite at Portsmouth, one Tooker, 
Master Whitehead's own Chaplain, in a fast 
sermon prayed God ^ to open the eyes of five 
Lords who lately deserted Him and His cause, 
and were gone to the King.* And *tis some- 
what strange those Lords should have their eves 
shut, and yet should find the way from London 
to Oxford. Whitehead last week starved two 
prisoners to death at Portsmouth, refusing their 
bodies the service or attendance of friends at 
their funeral.'* 

On Tuesday, Sept. 5th "Mercurius Aulicus," 
whose statements can, however, be digested only 
with the aid of a whole peck, if, indeed, a bushel 
be not preferable, of salt, is informed from Win- 
chester that all ministers in the neighbourhood 
of Southampton have been replaced by Murford 
with men of his own party. Bobinson, hisown 
chaplain, prayed thus the last fast day : " O 
Goa, many are the hands lifted up against us, 
but there is one God ; it is Thou, Thyself, O 
Father, which doest us more mischief than they 
all.** Mistress Murford, " the other day a poor 
seamstress," is said to be " most devout." Two 
of Captain St. Barbe's troopers attempted to rob 
a poor labourer near Milbrook, who, however, 
although he had no other arms than " a prong 
and a good heart," unhorsed them both, fully 
armed as they Wjere, beat them weU, and brought 
them and their horses into Southampton. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 20th, both Houses of 
Parliament were informed that Hampshire, 
Portsmouth, Southampton, the Isle of Wight, 
and the western parts are in great danger, and 
may be possessed bv the enemy speedily if 
some course be not talen. Sir William Waller 
was ordered to march thither at once, leaving 
some of his troops to follow, and on Monday, 



Winchester Be-occupied. 



68 



October 2nd, Sergeant-Major Stmce or some 
other Engineer was to proceed at once to the 
Isle of Wight, and to fortify in the manner that 
the Deputy Lieutenants of the Island shall 
think b^t. Eleven culverins or 18 pounders, 
and 20 Sakers or five pounders,had already been 
provided for these new defences, and the 
necessary timber was ordered to be cut in the 
New Forest, and transported to the Isle of 
Wight. At the end of September Governor 
Murford was actively engaged in fortifying 
Southampton. He threatened to hang the 
tythingman of Stoneham for negligence in 
execution of the warrants sent out for the 
raising of men and levying of money in the 
neighbourhood, and his sub-committee voted 
that the King's proclamation forbidding the 
payment of rents to those in arms against him 
should be burnt by the common hangman. 
"The good old Mayor," however, possessed 
sufficient influence to prevent this plan being 
carried out. The Earl of Southampton's house 
was also seized, and made to do duty as a gaol. 
On Saturday, November 4th, the Association of 
Hants, Sussex, Kent, Surrey, and the town and 
county of Southampton was officially announced, 
and Thomas Mason, Mayor of Southampton, 
was one of the Parliamentarian Committee for 
Hampshire. 

On November 22nd the Parliament was of 
opinion that Southampton stood in need of 
farther protection, and that it would be well to 
raise an additional local force for that purpose. 
The cost of so doing was to be defrayed from 
certain new excise duties, and by the sequestra- 
tion of the estates of Papists, Cavaliers, and 
delinquents. The following Committee was 
therefore appointed : — Richard Norton, Esq., 
Thomas Mason, Mayor of Southampton, 



Richard Major, Esq., and Aldermen Edward 
Hooper, George Gallop, Edward Exton, Robert 
Wroth, and Henry Bracebridge, Esqs. All 
things considered, the year 1643 must have 
witnessed some stirring scenes in Southampton. 
The Fleming family, who were relatives' of 
Oliver Cromwell, and had settled at Stoneham 
in the days of Good Queen Bess, were staunch 
adherents of the Parliament. 

Dr. Milner is of opinion that there was no 
garrison in either the city or castle of Win- 
chester during the cari^ part of the vear 1643. 
But in a history of Winchester, published in 
1773, we are told that Sir William Waller left 
Lord Grandison and some of his troops under a 
small guard confined to the Castle. Soon after 
Waller's departure. Lord Grandison, with a few 
of his friends, found means to escape, and 
joining the Royal army at Oxford, prevailed 
with Lord (then Sir William) Ogle, at the head 
of his troops to attempt the retaking of the 
Castle, and setting the prisoners at liberty. 
This enterprise was so effectually performed by 
his Lordship that in three days he found him- 
self not only in actual possession of the castle, 
but also of all the arms, ammunition, and effects 
of the enemy. Dr. Milner says that the King's 
secure hold upon the western counties at the 
close of the year 1643 was a great incentive to 
Hampshire and Sussex Cavaliers to exert them- 
selves, and that Sir Richard Tichbome, its 
owner, was mainly instrumental in gaining 
possession of Winchester Castle. But what- 
ever was the date of the Cavalier re-occupation 
of Winchester, it is certain that Basing House 
maintained throughout the year an attitude of 
firm and uncompromising resistance. Let us 
return thither. 



Chapter XII. — The Governor of Basing House and Other Officers of the 

Garrison. 



Andover was in safe Royalist keeping, as 
was also Donnington Castle, near Newbnxy. 
These garrisons rendered communication easy 
between Kent, Surrey, and Sussex on the one 
side, and on the other Abingdon, Wallingf ord, 
Oxford, and the west. 

"This House hath not onely been a great 
annoyance to all the country round about, but 
hath been a meanes to stop the trading out of the 
west to London by robbing and pillaging the 
carriers and clothiers that come from them, it 
standing near unto the direct road." So speak 
my Loi^ Denbigh and Sir Thomas Middleton. 
The Marquis was also able to enforce the pay- 
ment of the 180/. demanded weekly hy the 
King from each neighbouring hundred of Hants, 
Berks, and Wilts. A number of women and 
children had found refuge at Basing House, 
" wee not having lease then seavenscore uselesse 
mouthes," and many Boyalists had stored their 
valuables within its walls. Sir William Waller 
had hitherto been far too busy to be able to 
think much of either the Marquis or his doings. 
But having at length returned from his cam- 
paign in the western counties, where he had 
most assuredly lost all claim to be styled 
"William the Conqueror" for the future, he 
was at liberty to turn his attention to " Loyalty 
House." The "pure and spotless" Lord Gran- 
dison, who had formerly done his best to protect 
the Hampshire fortress, had lately died of 
wounds received at the taking of Bristol, which 
surrendered to Prince Bupert on July 26th, 1643. 

The garrison of Basing were not taken un- 
awares. "Upon report of a puissant army 
under command of Sir WiUiiun Waller, to l>e 
appointedf or the taking of it in,ColonellBawdon 
(or Boydon) with the rest of his Begiment 
(being about one hundred and fifty more) is 
<:oinmanded thither. The Lord Marquisse taking 



forth commissions, as Colonelland Governor, for 
the raising of more forces for the defence of the 
same." Lieutenant-Colonel Peake was also ap- 
pointed Lieutenant-Governor. 

The town of Basingstoke favoured the cause 
of the Parliament, and on Friday, May 19th, 
1643, it was ordered that whenever a fast was 
appointed for Wednesday, Basingstoke market 
should be held on Tuesdav. In one of the 
' volumes published by the Camden Society we 
find many interestixig particulars concerning 
Colonel Bawdon, the Governor of Basing House. 
He was descended from the ancient family of 
that name near Leeds, in Yorkshire, and at the 
age of 16 was taken to London by his elder 
brother Lawrence, who placed him in business 
there, and laid the foundation of lus fortunes. 
Mindful of his kindness, when in after years his 
younger brother died at Leeds he requested that 
his nephew and namesake Marmaduke Bawdon, 
then a boy of 'sixteen,might be committed to his 
parental care. 

" When the yoimger Marmaduke became a 
member of his uncle's household the London 
merchant was in the prime of life, and at the 
height of prosperity. He had married a wealthy 
heiress, and was the father of a numerous 
family. He enjoyed the. reputation of being 
one of the most enterprising and successful of 
the English mei'cantile adventurers of his day. 
His transactions extended to almost every part 
of the known world. He traded largely in the 
wines both of France and the Penins^ through 
agencies or factories established at Bordeaux 
and Oporto. From the merchants of HoUand 
and the Netherlands he purchased the produce 
of the vintages which flourished on the banks 
of the Bhine and its tributaries. To encourage 
the introduction into this country of tho wine 
recently produced in the Canary Islands, he 



Sir Mabmaduke Bawdon. 



65 



joined in forming an important factory at 
Teneriffe. He was among the earliest of the 
adventnrers who invested capital in the coltiva- 
tion of the sugar plantations of Barbadoes. 
This island was first settled under the authority 
of letters patent granted by James I. A sub- 
sequent grant was made by Charles I/' (See 
^^erney raper8,"ed. Camden Soc, p. 193, note.*) 
We learn from the " Calendar of State Papers, ' 
1628-29, that Mr. M. Bawdon was either sole or 
part owner of the following ships in the years 
1626 and 1627 :— "1626, Sept. 15.— Owners, M. 
Boydon, Bowland Wilson and others. — Trans- 
jport, of London, tonn, 200. Capt. H. West. 
1627, Jan. 30. — Owner, M. Boydon. — Patience, 
of London, tonn, 300, George, tonn, 80, Capt. 
Christopher Mitchell. 1627, Feb. 21st.— 
Owners, M. Boydon and others. — Vintage, of 
liondon, tonn, 140, Capt. B. West." 

** It is said that he was one of the first who 
rigged out a ship for the discovery of the N.W. 
Passage. He was a member of the Company of 
Turkey Merchants, and he possessed the con- 
fidence of the French merchants who traded 
with England, and acted as their friendly advo- 
cate when negociations with our Government to 
them were before the council-table. We are not 
surprised to be told that he was much esteemed 
by the Boyal favourite Buckingham, and that 
he received marked attention from both the 
great Duke's masters. King James I. and King 
Charles L That Mr. Bawdon was upon terms 
of friendly and famOiar intercourse with the 
latter monarch is apparent from a letter 
addressed by him to the Secretary of State, Sir 
John Coke, which happens to be preserved 
among the State papers of the year 1627: — 
'Bight Honorabr, — ^After his majestic had 
read l^at p't of the Spanish letter that is hear 
truislated, his majestic saide it was of great 
importance, and commanded me and Cap. 
Marsh to deliver both the oregenall with the p't 
translaited, and this letter from the fathers at 
Borne, unto your honneur, till his further 
pleasure was known. Thes letters I had wth. a 
number of others in a shipp which we tooke at 
sea with sugars newly comed from Brasill, and 
finding it of consequence I thought it my 
dewty to present it to his majestic ; thus 
humbly kissing your honeurs hands I wish all 
health and g<K>a fortunes may attend you, — 
Your honeurs servantte to dispose,MARMADUKE 
Bawdon. Tottnam, this 7th Septembers, 



1627.*— Addressed— < To the Bight Honorable 
Sir John Coke, Knight, one of his majesties 
secretaries att Tottnam, thes.' — ^We gather from 
this letter that Mr. Bawdon and the Captain of 
one of his merchant ships had called at the 
palace and been admitted to an interview with 
the King. A Spanish vessel freighted with 
sugars from Brazil had been captured by the 
Englishman, and her papers seized. Among 
them were letters which the merchant thought 
of sufficient importance to be presented to the 
notice of his Sovereign. The King was of the 
same opinion,and in the usual manner commanded 
them to be laid before his Secretary of State. 
In the year 1628 Mr. Bawdon sat in the House 
of Commons as one of the representatives of 
the commercial and shipbuilding town of Ald- 
borougb, in the county of Suffolk, but it does 
not appear that he was returned to any subse- 
quent Parliament. At an early period of his 
career he was made a member of the Municipal 
Corporation of the City of London, but upon 
being afterwards elected an Alderman he re- 
fused to accept the office." He was, under 
Major-General Skippon, Lieut.-Colonel of the 
Ist Begiment of the London Trained Bands, 
the regimental ancestors of " The Buffs." The 
standard of this regiment is thus described : 
"Gules. The Distinction Argent being Piles 
Wavey." As soon, however, as Lieut.-Colonel 
Bawdon perceived that " the citizens were in- 
clined to the Parliament" he resigned his com- 
mission, and in 1643 joined the King at Oxford. 
He soon raised a regiment at his own cost, of 
which he took command. Having been ordered 
to Basing House, he there played a gallant part, 
winning for himself the well-earned honour of 
knighthood. His banner, square in form, bore 
the device of a spotted animal with a long 
bushy tail and an elongated snout, and the 
motto *' Mallem mori quam tardari" (I'll rather 
die than stop my course). 

Lord Capel, a relative of the Marquis of 
Winchester, who had large estates in Hamp- 
shire, had the device of a crown and sceptre, 
with the motto " Perfectissima gubernatio" 
(Monarchy the best of Governments). 

A hostile writer says, " Colonel Hoyden, a 
decaved merchant of London, who lived at 
Clerkenwell, and went to Basing to recruit being 
the Governor of that Garrison." Small wonder 
was it if he were " decayed," for the Parliament 
loved him not. On Friday, May 9th, 1643, we 



66 



Officeeb of Basing House. 



hear of ** a ship of rich trafique belonging to 
Captain Royden " being taken by the Earl of 
Warwick, and on Thursday, September 14th, 
we know that his goods and those of others 
taken in certain ships from the East Indies 
were '^ to be sold by the candle," and that the 
first 4000/. of the proceeds were to be devoted 
to the maintenance of Waller's army, which 
was then meditating an attack upon Basing 
House. Lieutenant-Colonel Peake, the Lieut. 
Governor of "Loyalty House'* was " sometime 
picture seller at Holborn Bridge," according to 
Symonds, and " a seller of picture babies" said 
his opponents. His name is affixed to numerous 
prints and engravings, which are now rare. He 
was a man of venerable appearance in his later 
years, with a long white beard, like a ball of 
cotton, as his portrait, in the possession of Mr. 
Sapp, of Basingstoke, gives proof. 

Under his orders was another artist, William 
Fairthome, his former pupil, who had worked 
with him for some three or four years previous 
to the breaking out of the Civil War. In the 
garrison was also the celebrated ^* Wenceslaus 
Hollar," who belonged to an ancient Bohemian 
family, and was bom at Prague in 1607. His 
parents destined him for the profession of the 
law, but his family being ruined and driven into 
exile by the capture of Prague, he was compelled 
to support himself by a taste and ability which he 
had very early exhibited, by the use of the pen 
and pencil. In 1636 Thomas, Earl of Arundel, 
an accoinplished connoisseur, when passing 
through Frankfort, on his way to Vienna, as 
Ambassador to the Emperor Frederick II., met 
Hollar, and was so pleased with the unassuming 
manner and talent of the young engraver that 
he attached him to the suite of the embassy. 
On his return to England the Earl introduced 
Hollar to Charles I., and procured him the ap- 
pointment of drawing master to the young 
Prince, subsequently Charles II. For a short 
period all went well with Hollar, for he now 
enjoyed the one fitful gleam of sunshine which 
illumined his toil-worn life. He resided in 
apartments at Arundel House, and was con- 
stantly employed by his noble patron in en- 
graving those treasures of ancient art still 
Known as the Arundelian marbles. But soon 
the great Civil War broke forth ; Lord Arundel 
was compelled to seek a refuge on the Con- 
tinent, whilst Hollar, with two other artists, 



Peake and Fairthome, accepted commissions in 
the King's service. 

Of Lieut.-Colonel Johnson Dr. Chalmers gives 
the following account (abridged) : — " Thomas 
Johnson, an English botanist of the 17th cen- 
tury, was bom at Selby in Yorkshire, and bred 
an apothecary in London. He afterwards kept 
a shop on Snow Hill, where, says Wood, by his 
unwearied pains and good natural parts he 
attained to be the best herbalist in England. 
He was first known to the public by some 
botanical works, published in 1620 and 1622, 
which were the first local catalogues of plants 
published in England. He soon after acquired 
great credit by his new edition and emendation 
of * Gerard's Herbal.' He wrote an account of 
the fiora of the southern counties, and was one 
of the first to botanise in Wales and on the 
slopes of Snowdon. The University of Oxford, in 
consideration of his merit, learning, and loyalty, 
conferred upon him the degree of M.D. on May 
9th, 1643. In the army he had the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel to Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, 
Grovcrnor of Basing House." 

Major Cuffand, Cufand, CufEel, Cuffles, &c. 
(his name is variously spelt) belonged to an 
ancient family, who dwelt in the old Manor 
House of Cuffand or CufPell, which formerly 
stood at no great distance from the Vine, and 
of which the site is marked by an orchard, which 
is encircled by a brick-lined moat. On the tomb 
of Simon Cuffand, who was interred at Basing- 
stoke in 1619, he is described as " Simon Cufand, 
of Cufand, in Hampshire, 500 years the posses- 
sion and habitation of gentlemen of that name, 
his predecessors." On his mother's side " Simon 
Cufand was extracted from the Boyall blood of 
the Plantagenets. He was a man of examplar 
virtue and patience in grievous crosses, who 
always lived religiously." Major Cuffand had 
both Tudor and Plantagenet Boyal blood in his 
veins, and was in religion a Roman Catholic. 
Lieut. Cuffand also did good service. Major 
Langley had been *' sometime a mercer in 
Paternoster-row." The senior captain in Colonel 
Rawdon's regiment had been a cordwainer or 
shoemaker I 

Major Rose well had been an apolhecary in 
the Old Bailey. *^ Captain Rowlet (Rowland), 
a scrivener, next door to the sign of the 
' George' at Holborn Conduit, and Lieutenant 
Rowlet, his brother. Lieutenant Ivory (Emery) 



Officers at Basing House. 



()7 



sometime a citizen of London (a vintner). En- 
sign (Ancient) Coram was son of one Coram, a 
Papist in Winchester. William Robinson, a 
Papist, was surgeon to the Lord Marqnis of 



Winchester." Captain Peregrine Tasbury was 
a Hampshire gentleman, and of the deeds of 
Cornet Bryan we must speak hereafter. 



Chapter XIII. — Sir William Waller's Preparations — ^Lord Crawford Defeated at 
Poole — ^Necessities of Portsmouth — The Associated Counties — London Trained 
Bands Ordered to Basing — Operations near Farnham — ^Desperate Assault on 
Basing House — ^Repulse of Sir William Waller at Basing House— Capture of 
Lord Saltoun — Advance of Sir Ralph Hopton— Sir William Beaten at Basing 
House — ^Retreat to Farnham. 



The testing time for Basing House was now 
fast approaching. On Wednesday, September 
13th, 1643, an ordinance of Parliament was 
passed permitting Sir William Waller to impress 
as soldiers any persons with the exception of 
the servants of peers, assistants, and attendants 
of Parliament, and on the following Wednesday 
he received orders to march at once with all 
available forces, leaving the remainder of his 
army to follow as speedily as possible, informa- 
tion having reached Westminster that Hamp- 
shire, Portsmouth, Southampton, the Isle of 
Wight, and the western parts were in great 
danger, and might be speedily possessed by the 
enemy if measures of defence were any longer 
delayed. Sir William had previously declared 
to the Committee of Safety that if the sum of 
4000/. was paid to him for the support of his 
army he would march forthwith. On September 
13th it was decided that he should be appointed 
Governor of Portsmouth, that important office 
being vacant, and winter coining on, it being 
moreover necessary to guard against the attacks 
of Cavaliers and foreign enemies. *^ Certain 
information" had been told on September 13th 
that Lord Crawford, who, in the Army List of 
1642-3, is said to have been in command of three 
troops of horse, had been attacked near 
Lymington by a force from Sussex. Lord 
Crawford was at the head of three hundred 
Royalist horse, but his opponents slew seven 
of his men and took 24 prisoners. Had they 
followed up the pursuit as far as Christchurch, 
it seems probable that Lord Crawford must 
have surrendered at discretion. On Monday, 
September 18th, there was a force of some 2000 
men said to be under the command of Prince 
Maurice, Lord Crawford and others reported to 
be approaching Southampton with a design of 



laying siege either to that town or to Plymouth, 
and of afterwards marching into Sussex. 

Towards the close of the month Lord Craw- 
ford offered a bribe of 2001. for the surrender of 
Poole. A letter was intercepted, to the effect 
that the attack would take place upon Sunday, 
September 24th. Preparations to repel it were 
at once made, and the assailants fell into a care • 
fully planned ambuscade. Lord Crawford had 
200 men killed and 50 wounded, according to 
one journalist, but " Mercurius Aulicus " says 
that only ten men were slain and four taken 
prisoners. Lord Crawford had a horse killed 
under him, and he and his party owed their 
escape to the fact that the gunners of the town 
did not sufficiently depress their guns. Three 
hundred arms were taken, and 1407. which had 
been paid as a bribe found its way into the 
pocket of Captain Sydenham, who did good 
service for the Parliament during the siege of 
Corfe Castle. Colonel Dalbier, "of name and 
reputation, and good experience in war," waa 
wounded at Newbury Fight about this time, 
but lived to do much harm to Basing and its 
stout-hearted garrison. The goods of Sir Mar- 
maduke Rawdon and other merchants having 
been duly " sold by the candle," as the order of 
September 14th directed, the first 4000/. of the 
proceeds was paid to Sir William Waller accord- 
ing to his request, and his army of 5000 foot, 
and between 30 and 40 troops of horse, was 
ordered to meet him at Windsor on Friday, 
September 22nd, 1643. A regiment of Dragoons 
left London for the appointed rendezvous on 
Tuesday, September 26. One who saw them 
depart writes thus: "The common saying is 
Dragooners are a rude multitude, but though 
they marched not very soberly, yet we wiUhope 
better of them." The same writer adds that 



■V^^MKAVaE. 



Hostile Preparation's. 



69 



Sir Waiiam Waller had 2000 horse and 3000 
foot already with him at Windsor, and was in 
daily expectation of reinforcements. Governor 
Madf ord was fortifying Southampton during 
the closing days of September, and Waller was 
mustering his army upon Hounslow Heath on 
October 12th. 

In the regiments of the Parliament the 
Coloners company was 200 strong, the Lieut. - 
ColoneFs 160, and the Sergeant-Major's (or 
Major*s) 140, whilst seven captains had com- 
mand of 700 men. Each regiment could muster 
1200 men besides officers, whilst those in the 
service of the King were 1000 strong. Each of 
the Parliament's troops of horse had in it two 
trumpeters, three corporals, a saddler, a farrier, 
and sixty troopers. Sir William Waller in 
1642-3 was captain of the 15th Troop of Horse, 
and had associated with him Lieut. Richard 
Ncwdigate, Cornet Foulke Grevill, and Quarter- 
master Francis Grey. 

On Monday, October IGth, Dr. Harris, the 
Warden of W^inchester College, represented to 
Parliament that being bound by oath to reside 
at Winchester, he could no longer attend tho 
Assembly of Divines at Westminster, where- 
upon Mr. Cawdrcy, of Great Billinghurst, in 
the county of Northampton, was appointed in 
his stead. Sir William Kingsmill, the Sheriff 
of Hampshire, had summoned the Knights, 
Baronets, Esquires, and Gentlemen of the 
county to meet at Winchester on Monday, 
October 30th, to devise measures for securing 
the peace of the county, and for checking 
depredations. Sir William Waller, who had 
lately been appointed Lieutenant of Farnham 
Castle, took action at once, obliging the Sheriff 
to resign his office a week before the appointed 
time, and issuing an order on October 29th, 
warning all men not to appear, saying that the 
whole business was a plot of the Cavaliers. 

On October 28th Parliament was informed 
that Portsmouth was in want of a Governor, 
and also of men, money, powder, and match. 
Either Sir Robert Harley or Sir William Erie 
*•* stopped the relation of such things in the open 
house * for this is no place to mention the state 
of Portsmouth in, for 'tis likely His Majesty 
may come to the knowledge of it.' " After long 
debate a Committee was appointed to go to 
Lord Wharton, ** who hath a commission from 
the General (Essex) to be Governor of that 
placo," and to ask him to resign. Sir Arthur 



Haslerigg, the constant friend and comrade of 
Waller, reminded the House that Sir William 
Waller had formerly been appointed Governor 
of Portsmouth. Nothing was, however, settled, 
for fear of offending my Lord General Essex, 
between whom and Sir William Waller there 
was most assuredly no love lost. 

On Saturday, November 4th, a Decree of 
Association united in the cause of the Parlia- 
ment the counties of Sussex, Kent, Surrey, 
Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, and the town 
and county of Southampton. Sir William 
Waller was appointed Major-General of the 
Association, and a Committee was duly formed 
to further the interests of the Parliament, of 
which Richard Love, of Basing, and Thomas 
Mason, Mayor of Southampton, were members. 

On Friday, November 10th, we hear of tho 
Earl of Essex complaining that tho formation 
of this Association would be very prejudicial 
to the forces under his command, and saying 
that his troops were to the full as much in need 
of provisions and money as wore those of Waller. 

As wo have already seen, Farnham was the 
Parliamentarian base of operations, and from 
thence Sir William Waller determined to advance 
against Basing. The four associated counties 
of Hants, Sussex, Surrey, and Kent paid 2638/. 
per week for the support of his army, which 
was usually 5100 strong. It was resolved to 
occupy Odiham and Alton, and from thence to 
proceed by gradual approaches towards Basing, 
taking possession of or destroying anything that 
might prove of service to the enemy. Some of 
the military authorities thought that 1200 horse 
and 800 dragoneers (who did duty both as in- 
fantry and cavalry) would be sufficient to "give 
a good account" of the House. Others advised 
that 8 (JO horse, as many dragoneers, and half as 
many musketeers should be detailed for this 
service. 

The Rod Trained Bands of Westminster, the 
GreenAuxiliaries of London(ColonelConyngham 
was in command when this regiment afterwards 
surrendered in Cornwall), and the Yellow 
Auxiliaries of the Tower Hamlets, under Col. 
Willoughby, were also ordered to Basing, which 
had at this time, according to a letter written 
by Lord Winchester, a garrison of 400 men. 

Through the kindness of the Rev. T. Mil- 
lard, D.D., Yicar of Basingstoke, who has given 
me very much valuable assistance, we shall bo 
able to follow the proceedings of the attacking 



70 



On the Makcii. 



force without difficulty. Dr. Millard has kindly 
sont me the account given by Lieutenant Elias 
Archer, who himself held a command in the 
force, in his " True Relation of the Marchings 
of the Red Trained Bands of Westminster, the 
Green Auxiliaries of London, and the Yellow 
Auxiliaries of the Tower Hamlets (London, 
1643)." On Tuesday, Oct. 17th, 1643, the 
Yellow Auxiliaries marched from Well close, 
and on Wednesday, the 25th, effected a junction 
at Windsor with their comrades (Green) of 
London, and (Red) of Westminster. On Mon- 
day, October 30th, the wholo force was in 
motion, and on their march through Windsor 
Forest met by appointment some of Waller's 
horse, his regiment of foot, and a company of 
blue coats. Sir William Waller had just before 
lost 800 men by desertion, and on October 24th, 
being Tuesday, 14 others, "belonging to the 
regiment of one Duett, a foreigner," followed 
the example of their comrades. But let Lieu- 
tenant Archer speak for himself. The " Snap- 
lian musket" mentioned by him is thus dcacribod 
by Mr. Boutell ("Arms and Armour," p. 294.): 
*■ The snaphance, snaphaunco, or flint lock, suc- 
ceeded towards the close of the 16th century, 
probably about the year 1580. Evidently sug- 
gested by the wheel -lock, it substituted a piece 
of flint for the pyiites, and instead of the wheel 
it had a rough plate of steel. The pull of the 
trigger caused the flint to strike the steel plate, 
and by that same act the pan was uncovered, so 
that the priming powder might bo exposed to 
receive the shower of sparks that would fall 
upon it. It seems to have been a Dutch inven- 
tion, and to have by no means a dignified origin, 
for this lock is said to have been brought into 
use by certain marauders who by the Dutch 
were called * snap-haans,' hen-snappers, or poul- 
try-stealers. These worthies could not afford 
wheel-locks, and the lighted matches were likely 
to lead to their detection, so they devised their 
own ^snaphance,' little suspecting, doubtless, 
that their ingenious invention would bo univer- 
sally adopted, and would maintain its supre- 
macy during the greater part of three centuries." 
Lieut. Archer says : " Oct. 30th, we marched to 
a Greene about a mile from Windsor, where we 
made Alt and Rallied our men, each Regiment 
drawing into a Regimental forme, where like- 
wise our Traine of Artillery and Waggons of 
warre came to us, and so we marched towards 
Farnam through Windsor Forest, where in 



the Afternoono we met some of Sir William 
Waller's Troopes of horse, his owne regiment 
of foot, and one company of Blew-coats with 
Snap-han muskets, which guard the traine of 
Artillery onely ; all these marched with us." 
The whole force halted at nightfall within a 
mile of Bagshot. After an hour's rest they 
again advanced, reaching Famham between one 
and two o'clock on Tuesday morning. 

On the following day, Wednesday, November 
1st, all the infantry, with the exception of the 
Green Regiment, which was quartered at a dis- 
tance of two miles from the town, was drawn up 
in Famham Park. Including a reinforcement 
of four companies belonging to the garrison of 
Famham Castle, there were present 29 com- 
panies of infantry, besides horse and dragoons. 
On the same day a clerk of a company of Sir 
William Waller 'sown Regiment of Foot was sen- 
tenced to death by a council of war on a charge 
of having endeavoured to cause a mutiny in the 
army. On the next day ho was hanged on a 
tree in the park in the presence of the whole 
force. The Londoners were not unmindful of 
their kinsmen in the field, sending much pro- 
vision to them, which was very thankfully re- 
ceived. On November 2nd Waller was said to 
have at Famham and Guildford between five 
and six thousand men, and had surprised at 
Alton 100 Cavaliers under the command of 
Colonel Bonnet. The King's forces were con- 
centrating near Reading, intending to attack 
Waller's army, and on Tuesday, October 30th, 
the county of Hants was ordered to pay the sum 
of 260/. towards the fund for the relief of the 
maimed soldiers of the Parliament and of 
widows and orphans who favoured the same 
cause. 

On Friday,- November 3rd, the regiments 
marched from Famham towards Alton, and 
were reviewed by their General on Bentley 
Green. The " field state" showed that there 
were present 16 troops of horse, eight companies 
of Dragoons, 36 companies of Foot, and a train 
of Artillery, consisting of ten heavy guns, and 
^^ six cases of small drakes." After an hour*s 
halt the march towards Alton was resumed, and 
that night Elias Archer's regiment was quartered 
at the little villages of East and West World - 
ham, two miles distant from Alton. Sir Ralph 
Hopton's forces retired f romWinchester towards 
Andover and Salisbury at the approach of 
Waller's army. The pieces of ordnance men- 



Oampaigmng in Hampshire. 



71 



tioncd above may have been either demi-colverins 
throwisg a 91b. shot, with a 91b. charge of 
powder ; culverius, throwing an 181b. shot, with 
an 181b. charge of powder ; or demi-cannons, 
throwing a BOlb. shot, with a 281b. charge of 
powder, bnt were most probably demi-culverins. 
We know, however, that Sir W.Wallcr had with 
him at least one demi-cannon. The small 
"drakes" were light field-pieces, sometimes called 
" sakcr drakes," which threw a 51b. shot, with a 
51b. charge of powder. Two " drakes'' were 
often attached to a regiment. 

On November 4th Sir William Waller was 
Bald to have with him 4G troops of horse, 
numbering in all 2000, whilst 13 troops from 
Kent were on the march to join him. He had 
foar regiments of foot raised in Kent, Surrey, 
and Sussex, and further reinforcements from 
the latter county were expected, as was also 
Colonel Wems with some leather guns (of 
which more hereafter) and a train of artillery. 
Ix>rd Crawford with a large body of horse was 
trying to assist the garrison of Basing House. 
Several skirmishes had taken place, with but 
slight loss on either side. In one of these 
skirmishes Waller surprised and made prisoners 
two troops of Cavaliers bound for Oxford. He 
also took 512 head of cattle coming south for 
sale, ^*thc property of a great man in Oxford/' 
and sent a partv of horse towards Andover to 
keep in check Lord Crawford, who was 
advancing from Salisbury. Saturday, the 4th 
of November, was a day of rain and snow, 
which compelled Waller's troops, who had 
mustered in force about two miles from Alton 
on the road to Winchester, to return to their 
quarters. 

The 5th of November witnessed a great muster 
in the neighbourhood of Alton, and the army 
took the road to Winchester, but towards 
evening, when about nine miles distant from 
that city, turned to the right, halting for the 
night at the village of Chilton Candover, 
between ' Alresford and Basingstoke. The 
night was bitterly cold, and the Londoners, 
unused to campaigning, failed to appreciate their 
camping-ground, although at Windsor and else- 
where they had been usually quartered in barns 
and outhouses. 

The Earl of Crawford's army from Salisbury 
was in the neighbourhood of Andover, and ad- 
vancing to the relief of Basing, so that the 
Yellow Auxiliaries,being on the extreme left of 



Waller's army, were kept constantly on the 
alert. On Monday (November Gth) the reveille 
sounded long before the dawn, and about an 
hour before daybreak the whole force was in 
motion. The fog was dense, the roads were 
heavy, and marching difficult, so that it was 
past noon before the Marquis saw "Waller 
with the expected army (consistmg of 7000 
horse and foot) before the house." " Mercurius 
Civicus " describes the garrison as consisting of 
"the Woodheads, who are for the most part 
certaine malignants of the City of London, and 
parts adjacent." " The Scottish Dove " says 
'^ There are in it divers ladies and gentlemen, 
and many citizens, and it's conceived much 
wealth." "The True Informer" states "Thojr say 
that the souldiers and other persons within it, 
being about 500,are very resolute and desperate, 
by reason that many of them, being Papists o£ 
great estates in those parts, have secured the 
greater part of their treasures and riches in 
that house." 

" The souldier's report concerning Sir Wil- 
liam Waller's fight against Basing House on 
Sunday last, November 12th," says that the 
garrison consisted of some 500 men, " all in a 
manner Papists," and that considerable treasuie 
had been brought thither for safety, Basing 
being the only Cavalier stronghold in tho 
neighbourhood. 

The writer adds that tho defences of tho 
house weie sufficiently strong to resist cannon 
shot, and that the house was as large and 
spacious as tho Tower of London. The house 
was " built upright, so that no man can com- 
mand the roof," upon which certain field-pieces 
were mounted. These guns were able to harass 
the besiegers, without danger to the gunners 
who served them. The windows were protected 
by the out-works, and earthworks had been 
thrown up, upon which the besiegers' guns 
failed to make any impression. The garrison 
was well supplied with provisions and ammuni- 
tion, and had mounted several guns upon and 
near the house. 

" Mercurius Aulicus" of Wednesday, Novem- 
ber 15th, says : — " But that which was the chief 
news of the day was an express relation of tho 
siege of Basing Castle, given by those who were 
eye-witnesses, and behaved themselves too 
gallantly in the service to be guilty of a lie, 
which was impartially thus. Sir William 
Waller, having hovered some eight or ten day» 



72 



The First Assault. 



about Famham and Alton, came before Baaing 
House on Monday, November 6th, and though 
his drums, trumpets, and guns proclaimed his 
approach, yet the Lord Marquesse and the rest 
could not get sight of him through the greatness 
of the mist, till about one of the clock, when 
the sun, breaking and dispersing the mist, dis- 
covered Waller's whole body to the garrison." 
A survey was made from "the stately gate 
house of the Castle," and the Marquis estimated 
the number of his foes at about seven thousand 
horse and foot. Warm work was but too evi- 
dently near at hand. 

One chronicler says that Sir William Waller 
sent out a party into the park under the pre- 
tence of hunting deer, who placed some of their 
number in ambush, and took prisoners about 
forty of the garrison, who sallied out upon 
them. " Mercurius Aulicus," however, says that 
a few rebel horse rode out in front, and that a 
slight skirmish took place between them, and 
, some cavalry from the house, with no loss on 
either side. A forlorn hope of about f.OO 
musketeers was then selected from Sir William 
Waller's army, Captain William Archer being 
in command of the detachment of the Tower 
Hamlet Yellows, and was sent to storm the 
house. "Mercurius Aulicus" says that the 
strength of this forlorn hope was only 100 men. 
They boldly advanced " into a lane between two 
hedges towards the lower walls, giving fire 
amain," and for a while gained ground. They 
fought until they had expended all their ammu- 
nition, and were then relieved by a regiment of 
Dragoons, who continued the attack until " the 
edge of the evening." 

Meanwhile "the army and train" (i,e,, the 
artillery) marched towards Basingstoke, and, 
crossing the river there, returned "and came 
upon a hill over against the house, upon the side 
of which hill our ordnance were planted." " Mer- 
curius" says that the enemy took post " on the 
N.W. side of the house," and, says Woodward, 
" near where now stands the turnpike-gate." 
About four o'clock in the afternoon some ten or 
twelve shots were fired against the house, where- 
upon a parley was demanded. Lieut. Archer 
says that the garrison asked for a conference, 
but " Mercurius Aulicus" says that Waller sent 
a trumpeter to demand a parley and to tell the 
Marquis " that Sir William Waller, being there 
in person, had sent him to demand the castle for 



the use of the King and Parliament, and that 
he offered fair quarter to all within the castle." 

Whilst negotiationswere in progress two drakes 
or field pieces were suddenly fired from the be- 
siegers' batteries. Suspicions of treachery were 
excited, and the trumpeter was at once arrested 
until a satisfactory explanation was given. It 
appears that some "scattering powder" became 
ignited by accident and fired the guns. Mr.Boutell 
says ("Aims and Armour," p. 222) "In order to 
fire the cannon the touch-hole was filled with 
fine powder that would ignite and bum with 
great rapidity, and to this was joined a train of 
%lowly-buming powder, which was laid along 
the length of the cannon ; this train was fired at 
the end most distant from the touch-hole, and 
while the fire was passing leisurely along, the 
gunners had tmie to retire te a safe distance. 
The larger the cannon the longer would be the 
train, and the gunners would have a propor- 
tionately longer time for their movement out of 
danger." 

Pending explanation, Lord Winchester sent 
out a drummer with this answer, " That he 
understood very well the words ' King and 
Parliament,' that as they were now taken, ' the 
King' was one thing and *• the King and Par- 
liament' another. That Basing was his own 
house, which the law told him he might keep 
against any man. That it was now more par- 
ticularly commanded by His Majesty, who had 
put a garrison into it, beyond which command 
he knew no obligation." 

Two hours afterwards the drummer returned 
with an apology from Sir William, " excusing 
the rudeness of his disorderly guns during the 
parley," and chivalrously offering free passage 
to the Marchioness, with her children, and also 
to all women and children within the house. 
His guns still fired, and the Marchioness returned 
answer " that she thanked God that she was not 
in that condition to accept of fair quarter at 
Sir William Waller's hands, being resolved to 
run the same fortune as her Lord, knowing that 
there was a just and all-seeing Judge above, who 
she hoped would have an especial hand in this 
business, from whom Sir William Waller could 
pretend no commission. Whatever befel, she 
was not unprepared to bear it, and so thanked 
Sir William for his offer of fair quarter." 

After the receipt of this answer, the besiegers* 
guns ceased their fire for an hour, and their 
trumpeter was sent out of the house "by a 



Capture of the Grange. 



73 



strange way which he knew not," probably in the 
direction of the river. " They said that there was 
onely one small leap overpartof a little brooke," 
instead of which the hapless " music/' as trum- 
peteiB were then styled, found himself stuck fast 
in a deep morass. He was obliged to leave his 
horse," a very stout one, and of about 20/. valew," 
and with difficulty returned to head-quartera, 
considerably bemired. 

Orders were given for an attack in force the 
next morning, and 36 cannon shot were dis- 
charged against the house about ten o^clock that 
night, or, as some say, between midnight and 
four o'clock in the morning. Then came a lull 
until day-break, the guns being protected by a 
hastily constructed breastwork. Says Lieut. 
£lias Archer, ^' Some wounded, not four slain 
outright." 

At daybreak on Tuesday, Nov. 7th, a very 
hot fire was poured into the devoted garrison 
from Sir William Waller's batteries, which 
were on the north-west side of Basing House, 
and which directed their efforts against the 
front of the Gate House. There were in 
position five small guns and a demi-cannon. 
This latter threw a 3Ulb. shot, with a charge of 
281bs. of powder. The garrison could biing 
only one gun to bear upon those of the 
assailants, but it did good service, and slew a 
large number of the enemy. No one was as yet 
hurt in the house, and the damage done to the 
stately structure itself was not considerable. 
As soon as it was light the Cavaliers had fired 
all the houses which could possibly provide 
cover for the assailants, and about nine a.m. 
Waller again despatched " a forlorno hope" 
against the house, having previously sent a 
strong party of horse towards Andover to keep 
the Earl of Crawford's cavalry from Salisbury 
from raising the siege. Here is an account 
from one of the "fcrlorne hope" : — " I sent you 
a letter last Tuesday morning, which no sooner 
I had done but our forces were drawn into a 
body and 500 men commanded (for) the 
forlorne hopes. It fell to my captaine's lot, 
Capt. Warrene, to be commander. We fought 
from ten till six, but two of our company 
wounded. Never in the world was there such 
desperate service on the very mouths of the 
cannon with so little loss." 

On the other band, "Mercurius Aulicus'* 
states, on the authority of some of the garrison, 
that the forlorn hope was sent down the hill to 



take the Grange and the New House, ''the 
Castle being to defend both." The attacking 
force came on boldly through a narrow lane, 
but a heavy fire was opened upon them from a 
half -moon, and from '* divers holes made in the 
walls, so that they were obliged to retreat with 
heavy loss. Fresh attacks continued to be made 
in the same quarter, and three guns were 
brought to bear on the north side of the New 
House, whilst other troops were sent to storm 
the Grange, the attack and defence of which 
have many points of resemblance to the fierce 
struggle in and around the chateau of Hougo- 
mont at Waterloo. 

Captain Clinson, Sir William Waller's Cap- 
tain-Lieutenant, a man of groat courage and re^ 
solution, " took the Grange with very little loss," 
whence having steady aim at the holes, and 
sighting from easy places, they much annoyed 
the garrison.'' Al lalong the north side of the 
fortifications and outworks, some of which were 
captured, the fight raged fiercely. 

The attacking force was exposed within 
pistol shot to the fire of the enemy, and could 
find scarcely any cover except the church, most 
of the surrounding buildings having been burnt 
by the garrison at daybreak. The stormers 
were at length obliged to take shelter in such 
buildings or ruins as remained standing, from 
which they continued to pour in a well-sustained 
fire of musketry, Sir William Waller's guns 
** battering the Castle and the New House" 
meanwhile. So says "Mercurius." On the 
other hand, " The Soldier's Report" speaks as 
follows : "Our Army had no shelter, not so 
much as any village hovill, nay, not very many 
trees, save only by Basing Park side some few 
young groves, which could not shelter them to 
any advantage ; they were constrained to fight 
in a champion place, which was a great disad- 
vantage to Sir AVilliam's army, yet did nothing 
at all discourage their resolutions." In spite of 
all disadvantages, however, the forlorn hope 
gained a partial success, and, as we have seen, 
" gained all their outhouses, wherein was much 
provision of bread, beore, bacon, pork, milk, 
creame, pease, wheat, oats, hay, and such like, 
besides pigs and poultery, and diverse 60i*ts of 
household goods,as brasse, pewter, feather beds, 
and the like." 

Thus did the Grange, " severed by a wall and 
common road," fall into the foeman's hands. A 
good encouragement, truly ! Some of the assaiU 



74 



Repulse of Sir W. Waller. 



ants Bat down to eat and drink, whilst others | 
continued fighting, **and came unto the very 

Sates of the house, beat down the turret and 
ivers chimnies." Was this turret part of ^* the 
loftio gate-house, with foure turrets, looking 
northwards ?" Dire indeed was the destruction 
of chimney pots by the besiegers. This was duo 
to their anxiety to dismount " certaine drakes 
which are upon the roofe of the said house, 
wherewith they are able to play upon our army, 
though wo discern them not.'* Fighting and 
feasting went on simultaneously, revellers and 
warriors alike being constantly relieved by fresh 
parties, each of which had some men killed or 
wounded. Sir William Waller failed to secure 
his prize *' by reason of the absence of his Gra- 
nadoes, petards, and other engines to blow in tho 
gates;" but the garrison were so hard pressed 
that they again sounded a parley, and offered to 
surrender if they might depart, bag and bag- 
gage. These terms were refused, and to it they 
went again. 

It would never do to allow the Roundheads to 
feast on Cavalier stores at tho very gates, and 
accordingly, hard as was the necessity, the 
Marquis decided to destroy the provisions which 
had been intended to feed the garrison during 
many a long month. Lieutenant-Colonels Peake 
and Johnson determined upon a desperate soi*tie. 
Meanwhile the strife continued with unabated 
fury all along the line of the defences on the 
north side. At least one sergeant (whose 
name has not been left on record, but who was 
nevertheless a brave man) and a few men were 
selected for this dangerous duty. The gallant 
old Governor, Colonel Marmaduke Rawdon, 
aged as he was, had still a heart of fire, and 
sallied forth likewise with the little band of 
heroes. Deadly, indeed, was the fire poured 
upou them, and desperate were the hand-to-hand 
combats that took place. But right gallantly 
was the service performed. They " fired the 
outhouses and bams adjoining to them, which 
were full of wheat and other grain," old Colonel 
Rawdon cheering on his musketeers and saying 
that **he knew that Waller would not stay it out." 
Lieut.-Colonel Johnson, at the head of twenty- 
five men, penetrated as far as " the very Grange 
yard." ^Here he was singled out as an antago- 
nist by Captain Clinson, and a hand-to-hand 
struggle followed. Colonel Johnson's life was 
only saved " by two or three stout fellows of 
the garrison." Overpowered by numbers, Capt. 



Clinson was slain, his conuniesion being after- 
wards found in his pocket. Lieutenant Archer 
says that the manner of his death was as follows : 
— ^^ Sir William Waller's Captain-Lieutenant, 
a man of great courage and resolution," lost his 
way, and was killed, with many men, in a lane by 
two drakes, or field-pieces, loaded with case shot. 
The lower road to Basingstoke, in all accounts 
of the siege, is called " the lane," and, as may 
easily be seen, it is commanded by a tower 
pierced for guns of small calibre, such as 
were then styled drakes, minions, &c. It 
i^ possible, therefore, that the present cross- 
road was the scene of this slaughter. Lieutenant 
Archer states that none of the assailants 
were killed during the fight at the Grange, 
although some were wounded. "Mercurius" 
says, however, that they lost many killed 
and wounded, some of them being burnt 
to death in the bam. The party in the house 
found that retreat was to the full as hazardous 
as their sallying forth had been. " The sergeant 
which led them was killed, and most of his men, 
in the yard between the house and the bam.' 
How is it possible to reconcile such a statement 
as this with the declaration of the Marquis that 
only one of the defenders was killed and another 
wounded, or with the statement of *' Mercurius** 
that the loss of the garrison was only two slain, 
one of whom was " their youngest unner nd 
three wounded," or the assertion of the samo 
journal that only one of the garrison was 
wounded, and not one slain ? At any rate t c 
approach of night and tho combined infiuenoe of 
'^ fire, sword, and water" compelled Sir William 
Waller's men to relinquish their hold upon the 
fiercely contested, and now completely destroyed 
Grange, leaving behind them some arms, and 
many killed and wounded. The assailants once 
more bivouacked in the fields, " wherein our 
lodging and our service did not well agree, tte 
one being so hot, and the other so cold." Their 
loss was estimated at Oxford to have been at 
least 150 killed and as many wounded. 

On the following day, Wednesday, November 
8th, Sir WiUiam Waller, who is said to have 
meanwhile kept a detachment at Winchester, 
drew oSt his forces, and retired to the town of 
Basingstoke, which was full of wounded men, 
one doctor alone having no less than eighty 
under treatment. The Marquis of Winchester 
sent into Basingstoke a cartload of Waller's 
wounded, and Cavaliers at Oxford asserted that 



A BiCH Prize. 



75 



Sir William detained both the carter and his 
team. But this statement was but too probably 
a partisan slander, as such a meanness would 
have been totally at variance with the character 
of "Waller, who, by the way, had his best gun 
broken during the attack. There was urgent 
need for wariness on the part of Sir William, 
who, rcpulspd at Basing, had now to prevent, if 
possible, the advance of Sir Halph Hopton. 

On Saturday, November 11th, news had 
reached London that Hopton had concentrated 
his forces from Salisbury, Andovcr, Malmesbury, 
and elsewhere at Winchester, and that Sir 
W^illiam Waller, in no wise loth to give him 
1>attle, had drawn off from Basing House, 
and had quartered his men at Basin g- 
i^toke, the Vine, and intermediate places. 
The remainder of the week was devoted to rest 
and refreshment, but the Roundhead horse were 
by no means idle, scouring the country far and 
wide, and making raids into the adjacent 
counties. The reasons assigned for Sir Ralph 
Hopton 's delay in succouring Basing were that 
Sir William Waller was both able and anxious 
to fight ; that the noblemen and gentry under 
the command of Hopton were unwilling to risk 
another battle similar to that fought at New- 
bury only a few weeks before (Sept. 20th, 
1 G43) ; that they wished to await the arrival of 
some Scottish reinforcements, and that the 
army-was in want of arms and gunpowder. 

On Thursday, Nov. 9th, there assembled at 
the house of Master Legay, an active adherent 
of the Parliament at Southampton, some two 
hundred of the townsmen, who had taken the 
Solemn League and Covenant, to keep a solemn 
fast, and to pray for the success of Sir William 
Waller. On the same day there was a motion 
made in the House of Commons that ^' all re- 
cords and writings of antiquity in Basing and 
other places might not be as common plunder !" 

On-the day of the retreat from Basing, the 
Roundhead troopers secured a rich prize. Lord 
Saltonn, or as one writer styles him, Lord 
Sultan, in company with a certain Friar King, 
his confessor, and several companions, whose 
number is variously given as three, twelve, and 
thirty, had landed on the coast of Sussex, after 
having been successfully employed in Franco as 
a collector of monies in aid of the Royal cause. 
He had with him a sum of money variously 
CHtunated at 300/., 500/., 2000/., 3500/., 4000/., 
5000/., and 6000/., with which he intended to 



raise two troops of horse in the western counties. 
He was abo the bearer of important despatches 
from the French Court. Sir William Waller 
had a week*s notice of his intended arrival, and 
sent out Captain Gardiner, who was commonly 
styled the Mayor of Evesham, with his own 
troop and some other horse, who intercepted 
him and his party at Newbury, on their way to 
Oxford. Captain Gardiner brought his prisoners 
to Basingstoke, in which town the present ''Bell 
Inn" was the usual place of confinement. From 
Basingstoke thev were afterwards transferred 
to Farnham Castle, and were at length sent up 
to London to be dealt with according to the 
good pleasure of the Parliament. After Waller 
had retired, the Marquis wrote an account of 
the fight to Secretary Nicholas, who writes thus 
to Prince Rapert : — 

'* Monday last Waller sat down before Basing 
House, and Wednesday last he drew off his 
ordnance and forces to Basingstoke, a mile 
distant, where he now lies with all his forces, 
and threatens to return thither to assault the 
place again, and hath sont for scaling ladders to 
Windsor for that purpose. The Marquia of 
Winchester writes cheerfully, saith ho hath 400 
men and three weeks victualling, and that he 
hath killed divers of the rebels, and lost only 
one man and one hurt. Sir F. Berkeley was, on 
Wednesday last, at Huntington, twenty miles 
on this side of Exeter, with four regiments of 
foot, and will, we hope, be at Winchester on 
Monday next.'* The Earl of Newport was at 
this time Master-General of the Ordnance. He 
was appointed on September 2nd, 1G34, and held 
office until the Restoration, when he was sus- 
pended. He at once despatched the scaling 
ladders asked for by Waller, but fortunately for 
Basing House they came to hand t oo late for 
the great assault, which took place on Sunday, 
November r2th, 1643. Concentrating his forces- 
from the various positions which they occupied 
between Basingstoke and the Vine, and being 
now furnished " with new supply and fireworks 
from London, '* Sir William Waller, at the head 
of from 6000 to 8000 infantry, together with 
five regiments of dragoons and ten guns, 
marched towards Basing on that November 
Sunday morning. He had an ample supply of 
petards, grenades, as shells were then styled, 
and ammunition, nor had ladders, which Lieut. 
Archer says were not scaling ladders, been 
forgotten. The cavalry reached Basing about' 



76 



The Assault Renewed. 



an hoar bafore noon, and halting within musket 
shot of the house, began to taunt the garrison, 
saying, " Where's your Hopton ? Prince 
Rupart hath but throe men ," &c. This martial 
raillery continued until a gun, which had in the 
meantime been placed in position, opened fire, 
not without reply from one of the field-pieces 
mounted upon the roof of the house. The 
artillery duel was kept up with spirit until 
the neighbouring clocks struck twelve, when 
the assailants, who had previously formed up in 
three divisions well supplied with petards and 
ladders, rushed forward for a simultaneous 
attack. Lieut.-Colonel Johnson had foreseen 
this manoeuvre, and, before the storming party 
on the south-west side of the house could enter 
the defences opposed to them, ho led out thirty 
musketeers into a lane under the half moon. 
This little force suddenly appeared, fired a 
volley, and retreated. The enemy pursued into 
a winding lane, until they came within range of 
the half moon, the fire from which proved fatal 
to not a few. Thrice was Lieut.-Colonel John- 
son successful in thus luring the enemy to their 
own destruction. 

Sir William Waller sent a party of 500 men 
from the middle of the park, to storm '^ the 
Castle,'' but a small gun upon the ramparts 
loaded with casa shot killed about a dozen of 
them, and wounded many others, whereupon 
the survivors refused to advance again. The 
stormers came sufiiciently close to permit the 
women to take part in the fight by hurling bricks, 
tiles, and stones from the roofs of the various 
buildings. The artillery had by this time made 
several Dreaches in the defences, which seemed 
practicable, at any rate, so says the chronicler, 
but practicable breaches are not usually made in 
so short a time with guns of small calibre. On 
the north and north-east the enemy having the 
protection of a small wood, felt sure of gaining 
the New House with casa, and concentrated here 
most of their guns and about 2000 men. The 
Westminster Trained Bands and the St. 
Katherine's Regiment, better known as the 
Auxiliaries of the Tower Hamlets, were posted 
at this point. For two full hours did Waller's 
guns awake the echoes with their deep toned 
voices, which must have sounded but grimly on 
that Sunday afternoon, until about two o'clock, 
when the stormers were seen issuing from the 
wood, bringing with them drakes or field-pieces, 
**and two load of ladders." They advanced 



until they came within a few yards of the Castle, 
the circular site of which is still hugely con- 
spicuous, crowded into the ditch, forced the 
garrison to beat a hasty retreat from a half- 
moon, and planted an ensign in the ditch. 
Under the eye of Sir William Waller himself, 
and guided by two deserters from the garrison, 
who had undertaken to point out the weakest 
points of the defences, they fixed a petard on 
the jamb of the gate, which, however, fortu- 
nately for the garrison,was so strongly barricaded 
that the explosion did little or no harm. And 
now the courage of some began to fail. We are 
told ^^that the St. Katherine's Regiment was also 
faulty at Basing, especially the officers of those 
regiments whom Sir William could not get to 
some up so far as the front of his horse, where 
he stood in person." They absolutely refused 
to relieve their comrades, who gallantly main- 
tained the fight until ammunition failed them, 
and fixed a petard in the wrong place, " upon a 
gate so strongly rampired within that it could 
not be stirred. Some of the officers and soldiers 
were very valiant." Those belonging to Sir 
William Waller's own regiment received especial 
commendations for valour, advancing as they 
did close to the very gates, and taking aim at 
the soldiers of the garrison. All those within 
the house are said to have done their duty man- 
fully. Colonel Rawdon and his officers armed 
with muskets fought side by side with -their 
men, and the Marchioness of Winchester, and 
all the ladies who had found shelter within the 
walls, cast bullets with the lead hastily stripped 
from roofs and turrets. At some period or 
other of the operations at Basing during the 
Civil War, the Chapel of the Holy Ghost at 
Basingstoke was also despoiled of its lead, 
which was found useful to kill Cavaliers. The 
lead from Basing Church also disappeared, each 
party in this case laying the blame on the other. 
In no wise disheartened by the failure of their 
petard, the stormers in the ditch shouted loudly, 
" All is our own." But they reckoned without 
their host. " An ingenious and vigilant German 
in the Castle" was on the alert. Was his name 
* * Humphrey Vanderblin, engineer ? ' * We know 
that " the foreign engineer" did much to 
strengthen the defences of Loyalty House, and 
in the list of prisoners taken by Cromwell at 
Basing we find the name of ^^ Humphrey 
Vanderblin, engineer." Whatever his name 
may havo boen, "tho ingonions and vigilant 



The Betreat fbom Basing House. 



77 



Oennan" saved Basins House that day. Whilst 
the petard was being nzed to the gate by the 
stommig party, the wily Teuton was busily 
knocking a hole in the north end of the build- 
ings, with a view of opening fire upon the right 
flank of the assailants. His intention was per- 
oeired, and he was greeted with a few volleys 
of musketry. In no wise daunted, he, with two 
or three comradeB, completed the opening, and 
returned the leaden compliments with interest 
kUliug three or four of the opponents. Encou- 
raged by this success, and by the failure of the 
enemy's petard, the ffarriaon, by a determined 
attack, retook the half -moon, " whereupon the 
rebels lose heart, and many men as well." Their 
ammunition was beginning to faO, and they 
looked in vain for support from their faint- 
hearted comrades. Whilst the dragoons and 
many of tbe other soldiers fought with ^reat 
courage, the TVestminster Begiment is said to 
have oeen less eager for tJie fray than were 
certain others. Some thought that ''Captain 
White, the keeper of my Lord Petre's house" 
in Aldersgate-street, then used as a Cavalier 
prison, " would not go on for fear of displeasing 
his prisoners," his office being worth 1500Z. per 
annunv to him, whilst others were of opinion 
that the soldiers of Westminster were unwilling 
to proceed to extremities, hoping as they did 
for the speedy return of the Kmg to hb Palace 
at Whitehall. 

The Complete Intelligencer^ of November 21st, 
1643, says that "the house was extremely well 
fortified, and inaccessible for storming. The 
Trained Bands offered their lives to Sir WiUiam 
Waller in any service against men, but were 
loth to venture further against walls. We 
must excuse them, they bein^ young and raw 
soldiers, and not yet frosted abroad. *' 

Small wonder was it, therefore, that unsup- 
ported, without ammunition, with an active and 
inspirited foe pressing them hard both in front 
and an their flank, and perceiving the r^iulse of 
the other columns, that Sir Wilham Waller's 
men at length fell back in considerable disorder, 
and retreated through the little wood in all 
haste.. They left behind them their two field 
pieces, their ladders, and the colour which they 
had planted in the ditch. This latter trophy of 
victory " the soldiers wished to take, but were 
held back for fear of ambuscade.'' During this 
day's fighting seventy or eighty of the West- 
minster men were accidentally shot by their 






comrades. The front rank fired too soon, and 
whilst in the act of retiring had to face a volley 
from their friends in the rear, and the garrison, 
firing one or two field pieces at the same moment, 
iucreased the slaughter. Lieutenant Archer 
speaks of the Westminster Trained Bands as 
"being designed to set upon the south-west 
part of the house through the park, being upon 
a plain level ground before the wall without 
any defence or shelter." 

Sir William Waller himself shunned no 
danger, and proved himself on that day, as 
indeed he had ofttimes before, a valiant soldier. 
Fighting continued until it was too dark to 
distinguish the loopholes and embrasures. About 
three o'clock in the afternoon of that short 
November day the wind began to rise, and 
heavy rain fell. 

Darkness and stress of weather combined 
obliged Sir William to sound a retreat, and 
drawing oft his forces to the distance of half -a- 
mile he himself lay all night in the midst of his 
men upon some straw in the open meadow, in- 
tending to renew the attack upon the morrow. 
About ten o'clock at night " the London youths 
of the Auxiliary Regiment" wore sent towards 
the house to bring o& the field pieces, &c., which 
had been perforce abandoned that afternoon. 
They succeeded in removing the guns and some 
petards without loss to themselves, according to 
their own account, but "Mercurius Aulicus" 
says this bold enterprise cost about twenty of 
them their lives. For this achievement the 
Begiment was publicly commenced and re- 
warded by Sir William Waller. The ** Green 
Begiment," of which Colonel Bawdon had 
formerly been the lieutenant-colonel, suffered 
most of all the regiments engaged, and a lieu- 
tenant in Waller's army writes thus : — " Bazing 
House ia absolutely the strongest placo in 
England, and requires a summer's siege. By 
report of some prisoners, we have taken a great 
number of their men, and divers gentlewomen 
and ladies of great quality. The Green Begi- 
ment did bravely at Bazing. Captain Web, 
therefore, to be Sergeant-Ma j or (i.e.. Major) ; 
his Lieutenant Ma^er Everet to be made a 
Captain upon the next opportunity." 

It rained all that sad Sunday night, the hours 
of which, though comparatively free from war's 
alarms, were mournfuUy employed in the burial 
of the dead, with the exception of about thirty, 
whose bodies were lying close to the defences of 



78 



Waller Retires to Farnham. 



the house. The garrison made prize of " more 
than 120 muskets with rests, two great brass 
petards, divers hand granadoes, three barrels of 
powder, much match, several heaps of bullet 
which lay upon the ground, halberts, half pikes, 
and scaling ladders." 

One of the deserters who gave information to 
Waller had formerly served under that General. 
He had been taken prisoner at the battle of 
Boundwav Down, and had taken service in the 
army of the King, only to desert at the first 
opportunitv, but now found a grave at Basing. 
One wounded man who lay very close to the 
fortifications, with his leg shattered by a cannon 
shot, was asked " What the King had done to 
him that he should take up arms against him ?" 
His only reply was to take his knife and to cut 
his own throat. During the first day's fighting 
"the youngest gunner'* of the garrison was 
killed, and Sir William Waller having reasons 
to suspect the fidelity of one of his own gunners, 
placed him under arrest, and afterwards hanged 
him. 

On the morning of November 13th " much 
rain " was but too evidently the order of the 
day, and it was decided by a Council of War to 
retire to Basingstoke and Famham in order ^^ to 
refresh the army to receive the western Wood- 
heads." This complimentary title referred to 
Sir Ralph Hopton and his relieving force, which, 
according to the reports of spies sent out in 
search of information through by-ways and our 
pleasant Hampshire woodlands, was said to be 
at least 5000 strong. When Waller's men 
reached Basingstoke they found scaling ladders, 
grenades, and ammunition from London await- 
ing them. Sir William's loss was variously es- 
timated, but Lieutenant Archer considered that 
it amounted to some 250 to 300 in the three 
days' fighting, whilst '' Mercurius Aulicus " 
says that he lost 1000 in killed and wounded. 
One ' account says that how many of the 
Cavaliers " are hurt we cannot tell, nor what 
detriment they received, save only one of their 



cows, which being frighted with the noise of the 
guns, leaped over the wall, by which it seems ta 
be of great thickness." It was suggested that 
mining would prove more succes^ul than a 
direct attack, and such was the expectation of 
success in London that wagers were laid upon 
the Exchange that Sir William Waller was 
actuallv in possession of Basing House. Lieut.* 
Colonel Peake was falsely reported to have been 
killed, as indeed he was on several other occa- 
sions, together with certain other officers and 
"malignant citizens." 

The Marquis of Winchester says that the 
result of the nine days* blockade and three 
days' fighting was the retreat of Waller, 
"having dishonoured and bruised his army^ 
whereof abundance were lost, without the death 
of more than two in the garrison, and some 
little injury to the house by battery." 

Monday, November 13th, being a very 
tempestuous day, the besiegers, as we have seen, 
retired to Basingstoke, and spent the day in 
refreshing themselves and drying their clothes. 
The next day there was an alarm that Sir 
Ralph Hopton was advancing to the relief of 
Lord Winchester, and a detachment of Cavaliera 
drove in the Roundhead picquets at Basingstoke, 
whereupon Waller's army quartered in the 
fields two miles from Basing. On Wednesday, 
the 15th, the whole besieging force retreated to 
Famham, which was reached at two p.m., the 
Marquis being by no means sorry to see them 
depart, though without any ceremonious leave- 
taking. ^*Mercurius"says that Sir William Waller 
had 1000 men killed and wounded at Basing, 
and that he speedily lost 1200 others by 
desertion. So ended the first attack in force 
upon Basing House. Upon his arrival at 
Famham, Waller established his head quarters 
there, and at once asked for reinforcements, 
which were readily granted by the Parliament. 
He also "began to fortifie the towne with 
breast workes and the like." 



Oil AFTER XIV.-DeFENCE OP THE ISLE OP WiGHT — ThE MaRQUIS OP WINCHESTER ACCL8BI> 

OP High Treason — ^Afpairs at Portsmouth — Sir William Waller at Farnham — 
Advance of Lord Hopton — Occupation op Winchester — Skirmish and Troubles 
at Odiham — ^Expedition to Midhurst — ^Fighting at Farvham — How Sir William 
Waller was Reinforced. 



Leaying Sir William Waller for awhile at 
Farnham, we most briefly chronicle the course 
of events in other parts of the comity. The 
Generals of the Parliament had not been on the 
most friendly terms. 

In Augnst, 1643, the Earl of Manchester 
having been appointed Sergeant-Major-General 
or Commander in-Chief in the Eastern Counties, 
the Earl of Essex, not without some grumbling, 
conceded to Sir William WaUer the chief com- 
mand of a force to be raised in London. At 
lenffth, on September 28th, Essex assured the 
Paniament "that he will begin upon a new 
Bcore, and give Waller the best encourage- 
ment he can." 

On October 7th thirty pieces of ordnance 
with their due proportion of shot were ordered 

Sthe House of Commons to be sent to the Isle 
Wight, and on Monday, October 16 th, in 
consequence of a petition numerously signed by 
the inhabitants, an order was g^ven that the 
Earl of Warwick should send some ships of 
strength speedily for the defence of the island. 
Mr. Lisle, one of the Members for Winchester, 
was directed to bring in an ordinance for the 
raising of soldiers to be stationed in the Isle of 
Wight and at Hurst Castle. Colonel Came, the 
Lientenant-Goyemor of the island, was called 
in, and gave an account of several things which 
he considered needful to be done, whereupon he 
received the thanks of the House for his care 
and fidelity, and was ordered to repair to his 
command without delay. 

On Wednesday, October 18th, an intercepted 
warrant for the raising of mone^ which had 
been issued by the Marquis of Wmchester was 
retid in the House, whereupon it was ordered 
^ That the Marquis of Winchester's estate be 
forthwith sequestred. That the Marquis of 
Winchester be accused of high treason, and 
Mr. Browne is to bring in a charge against him." 



I On the following day Mr. Lisle was deputed 
to request the Earl of Essex to grant Sir 
Gregory Norton a commission to raise 100 men 
for the defence of the Isle of Wight, and on 
Tuesday, Oct. 24th, Sir William Waller was to 
be officially informed ot the arrival of some of 
the King's troops at Horsham in Sussex. 

On Thursday, Nov. 2nd, Mr. Walter Erie, 
Mr. Lisle, and Mr. Long received directions to 
go forthwith to the Earl of Essex, and to ask 
him on behalf of the House of Commons to 
consider in what dangerous condition Sir Wil- 
liam Waller is in at this present, to acquaint 
His Excellency that the enemy has drawn his 
main force towards Sir William, and to request 
all the assistance which Essex may be able to 
give. Two days later my Lord General Essex 
reports that most of the enemy having with- 
drawn in the direction of Northamptonshire, 
Waller is in no immediate danger, and that as 
to Portsmouth *^he would Imve the House 
settle a constant pay for that earrison, and he 
would keep it in his own hands and put in a 
sufficient aeputy." He wishes that the present 
Committee may continue to be responsible for 
the defence of Portsmouth. This was agreed 
to, with the addition of three members, viz., Sir 
Thomas Jervoise, Mr. Button, and Mr. Lisle. 
On Friday, Nov. 3rd, the Earl of Warwick, the 
Admiral of the Parliament, was ordered not to 
allow anv strangers or aliens, with the exception 
of merchants, to land in England, and three 
days afterwards 1000/. was directed to be paid 
for the supply of the garrison of Portsmouth. 
On Tuesday an order was passed ^'for se- 
questring the rectory of the parish church of 
Alverstoke, in the county of Southampton, 
whereof Mr. Boolfe is now rector, into the 
hands of Mr. Anthony Prouse, Master of Arts, 
a godly, learned, and orthodox divine, who is 
appointed to officiate said cure, and to preach 



80 



Occupation op Winchesteb. 



diligently to tho parishioners, and to receive the 
rents ana profits belonging unto it, paying all 
duties due unto His Majesty." Tne various 
high-constables received orders not to send in 
any more mone^ or provisions to the quarters 
occupied by Sir W. Waller's army for the 
present, and it was settled that 42 ships, viz., 
18 of the £[ing's ships and pinnaces and 24 
merchants' ships and pinnaces, ^' be forthwith 
sent for as a winter guard for the safety and 
security of the Eng&sh, Irish, and Scottish 
coasts." 

On Friday, November 10th, Lord Inchiquin 
was ordered to be charged with high treason for 
having sent troops from Ireland to fight against 
the Parliament, and on Wednesday, November 
22nd, men-of-war from Bristol and Wexford 
were reported as being at Dublin in readiness to 
bring over a larger force. We shall meet this 
" Irish Brigade" again on Cheriton Down. 

On Saturday, November 11th, Sir J. Loe and 
Mr. Lisle are to be repaid from the funds des- 
tined for the defence of the Isle of Wight all 
expenses incurred by them in sending soldiers 
thither. On Monday, November 13th, the Com- 
mittee of Safety was exhorted to send speedily 
the 1400 foot and the horse commanded by Sir 
A. Haselrig to Sir William Waller, " and to 
consider of a settled way of payment" for his 
men. On Wednesday, November 15th, Sir A. 
Haselrig and Mr. Trenchard were bidden to 
write a letter to SirW. Waller to explain why the 
House of Commons has sent 500 of his men to 
the siege of Plymouth, and to ask if he can pos- 
sibly spare 500 others, who are still to be under 
his command, for the same destination. 

After his repulse at Basing House Sir Wil- 
liam Waller reached Farnham at two o'clock in 
the afternoon of Wednesday, November 15th, 
and at once made proclamation by drum-beat 
that all soldiers under his command snould forth- 
with muster in the park. The names of all de- 
serters and of men absent without leave were 
then duly recorded, and several of the culprits, 
being soon afterwards arrested in Westmmster 
and Clerkenwell, were ordered to be sent down 
to Farnham, there to be tried by a council of 
war, or, as we should now say, hj a court- 
martial. Lieutenant Archer says, " Li the time 
that we lay there (Farnham) we had divers 
alarms and other accidents." 

Sir William Morley, M.P., who had fought for 
the King at Chichester during the previous year, 



about this time paid a fine of lOOOZ. to the garri- 
son of Portsmouth, and the sequestration of his 
estate ceased on September 9th, 1643. Lord 
Hopton had meanwhile been doing his utmost 
to assist the Hampshire Cavaliers. Towards the 
end of the year 1643 the King was in posses- 
sion of Bristol and the whole West of England. 
The Parliament had no stronghold in Wiltshire^ 
and possessed only one or two towns in Hamp- 
shire, the people of the county being strongly op- 
posed to them. Wo learn from Clarendon (6ook 
YIII.) that both armies having retired into 
winter quarters, great efforts were made in 
London to despatch Sir William to the west, 
with a powei^id force. Prince Maurice waa 
besieging Plymouth, which was expected to sur- 
render ere long. The King therefore determined 
to oppose Waller's march, so that he might be 
unable to raise tho siege of Plymouth. Sir 
William, afterwards Loid, Ogle, with the assist- 
ance of Sir Richard Tichborne and eight other 
Hampshire Cavaliers, secured Winchester Castle 
for the Eling, and materially strengthened 
its defences, with the idea of making 
it a rendezvous for an army then 
collecting in the west. Sir William 
Waller, who was Major-General of the 
four associated counties of Kent, Surrey, 
Hants, and Sussex, was not without well-wisher» 
in Winchester, to the Castle of which indeed he 
laid claim, and thev did not fail to exert them- 
selves on his behalf. In his *' Vindication of 
the Character and Conduct of Sir William 
WaUer, Knight," he savs (p. 202), with refer- 
ence to his leavmg England for Holland in 
1647, " As for that suggestion that I should 
make over or transport with me great sums of 
money, it is as untrue as that fiction of the 
butter barrels was ridiculous. I acknowledge 
the sending of some goods of mine into the Low 
Countries to Rotterdam about two or three 
months, if I remember not, before I was in- 
forced to take that course with myself ; all was 
nothing but household stuff; the best part 
whereof I had, by the care of a good friend, 
saved out of Winchester Castle but a few hoiii» 
before the King's party seized upon it, and the 
rest I bought at London ; but there was neither 
penny of money nor ounce of plate that 
travsoled with it. But whatever there waa, it 
was viewed and allowed at the Custom House 
before the ship went o£E with it, which I hope 
may serve to give satisfaction to all reasonable 



Skirmish at Odiham. 



81 



people that I meant plainly and honestly, and 
may shew that there was nothing acted to put 
any cheat upon the state." So that the fittings 
of Winchester Castle must be sought for 
in the homes of the portly burghers of 
Botterdam and the Hague. Sir William 
Waller speedily frustrated Lord Ogle's plans 
by his vigilance and activity. But for a while 
things seemed as favourable as the most ardent 
Royalists could desire. There is evidence that 
the Cavaliers occupied Winchester during the 
month of October, 1643, for, in the Corporation 
records, which I have been permitted to examine 
throngh the kindness of the Mayor, E. D. God- 
win, Esq., and of W. Bailey, Esq., the Town 
Clerk, the following significant entry occurs : — 
« 27th October, 1643. Fifty pounds lent to Sir 
William Ogle and Collonell Gerrard." In vain, 
however, do we search for any record of repay- 
ment of these monies. A history of Winchester 
published in 1773, which has been already re- 
ferred to, says of Sir William Ogle, '^ His first 
care was to strengthen his newly acquired 
garrison, and render it as inaccessible as art 
could invent, wisely considering that its situa- 
tion rendering it the principal kev of the whole 
western country, it might be made a convenient 
and serviceable rendezvous for his Boyal master. 
He, therefore, lost no time in putting this busi- 
ness into execution, and happily meeting with 
the concurrence and mutual assistance of the 
Mayor and citizens, he not only re-fortified the 
Castle, but put the city itself into a much better 
postxure of defence than it had been in for many 
years before; immediately after which the 
western army marched into it, consisting of 
3000 foot and 1500 horse under the command 
of Lord Hopton." Francis Baigent, Esq., to 
whom also my best thanks are due, says : — ^* The 
defences to the west of the Castle were some 
entrenchments thrown up at the spot knoTvn as 
Oram's Arbour, which was formerly the train- 
ing ground for the City Trained l^nd and the 
place where the people assembled for the county 
elections. There were traces of these en- 
trenchments visible some 30 or 40 years ago, 
if not later." 

The city was also fortified in a more modem 
style towards the east, on St. Giles' Hill, &c. 
As Christinas drew near Lord Hopton arrived, 
in company with Baron Stratton, at the head of 
a force which his influence had collected in the 
west, together with a portion of the garrison of 



Bristol. "He had in a short time raised a 
pretty body of foot and horse." Sir Charles 
Yavasour and that veteran soldier Sir John 
Pawlet joined him with two very good though 
numerically weak regiments, which, together 
with a good troop of horse under the command 
of Captain Bridges, had been brought over from 
Munster to Bristol at the cessation of hostilities. 
Lord Hopton now found himself sufficiently 
strong to advance first to Salisburv, and shortly 
afterwards to Winchester. Here ne was joined 
by Sir John Berkeley with two other infantry 
regiments which he had raised in Dorsetshire, 
making his whole force amount to some 3000 
foot and 1500 horse. Winchester was an ad- 
mirable base of operations, and ere long became 
such a centre of Royalist activity that Waller 
was obliged to halt at Farnham on his westward 
march, and to request additional reinforce- 
ments from London, with which, as we have 
seen, he was duly furnished. 

Two days after Sir William Waller had been 
repulsed at Basing Lord Hopton made an ad- 
vance from Winchester, with either the whole 
or a portion of his force, and the garrison of 
Loyalty House had " the liberty of farther for- 
tifying, which thus, as time and number would 
permit, made up, is rather strong than regular.'' 

Lord Hopton was a brave man and excellent 
officer, who sought not for preferment at Court, 
checked pillage, and protected rustics, " fulfil- 
ling what he esteemed the duty of a faithful 
subject with all the humanity of a good citizen." 

On Thursday, November 16th, there was 
despatched an account to the Parliament of the 
operations at Basing, and on the same day a 
strong force of cavalry and infantry was sent 
by Sir William Waller to beat up Lord Hopton*s 
head-quarters at Odiham. The hedges were 
found to be lined with musketeers, who kept up 
a galling fire. The country people, on being 
questioned, gave information that the 
main bodv of the Cavaliers had fallen back 
towards Alton and Alresford, so that "only 
some of their straggling, pillaging forces were 
taken.'' The quiet little town of Odiham, of 
which all men know the broad street and huge 
chalk pit, had its full share in the troubles in- 
separable from the Civil War. The piesent 
Vicar has done much to throw light upon Church 
matters during this stormy period. He has 
ascertained that the Bev. Bezaleel Manwaring, 
Vicar of Odiham, was buried on January 10th, 



82 



Parish Registers. 



1641. According to local tradition, his successor 
was ejected in the depth of winter, and tamed 
into the street when the snow lay deep upon 
the ground. His wife's sufferings were so great 
that some kindly-hearted neighbours were 
scarcely able to give her shelter before an infant 
made a premature appearance in what was indeed 
to its parents a world of sorrow. 

The Bey. Mordecai Kaddens, a Presbyterian 
minister, occupied the vicarage during the Com- 
monwealth, but for what length of time is un- 
certain. In the record of his burial, on Oct. 
10th, 1703, he is described as "minister." It 
is some six times noted in the register that at 
this time banns were published in the market- 
place. "1654, Nov. — The intent of marriage 
between Edward Demole, husbandman, and 
Barbara Cope, spinster, both of Newnham, was 
published in the market, 11th, 18th, 25th Nov." 
It was in those days, even as now, " well to be 
off with the old love before you are on with 
the new," for we are told : "Mar. 3rd, 1654. — 
Received by the hands of Thomas Washam, in 
the behalf of Alice Washam, his sister, an 
interdiction of publiflhing the intent of marriage 
between William Knight, of Upton Grey, 
gentleman, and Anne Millingate, upon occasion 
of a pre-contract." If, however, the course of 
true love ran smoothly on, despite all proverbs 
to the contrary, the Magistrates* aid and bless- 
ing was invoked : " 1653, Nov. 2nd. — The 
marriage between Edward Mills and Mary 
Draper was soleijanised by Francis Tylney, Esq., 
Justice of the Peace, according to an Act of 
Parliament of the 24th of August, touching 
marriages. 

Pariiii registers and other records could be 
only imperfectly kept at this time. The con- 
scientious Parish Clerk of Odiham made the 
following entry : — " There will come a time 
that men will come to search in this book (the 
baptismal register) for the names of their chil- 
dren, and in regard that they cannot find their 
names here written, let them not blame me for 
it, but look upon their own selves, for since the 
wars began in this land there have been many 
that have been baptised that I never knew of, 
neither have I had timely notice of them; 
nevertheless I know that the blame will be laid 
upon me. Thomas Hooker, Parish Clerk, 1652." 
The parish register of Basing previous to and 
during the Civil War has perished, and John 
Chase, Notary Public and Chapter Clerk and 



Registrar of Winchester Cathedral, blgns his 
name to the following entry, dated 10th of 
April, 1643 : — " In Domo Munimentorum 
Eccliae, Cathis Sctas Trinitatis, Winton. This 
should have been placed in the beginning of this 
book, being the first time that I began to order 
the muniment house after the same was the first 
time defaced and spoiled, and divers writings 
taken away (14th December, 1642). The muni- 
ment house (after I had ordered the writings, 
charters, deeds, and muniments found there, 
and bound them up according to the table 
mentioned in this book, in their several boxes 
and places, thereby to find them by the 
direction of this book), was the second time by 
the army and soldiery broken up, and all my 
ledgers and register books taken away: the 
records, charters, deeds, writings, and muniments 
lost ; divers of them burnt ; divers of them 
thrown into the river ; divers large parchments, 
they made kites, withal, to fiy in the air, and 
many of the old books lost, to the utter spoiling 
and destruction of the same muniment and 
charterhouse ; many of which deeds and writings 
may be supposed to have been kept and to have 
been there for many hundred, of years, as by the 
dates taken by me, and mentioned in this book, 
doth appear." Strangely enough, quiet, peace- 
ful Odiham felt also the remote effects of the 
great Napoleonic wars. A number of French 
officers resided there on parole in the cottages 
round the Chalk Pit. A &ie oak on the Winch- 
field-road, still known as the Frenchmen's oak, 
about a mile from the town, marks the limit of 
their permitted walk. Two of them died 
here, to one of whom there is a monument in the 
churchyard. But to resume our narrative of 
events. 

On Friday, November 17th, Sir William 
Waller was at Famham, and Lord Hopton at 
Basing. Cavalier scouts were everywhere on 
the alert, and news had reached London from 
Portsmouth that some of Hopton 's men having 
organised a foray, the country people fired the 
beacons, which had been placed in readiness, 
rose as one man, and forced the plunderers to 
return to their quarters. On Friday, November 
17th, Waller on his part likewise sent out 
Captain Oakley with 45 men, who made a 
march of twelve miles into the enemies' quarters 
to a market town, called Methouse (Midhurst), 
a few miles from Petworth. Two other troops 
of horse had been also detailed for this expe- 



The London Trained Bands. 



•'83 



dition, bnt coming late to the rendezvons, 
Capt. Oakley inarched without them. When he 
and his small detachment were within six miles 
of Midhnrst, some rustics informed him that 
150 Cavalier horse had visited the town that 
morning, but had just left for Petworth, in- 
tending to return to Midhurst that same night. 
^* It was thought that if we came not (to Mid- 
burst) with a very strong party, the town, being 
very malignant (i.e. loyfu), and store of Papists 
in it, would have risen against us ; yet was this 
valiant Captain nothing at all discouraged, but 
resolved to march thither.'' On his arrival Capt. 
Oakley posted his sentries at all the entrances 
into the town, of which he kept possession for 
two hours. Three Cavaliers who had been left 
in the town by their comrades were made pri- 
soners, several horses were seized, ** and some 
store of cloth which was taken from Papists 
and malignants there to clothe the foot." The 
little band then returned unmolested to the 
headquarters of the armv. 

On Saturday, Nov. 18th, Lieutenant Archer 
makes a note : *^ There came to us much provi- 
sion of victuals and strong waters to our regi- 
ment, which was very thankfully received, 
although, thanks be to God, we had no great 
scarcity before." On the same day the Com- 
mittee for Westminster, sitting at Worcester 
House, was directed to furnish a list of all 
deserters from the Westminster Regiment, with 
a view to their apprehension. A sum of 5000/. 
was to be paid to Sir William Waller, to whom 
Mr. Reynolds was to write a letter of encourage- 
ment, assuring him that as many soldiers as 
possible should be sent without delay. The 
four associated counties of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, 
and Hants were to be warned " to send all the 
assistance that may be." Sundry deserters 
ere long found themselves in durance vile 
at Westminster and Clerkenwell, awaiting the 
decision of a Court-Martial. In the armies 
of the King it was the rule to execute 
deserters immediately after their capture. 
Sir William Waller himself was by no means 
happy, but was, on the ccmtrary, full of anxiety. 
He complained that his men were in want of 
pay, ^' and also that they were not so at com- 
mand as was to be desired." He therefore 
begged for reinforcements from the Committee 
of Militia for London, saying that he had only 
from 1200 to 1400 foot and 15 troops of horse, 
12 of which were from Kent. Colonel Morley's 



Sussex Regiment refused to march to join him 
until they had received their arrears of pay, and 
Colonel Norton*s Hampshire Regiment had not 
yet effected a junction' with him. His spies, 
whom he had sent out to lie in the woods, 
reported that Hopton had at least 5000 men 
with him, and some prisoners stated the Cavaliers 
were only two or three miles distant, with a 
force of 2000 foot and 40 troops of horse. Sir 
William, almost despairing of success, adds 
'^ that he put himself ' into God's protection!" 
The Westminster Trained Bands were anxious 
to recover their reputation for valour, which 
had been somewhat discounted at Basing ; but 
it seems probable that if Hopton had but attacked 
in force upon that memorable Saturday, the 
result of the campaign in the Southern counties 
would have been very different. But the golden 
opportunity thus lost never again presented 
itself. Instead of pressing their attack home, the 
Cavaliers contented themselves with giving an 
alarm to Waller's Kentish Horse, who were quar- 
tered at Guildford, by means of small recon- 
noitring parties who penetrated as far as Pir- 
bright and other places in the neighbourhood. 
Lord Hopton meanwhile made a leisurely ad- 
vance towards Famham. Waller, who was 
anxiously awaiting the arrival of the Kentish 
Horse from Guildford, drew out the few troops 
which he had with him, and boldly faced his foe 
on a heath, at a distance of three or four miles 
from Famham. Both forces sent out forlorn 
hopes, which faced each other for about an hour. 
Waller's men then received orders to charge, 
whereupon their opponents fell back upon their 
main body. Waller,seeing their retreat, advanced 
in force, on which Hopton drew off his troops in 
good order without fighting. It was generally 
supposed that the Welshmen, who were numer- 
ous in the Royalist ranks, were much indisposed 
to fight at so great a distance from their moun- 
tain homes. 

Before the dawn of Sunday, November 19th, 
the Kentish Horse, 400 in number, had joined 
Sir William Waller, who now felt somewhat 
more at ease. He, however, sent an express to 
London, urging the immediate despatch of the 
1500 men which he had been promised as a rein- 
forcement, saying that Hopton was within a 
mile of him with an army collected from Read- 
ing, Oxford, and elsewhere, which was at least 
twice as numerous as his own. 

During the morning hours the Cavaliers 



84 



Fighting at Farniiam. 



appeared ^^upon Beacon Hill, a mile from 
Iramliam/' or, acoording to another account, 
*' upon a hill two miles from Famham," causing 
Waller's men to muster in the Park. An artil- 
lery duel was carried on at long range, and the 
two armies watched one another for some hours, 
Lord Hopton fearing to make an attack in force, 
as his enemy had received an accession of 
strength. At length Sir William Waller sent 
out some cavalry U> fire upon the hostile ranks, 
and *^ our horse faced theirs until three o'clock 
in the afternoon, and sent forth scouts, who 
fired upon the enemy Tthe Cavaliers) and killed 
some of them, but wo had not one man hurt.*' 
November days are but of short duration, and 
as yet Waller's scouts had only "slain two 
straggling Cavaliers and taken throe horses 
besides those who were hurt." Their Bound- 
head comrades were becoming impatient, and 
towards evening a strong party of horse and 
foot, including the red-coated Trained Bands 
of Westminster, made a vigorous charge, 
and made the Cavaliers retire down the 
hill towards Crondall, which was only 
a mile distant from the scene of action. As 
they retreated they lined the hedges of the 
narrow lanes with musketeers, and Waller, 
fearing an ambuscade, drew off towards Fam- 
ham. During the night a party of Lord Hop- 
ton's horse tned to beat up Sir William Waller's 
quarters, but the latter, having received timely 
warning, sent out three bodies of cavalry with 
a total strength of 300 sabres, who took pri- 
soners, 30 or 40, or 60 troopers, as chroniclers 
variously relate, a sergeant-major (or major), 
two captains, with others, and slew some 25 
more. But following up the pursuit too hotly, 
the victors, when they at length drew rein, were 
saluted with volleys of musketry from the hedges, 
which " did much hurt, killing some and wound- 
ing others ; so that the purchase proved not 
much worth, costing some men's lives, a few of 
whom being worth many horse." During this 
week there was also a skirmish in Wiltshire, in 
which Lord Crawford was wounded, losing 12 
horses and having several men placed hors de 
combat, whereupon he fell back upon a position 
nearer to Lord Hopton's main body. 

On Thursday, November 16th, all the horse- 
men under the command of Sir Arthur Haslerig, 
^' being all compleat and experienced soldiers," 
were summoned by be^t of drum, upon pain of 
death, to appear on Friday, November 17th, in 



the New Artillery Ground, in order to march to 
Sir William Waller. Clarendon thus graphically 
describes this regiment : — " A fresh regiment of 
Horse, under the command of Sir Arthur 
Haslerig, which were so compleatly armed that 
they were called by the other side the regiment 
of lobsters, because of their bricht iron shells 
with which they were covered being peif ect 
cuirassiers, and were the first so armed on either 
side, and the first that made any impression 
upon the King's Horse,who,being unarmed, were 
not able to bear a shock with them. Besides that 
they were secure from hurts of the sword, which 
were almost the only weapons the others wore 
furnished with." 

Invincible, however, as they had hitherto 
proved, those bold cuirassiers had been charged 
by Lord Byron at the head of his gallant 
'^ Blades " on Boundway Down on July 13th of 
this same year, and had, after a fierce struggle, 
in which Sir Arthur received many wounds, at 
length been broken. 

The early hours of Monday, November 20tfa, 
saw them on the march from London in the 
direction of Farnham, where Sir William 
Waller was anxiouslv awaiting their arrival, as 
well he might, for by nine in the morning a 
strong body of Cavalier horse and foot appeared 
upon the hill between Crondall and Farnham, 
wnich caused a muster of the ParLlamentariana 
in the Park. Their guns, which were 
originally planted at a distance of a 
mile and a-hidf from Lord Hopton's 
cavalry, were, in consequence of the advance of 
the latter, able to open fire about an hour before 
noon, a party of Boundhead troopers having 
ridden up the hill and formed up to support 
them in rear. The gunners speedily ^t the 
range, and,according to the reports of prisoners, 
did great execution. Seven men were killed 
by the first discharge, and few shots missed their 
mark. After a protracted artilloiy duel, the 
Boundhead cavalry made a charge, and diverted 
the attention of the enemy from a body of 
infantrv, who, advancing without molestation, 
charged in their turn. Sir William Waller's 
men had the field word of 'The Lord of Hosts," 
their opponents having selected " The Prince of 
Wales." Thus charged by cavalry and infantry 
simultaneously, the Cavalier horse '^ wheeled 
about and fled down the hill, and their foot, 
being always behind the horse on the side of 
the hill, were not drawn up at all, and retreated 



Raising of Funds. 



85 



while their horse stood for their reserve." In 
other words, Liord Hopton*s cavalry covered a 
retreat ia good order. Eight Cavaliers were 
captared, one of whom was a trnmpeter, or 
'* music." Lord Hopton carried off his kOled 
and wounded, estimated by their opponents to 
be more than 40 in number, " but the next day 
we found four of their horse killed, and much 
blood." So says the Parliamentarian scribe, 
who only admits the loss of one min on his own 
side. Oa this eventful Mond y the Kentish 
regiment reached Farnhamfrom Guildford, and 
five companies of Sir A. Haslerig*s regiment of 
foot were also a welcome reinforcement to Sir 
William Waller. 

** Before suns3t on Tuesday, November 21st, 
O>1on^l Richard Norton, the " Idle Dick Nor- 
ton" of the hero of Naseby Fight, had reached 
Waller's head-quarters from Southampton at 
the head of his famous corps of ** Hambledon 
Bojrs," and Colonel Morley had arrived from 
Kent, his regiment having at length consented 
to march, on the understanding that they were 
to re<^eive their full arrears of pay on reaching 
Famham. The county of Kent had already 
sent 500 horse and foot, and was raising 1500 
more men for Waller, whose strength was now 
estimated at 4000. On this day some of his 
soldiers went to a park en lied " The Holt." 
abont a mile and a-half from Famham, to kill 
deer, and, taking advantage of a thick mist, the 
Cavaliers* scouts surprised and captured nine of 
Captain Levett's men. 

On Wednesday, November 22nd, as various 
merchants had been sending frequent requisi- 
tions for convoy. Parliament ordered that 19 
men-o^-war and 23 merchant ships should be 
detailed as a winter guard for the shores of 
Great Britain and Ireland. This was the more 
necessary, as the Cavaliers were known to have 
sixteen ships at Brifitol and Barnstaple, and to 
be fitting out others. The House of Commons 
passed an ordinance on Wednesday, November 
22nd, directing the Governor of Poole to send 
np to London the horses captured when Lord 
Crawford unsuccesafuUy attacked the town. 
The steeds were to be sold, and the pro'^eds 
divided amongst the garrison of Poole. Some 
rin«rs and tobacco which had been seized en 
route for Oxford were likewise ordered to be 
sold *' by the appointment and directions of Mr. 
Jennonf." The money realised by the sale 
was to be spent in sending to Sir William Waller 



" those forces that lie on the County of Mid- 
dlesex," after the informer had received his 
pro niaed reward. **Mr. Trsnchard, Chairman 
to th ) Committei of Accounts," w is to send these 
men,together with certain arms to Sir William 
Waller. The arms in question were in the 
custody of Captain Ellingworth, of whom we 
read on December 9th, 1643, *< Captain Elling- 
worth shall be tried by a Council of War for 
cheating the State by false musters, and selling 
and pawning, and embezzling his soldiers* arms 
allowed by the State." 

8aY| Lieutenant Archer, on Nov. 23rd : 
" Th*^ came to us at Famham a very fair 
regiment of horse, and a company of dragoons,' 
consisting^ of 120 out of Kent, under the com- 
mand of Sir Miles Lewsy (Livesay)." Sergeant- 
Major, or, as we should style him, Major Webb, 
who had, as we have seen, earned promotion 
before the walls of stubbornly defended 
Biising, with some of the green-coated London 
Trained Bands was this day sent, together with 
other forces, from Farnham, to aid in the relief 
of Plymouth, to which Prince Maurice and Sir 
Richard had laid siege. Sir William Waller 
also wrote a letter to the Parliament, which was 
read in the House of Commons two days after- 
wards, when it was agreed that 5000/. should 
be raised for the supply of his army, " upon the 
credit of the Excise," 2000Z. of which waste be 
paid to him without delay. This latter sum 
was promptly furnished by Alderman Towse, 
in consideration of interest at the rate of eight 
per cent. Sir William thus writes in his " Vin- 
di'Mition," " And foi the payment of arrears I 
may say I was for it to the uttermost farthing. 
I may not say who were against it, but those 
who seemed to bo pillars, or somewhat, whatso- 
ever they were itmaketh no matter to me, con- 
tributed nothing, nay, gave their flat negative 
to it. And, truely, herein I did but discharge 
mv conscience, for I was ever of opinion that a 
soldier's pay is the justest debt in the world. 
For if it be a crying sin to keep back the wages 
of an hireling, that doth but sweat for us, it 
must needs be a roaring altitonant sin to detain 
pay of the soldier that bleeds for us. There is 
a cry of blood in it, and God will make inqui- 
sition for it I " Well and nobly said. Sir 
William t He also stated in his letter that a 
battle was imminent, and that he was m great 
need of "some able officers." The Earl of 
Essex received orders to send him some, and 



86 



Military Execution. 



Mr. Trenchard was to " take speedy order to 
■end onto Sir William Waller Captain Carr*s 
troop." 

There was a report on Friday, Korember 24th 
that the Bang had marched to Basing House at 
the head of 2000 horse, intending to co-operate 
with Lord Hopton in an attack upon Farnham 
Castle. Accordingly, about ten oV-lock in the 
morning the colours were hoisted on the castle, 
and the army was drawn up in the paik, where 
it to no purpose awaited an attack. A paity of 
horse was on the same day sent from Farnham 
into Sussex after Sir Edward Ford, *' to make 
tax end of his Sheriff year." After the -mom- 
ing*s '* alarm " the Cavaliers retired to Odiham, 
and their enemies were able to refresh them- 
selves. A r> port reached Oxford that Hopton 
luid beaten Waller back to London, and the 
Queen, overjoyed at the intelligence, " gave the 
messenger 4/. iOs., all she Lad in her purse I" 
But the tidings were false, for on Saturday, 
November 25th, the Earl of Essex was preparing 
to send reinforcements to Farnham, and the 
county of Kent was raising a force of 2^/00 in- 
fantry, and was likewise fortifying Tunbiidge 
and Sevenoaksto cheek the advance of Hopton. 
It seems somewhat doubtful whether there was 
a skiimish on Sunday, November 26th, in 
which Lord Hopton gave Sir William Waller 
a few phot, losing, however, about ICO of his 
own men, or whether the somewhat vague 
account does not refer to the day of the retreat 
to Crondall. The Surrey troops having been 
withdrawn ftom their homes towards Fainham, 
it seemed not improbable that Lord Hopton 
.would march upon Guildfoid. To keep him in 
check until his own main body could airive 
from Farnham Sir William Waller summoned 
all the men of Surrey between the ages of six- 
teen and sixty to muster at Guildfoid in de- 
fence of the county. Entiencbments were being 
oonstructed at Farnham, and several challenges 
to fight a pitched battle were sent to Hopton 
by his old fiiend and ever courteous antagonist 
Waller, who also on seveial occasions 1 ung out 
flags of defiance at Fainham Castle. Sir Wil- 
liam*s own woids are, "The war I abhorred, 
though I acted in it as upon the defensive, 
whi(£ I thought justifiable, but it was ever 
with a wish tluit the sword, as it was fabled of 
Hercules his, might be dipped in oil rather than 
in blood ; that the difference might end rather in a 
peace than a conquest ; that, as it fell out in 



the decision between Zenocles and Euripides, 
the one party might not have the worse, no. the 
other the better, but such an accommodation 
might take effect as might be with saving of 
honour to King and Parliament, wheroby both 
might have the best." 

Certain stragglers from Lord Hopton *s force 
plundered an ^d woman^s ootta^e near Farn* 
ham, and stole her bedding, of whicli the 
Parliamentarian newspapers did not fail to make 
much stern and satirical mention. Captain 
Batloy, a desei'ter from the army of the Parlia- 
ment, was taken and condemned to death by a 
council of war, and we learn from Lieutenant 
Archer that during these operations Bartholo- 
mew EUicot, who had formerly been a butcher 
near Temple Bar, and who had also been a 
captain in the army of the Pailiament, was 
taken prisoner, whilst fighting for the King. 
He had not only deserted from the army of the 
Earl of Essex, out had also appropriated money 
intended for the payment of the soldieis. He 
could expect no mercy, and on Wednesday, 
December 6th, he was hanged in the market- 
place at Farnham. He had, in addition to hie 
other offences against the Parliament, done his 
lest to betray the town of Aylesbury to the 
Cavaliers. One who saw the execution has left 
on record that *^ he diod in a miserable condi- 
tion, justi ying himself in the Acts, and con- 
demning t e Councel of Warre which found him 
worthy of death." 

Lord Hopton 's forces were scattered through- 
out Hampshire, and on the morning of Monday, 
Nov. 27th, he sent a party towards Farnham 
from the direction oc Crondall, which was 
greeted by a hot fire from the artillery of the 
castle, and from some guns pi iced in position 
in the park. Thiee shots killed 17 horses 
and 15 men. There was a report that the King 
was to dine at Basing House that day, having 
brought with him *' 2000 or 3000 horse and some 
strength of foot," with the intention of carrying 
off the gariison and treasure, and of ^'slight* 
ing" or dismantling the fortress, and that a party 
had in consequence been, sent out to Crondall in 
order to prevent any unwelcome intrusion oa 
the part of the Farnham garrison. Thisiumonr 
probably arose from the fact that ** divers of 
His Majestic 's servants aud attendants" had 
lately come "fiom Oxford with the Prince's 
(Ruperts) owne regiment to the aid of the Lord 
Hopton." Clarendon says that '' Sir Jacob Astley 



Skirmish mbar Farnham. 



87 



wms likewiw sent to him (Hoptcm) from Bead- 
ing with 1000 commanded men, of thatgarrisoD, 
W-Jlingford, and Oxford; which supply no 
sooner arrived at Wiachester,bnt theLordHopton 
TseolTed to Yisit Waller's quarters, if it were 
poeiiible to engage ; however that he might 
judge by the posture he was in whether he were 
U^e to punue his purpose for the West. Waller 
was then quartered at Farnham and t e villages 
adjacent, from whence he drew out his men, and 
faced the eoemj as if he intended to fight, but 
after some light skirmishes for a day or two, in 
which he always received loss, he retired into the 
Guile of Farnham, a place of some strength, and 
drew his army into the town." Gilled by this 
artiliet yfiro, the Cavaliers were obliged to retreat 
towardH Crondail, hotly pursued by the eivalry 
of Sir William Waller. Beaten out of the village, 
they were soon galloping at headlong speed to wat d 
Odiham and B udngstoke, some of them having 
only Litclyrjached Farnham ft om Basing House, 
to the garrison of whi h tbey belonged. When 
the muster roll was called that evening, a Major, 
a Lieutenant, and 60 horses were reported as 
having fallen into thehandsof the enemy, whilst 
thirty me:i weie either killed, wounded, or 
missing. The pursuers, who leturned laden with 
vaiioas» kindsof booty to Farnham,only admitted 
a loss of six men. 

Tuesday, November 28th, witnessed the 
despatch of a party of horse and dragoons from 
Farnham towards Odiham, under the command 
of Colonel Van Roese, to beat up the enemy's 
quarters^ They slew some Cavaliers and took 
a few prisoners. But a whole troop declined to 
follow Colonel Yan Bosse, who was dangerously 
wounded in the shoulder. The cowards wera 
next day deservedly cashiered and disarmed I 

Meanwhile Lord Hopton was making a 
f ormitiable demonstration in force near Fai uham. 
Sir William Waller is said to havehaa withhira 
only biz troops of hoi so, the rest of his cavalry 
having been despatched to Odiham and other 
places, but his scouts weie active and intelligent. 
It seems probable that Lord Hopton 
only intended to pi'ovent the retreat of 
his infantry from being discovered, he 
having sent off part of his foot towards 
Alresford either on this or the previous d y. 
He had also, in a proclamation, in which he 
stylos l^imself '* Field-Maishal-G^eneral of His 
lla;ssty's Western Forces," summoned all 
Hampshire men between the ages of sixteen and 



sixty to appear in arms for the King at Win- 
chester. . Upon the near approach of the 
assaiUnts two guns were fire I, which made ooui- 
plete lanes through the Cavaliers, who were 
Slid, pr.)bibly with exaggeration, to number 
eight thousand. A preliminary skirmish took 
pi ice between 300 horse of each party, and 
the miin fight was in the park. After a few 
shots had been fired the Oivaliers made a retio- 
gra le movement. A pursuit was ordered, and 
proved very successful, although the retreating 
troops ^^rdlied upon a hill neir adjoining." 
The Roundtiead newswriter says that Hopton 's 
men, aftsr a few hours, became disordered, 
that they lost m my officers and horses, and that 
about two o'clock in the afternoon they fled, 
going for the most pirt towards Basing House ; 
that many hundreds were slain, and that pri* 
soners reported that Lord Hopton was being 
carriado^ the field, as if dangerously wounded ; 
that only one of Waller's men was missing, and 
that his wounded were not numerous. 

But according to ^^Mercurius Aulicus" Sir 
Willi im 8 great victory was nothing a iter all 
He says that Hopton faced Farnham, and that 
Waller, not daring to come forth, fired two 
guns from the castle ** over every bodies' head," 
until towards the close of ** that dark misty 
day" the Cavaliei*s fell hick, followed by the 
Roundhead cavalry, who killed only one dra- 
goon, but lost five men themselves. The pur- 
suers did not give up the chase until they 
reached Hook, on the other side of Odiham, and 
Waller despatched a messenger to the Pailia- 
m'3nt, who reached London on the afternoon of 
Wednesday, November 29th, and found the 
mambars of both Houses listening to the Fast 
S rmon at St. Margaret's, Westminster. Master 
Bridges was the preacher, and his subject was 
** Though God do suffer the enemies of His 
Church to be great and exceeding many, yjc 
Goi will raise up a power to withstand and 
overpower them." *' After the sermon was done 
the House of Commons went to the Parliament 
House, and there sat very late." But in those 
*'good old times" Parliament met at nine 
o'clock in the morning, and every unpunctual 
member was to be fined twelve pence ! 

On Wednesday, November 29th, the Round- 
head hoise penetrated to Odiham and Basing- 
stoke, giving divers alarms that day and the 
following night, and bringing back five of Lord 
Crawford's troopers, together with their horses. 



88 



Waller's Vindication. 



On Thursday, November S^'th, Hopton with- 
drew his outposts from Odiham, Basingstoke, 
and Long Sutton, and retired towards Winches- 
ter. Loid Crawford with his cavalry took post 
at Alton, Lord Hopton himself quartering his 
men at Andover, Winchester, Alresford, Peters- 
field, and the intervening villap^es. Basing 
House was left to take care of itself, but Sir 
William Waller was at present in no mood to 
try conclusions with the Marquis and his brave 
little garrison. 

On November 30th the counties of Sussex 
and Surrey were ordered by the House of Com- 
mons to raise, " either by press or volunteers, 
the 800 Foot set upon them/' and Sir William 
was to send officers "to receive them as they are 
levied." Within three or four days Waller 
went himself to London more effectually to 
solicit recruits than his letters had been able 
to do. 

Listen to his own account of the treatment 
he received ("Waller's "Vindication," pp. 13-18): 
" I confess after that defeat which I received 
at the Devizes (July 13th, 1643), upon my 
return to London, I found, contrary to my ex- 
pectation, a multitude of friends, populum ami- 
coTum^ in the Independent party that appeared 
for me. In that heat, as the sun is ever hottest 
after a cloud, I had an offer from them of a 
very considerable army, to be raised and put 
under my command, with a constant main- 
tenance for it, if I would engage myself to 
maintain none but godly officers, such as should 
be recommended to me. Unto which I replied 
that I desired nothing more than to have such 
officers about me as might be remarkable 
for that spot, as Moses calleth it ; but I wished 
them to consider that there went more to the 
making up of an officer than single honesty. 
Alia ratio boni civis et honi viri, as Aristotle said 
in another case. A good man might make a 
good soldier, but there must go the good man 
and the good soldier to the composition of a 
good officer. I besought them likewise to weigh 
my condition, how I stood answerable with my 
life and honour, for any miscarriage that diould 
fall out in the service, and that it would be a 
poor plea for me to say that it was the officers' 
fault, when it might be justly retorted upon 
me as mv fault that I took such officers. This 
I assured them, that where I could find persons 
qualified with piety and ability, such faithful 
centurions as knew how to oommand, and when 



to say go, come, do this, I would prefer them 
before all others. But in the want of thom I 
looked to be excused if for the aovantaee of 
the service I made bold to employ such aa 
should appear to be able soldiers, although they 
were not otherwise so refined men as I might 
wish. And to the end that there might be a 
fair choice, and to obviate all exceptions, the 
Parliament having voted a considerable body to 
be raised for me, I appointed a council of war, 
whereof Sir Arthur Uesilrigg was President, to 
examine the merits of evexy man that should 
stand to bear any office in that army, with 
power to cross all such out of the list as should 
be judged unfit or unworthy to be employed. 
But tlus did not satisfy, and I then founa that 
they had it in their design to model and form 
an army that should be all of their own paity, 
and devoted to their own ends. Upon this we 
differed. I trusted not them, nor they me, and 
so we agreed. From that time forward I m y 
date the expiration of their friendship. 
It is true that long after, and so long indeed 
as I held my command, I was kept up by them, 
but 1 could plamly perceive it was but in the 
nature of a stale, in opposition to that noble 
Lord the Earl of £ssex, whom they feared, and 
therefore hated implacably, and they were 
willing enough to foment those differences 
between his lordship and me, to the prejudice 
of the public service, that they might make 
their ends upon us both, and gain the better 
pretence to bring on their new model. In what 
condition I was maintained may be demon- 
strated by the Treasurer, Mr. John Trenchard, 
his aocounts, where it will appear that from the 
time of my setting forth unto my disbanding I 
never received full 100,000/., an inconsiderable 
sum compared with what others had, and yet 
oot of that stock I was fain to play the good 
husband, and to be at the charge to pay for part 
of my arms and ammunition Besides this 
they would be sure I should never have an entire 
body of my own, but so compounded of city 
and country regiments that when they pleased 
they might take me in pieces like a clock, and 
this was the true reason why I could never 
improve any successes, because these adven- 
titious borrowed forces, having no dependence 
upon me, but upon those that sent them, would 
not follow me further than pleased themselves, 
but would be ready to march home when they 
should have pursued their point, as if they had 



Hi8 Difficulties. 



89 



done enough when they had done anything. 
Tet snch were the charities which I met with in 
the world, that it was made my tsLuli that, like 
Joaah, I gave over shooting sooner than I should 
have done, when, in truth, I had no more arrows 
left to shoot. From time to time I was put 
upon all disadvantages that might lessen me in 
my reputation, and expose me to ruin. . . , 
So that, in effect, I was in no better condition 
than those gladiators of old among the Romans, 
preserved awhile, to perish in the end, and kept 



only to be lost. This was the friendship I 
parted with 1 '* Thus speaks Sir William 
Waller. 

It has been a difficult task to describe these 
somewhat confused operations at and nearFam- 
ham, owing to certain discrepancies in the 
accounts given by the various actors in the 
drama, but every statement which I have made 
rests, not on conjecture, but on the authority 
of contemporaneous records. 



CtaAPTBB XV. — ^Dbpbncb op the Islb op Wight — ^Naval E8TImate»--€aptain Swanlby'0 
Prisoners — The Sussex Cavalikrs — ^Lord Hopton is Reinforced. — Letter to Prikcb 
BuPERT — Forays into Sussex — Fight at South Hartino. 



The early days of December, 1643, saw due 

Sroyision made for naval mattexs, and for the 
efence of the Isle of Wight. On Thurnday 
December 7th, the Deputy Lieutenants and 
Treasurers of the Isle of Wight were instructed 
to pay Captain Soofield the sum of 802. 
*' towards his raising and convejring thitier 100 
soldiers," and four days later we hoar of 500 
men being embodied for the same destination, 
in addition to 200 formerly enrolled, and duly 
ferried across the Solent. We learn alao that 
'* whereas several fortifications are making in 
the said Island by Ordinance of Parliament," 
William and Thomas Bowreman and Thomas 
Came, Esquires, were to be a standing Commit- 
tee for the purposes of defence. 

On Satutday« December 9th, the Naval Esti- 
mates for the year were discussed in Parliament, 
and 5000 men were voted **for next year's 
fleet," which was to consLst of 46 ships. Of 
these two were to be second rates, whilst the 
third rates were to be nine in number. There 
were to be 20 fourth rates, 10 fifth rates, and 
five sixth rates, 26 of the whole fleet being 
men-of-war, and 20 hired merchant ships ; 
light ships were to cruise to the westward, 16 
watching the estuary of the Severn and the 
coast of Ireland meanwhile. The Downs, the 
coasts of Scotland,and the northern shore of the 
Emerald Isle were protected by three squadrons, 
each consisting of eight ships. Three thousand 
men were to be employed in BO men-of-war, and 
the merchant ships for the next wintor guard-, 
which was to lapt for five months, at a cost of 
60,000/. Tbe expenditure for 5000 men during 
the eight mouths summer guard of the year 
1644 was estimated to amount to 130,000/. The 
ordinary expense of the whole Navy in haibour 
during the year 1644 was to be 18.000/. The 
•um of 20,000/. was voted for ''extra- 



ordinary and ordinary service in the office of the 
Ordnance." The cost of victualling 4000 men 
for six months in forty ships '* supposed to be 
sent to sea as rep: isals, according to a late ordi- 
nance," was to be 24,000/. The " payment of 
ordinary for this year, the winter guard now 
at sea, the freights of sundry merchant ships 
already discharged, arrears, sundries, &c.,*' 
amounted to 140,000/., and the whole vote for 
naval expenditure for the year 1644 was 
392,000/. 

Lo.*d Clarendon was horrified to hear that 
the Parliament had laid a weekly assessment of 
10,000/. upon the City of London, and that their 
weekl v revenue from the whole kingdom was no 
less than 33.518/., or 1,742,936/. per annum. 
He says that 20,000/. was the largest sum ever 
raised by taxation in any previous year. What 
would the worthy Chancellor think of the Bad- 
get for the year of grace 1882 ? 

An amusing description of the willingness of 
the citizens of London to aid the Parliament 
by their contributions is as follows : — 

** And now, my Lord, sinoe yon have London left, 
Where merchantB* vives dine cheap, and as cheap sup, 
Where fools themselves have of their (ilate bereft^ 
And sigh and drink in the coarse pewter cnp ; 
Where's not a silver spoon left, not that ^iven them 
When the hrst Cockney was made Christian : 
No, not a bodkin, pin-case ; all they send, 
Or carry all, whatever they can hap on. 
E'en to t.:e pretty picktooth. whose each end 
Oft pnri^ed the relics of oontinnal capon. 
Nothing must stay behind, nothing must tarty. 
No, not the ring by which dear John took Harry." 

— Penny Atagatine for 1S44, 

Nor were the ladies more backward in behalf of 
the cause, for in a satirical ball id, entitled 
'' The Sale of RebeUion^s Household Stuff,*' the 
following lots are, amongst others, offered for 
sale: — 



Captajm Swamley*s Prisonebs. 



91 



** Hera** the pnne of th«*piibUo fuih, 
H«re*t thm moi«l of tbe MqVMtraiion, 
Wbmn the good wiT«i.apon thetr ^wtd troti^ 
Jjent thimMee to reviire the uitioB. 

Our old acqnaintanoe Captain Swanley, who 
foraarly expected to bombard Soathamp- 
ton, was in oommand of one of the ahipe sent 
to the coast of Ireland. 

A trooo had been made at Sigginatown, in 
the Coanty Kildare, on Septeml^r 16th, 1643, 
which allowed two regiments of infantry of 
excellent quality, though numerically weak, 
uder the command of Sir Charles Vavasour 
and Sir John Pawlet, and a g.x>d troop of horse 
under the command of Captain Bridges, to be 
brought over from Munster to Bristol, to the 
aid of Lord Hopton, wno, thus reinforced, 
adwanoed to Salisbury, Winchester, Basing, and 
FaJ^ham, as has been already described. 

Speaking of this truce, the Rev. C. P 
Meehan says : ** Every creek and harbour sud- 
denly became infestea with the Parliamentary 
craisers, so much so that it was diffi. ult to send 
men or money out of Ireland. The orders 
issned by the Parliament to their p irtisans on 
the und were only equalled by the Algenne 
ferocity of their cruis)is on th ; seas. Out of 
150 men, who about this time sailed for Bristol, 
and who were taken by one 8wanly, at sea, 70, 
bcflidea two women, were thrown overboard, 
because they were supposed to be Irish. Nor 
did the Irish retaliate, for soon afterwards, fall- 
ing in with a ship which had on board 50 Kirk 
miniaters deputed to preach up and administer 
the Covenant in Ulster, they contented them- 
■elves with making them prisoners. This fatal 
trace was the source of ail these miseries, and 
the co^st, which hitherto had been so watchfully 
guarded, was now swarmmg with rebel ships, 
wlioae commanders showed no mercy to such as 
had the misfortune to fall into their hands.'* 
In addition to the troops from Ireland meu- 
tioned above, Lord Hopton had also two regi- 
ments of infantry under the command of Sir 
John Berkeley, who had raised them in Devon- 
■hire,80 that his whole force amounted to at least 
SOOa foot, and about 1500 horse, with the ad- 
vantage of a most .dvantageous base of opera- 
tions at Winchester. 

For some time the Cavaliers of Sussex and of 
the adjacent districts of Hampshire had, accord- 
ing to Clarendon, unfortunately, like their 
fiends of the same party in other counties, 



formed '^ so good an opinion of their own re- 
putation and interest that they were able, upon 
the assistance of few troops, to suppress their 
neighbours who were of the other party, and 
who, upon advantage of the power they were 
possessed of, exercised their authority over them 
with great rigour and insolence." 

Accordingly no sooner had Lord Hontem 
established himself at Winchester, the castle of 
which had been re-fortified by Sir William, 
afterwards Lord, Ogle, than he received confi- 
dential messages from these fiiends to the King 
with offers ** That if he would advance into 
their country they would underta e, in a short 
time, to make great levies of men for the recruit 
of his army ; and likewise to possess themselvet 
of such places as they should be well able to 
defend, and ttiereby keep that part of the 
country in the King's obedience.'* 

Clarendon says that the county of Sussex was 
one in which ^^ the King had hitherto had no 
footing." The Bev. H. D. Gordon says, " This 
evidently means no army or garrison, for the 
majority of the Sussex gentry, with one or two 
marked exceptions, at that time were staunch 
Roy lists. T he most notable exception was at 
Pet worth, whose owner, Algernon Percy, tenth 
Earl of Northumbeiland, was one of the grei^ 
Parliamentarian leaders, second only to the Earl 
of Essex, the Oenend. One Henry Percy, how- 
ever, seems to have commanded the ordnance at 
Gloucester for the King ('Match — The ordi- 
nary rate is 30s. per cent. ; for locks and breets, 
Is. a-peece ; for iron shot, 161b. (£) a tonne. 
Asher Comper, before Gl mcester, t le 21st Aug., 
H. Percy, General of the Artillery.' — * State 
Papers, Domestic,' 1643, No. 336), and afterwards 
Oliver Whitby, the Royalist Rector of Petworth, 
lay hid in a hollow tree for shelter, as Charles 
II. did in Boscobel Oak. With the exception of 
Petwoith Hou83 and the famous Mr. Yalden,of 
Blackdown Hill, who entertained Cromwell, the 
remaining poweis of West ISussex and the 
neighbourhood of Hampshire were Royalists. 
On the immediate frontier of Hampshire, the 
seat of war. Sir William Ford, of Up Park, and 
Sir Edward Ford, his son (knighted at Oxford 
and made Sheriff of Sussex, and afterwards the 
commander of Arundel), and Sir John Caryll, 
his son at Harting Place, Parson Caryll, of 
Harting, and the Coopers, of Ditcham, near 
Petersfield, were the most active and darix^ 
Cavaliers. If, therefore, the King had *ao 



92 



The Sussex Cavaliers. 



footing in Snssez/ it was not for want of 
friends. Of course, on the seaboard the Parlia- 
ment canse was supreme." 

Sir Edward Ford was in command under Lord 
Hopton of a regiment of horse, in which many 
Sussex gentlemen had enrolled themselves. 
These all urged Lord Hopton to send some troops 
into Sussex, as Waller was not likely to advance 
from Famham,so that they might the better be 
able to raise men for the King's service. They 
undertook also to secure Arundel Castle, which, 
" standing near the sea, would yield great ad- 
vantage to the King's service, and keep that 
rich comer of the country at His Majesty's de- 
votion." Lord Hopton finding that he could 
not make any further impression upon the gar- 
rison of Famham, and having certain informa- 
tion that Sir William WaUer had gone to London 
to be "feasted and lectured," thought it a fit- 
ting opportunity to comply with the importuni- 
ties of the Sussex Cavaliers, whose estates had, 
since the preceding April, been entirely at the 
mercy of certain Parliamentarian sequestra- 
tors, one of whom was Colonel Herbert Morley, 
who in the following year played no unim- 
portant part during the siege of Basing House. 

Lord Hopton paid a hurried visit to Oxford 
during the month of December, 1643, probably 
with a view of urging in person an advance 
into Sussex, which he had already recommended 
by frequent lettem. He was extremely anxious 
to compel Sir William Waller to give battle, 
and informed the King that the design was per- 
fectly feasible "if he had the addition of a 
regiment or two of foot, the quarter of Sussex 
he proposed to visit being a fast and enclosed 
countrv, and Arundel Castle having a garrison 
in it, though not numerous or well provided, as 
being without apprehension of an enemy." 

The King had only intended during the 
winter to stop Waller in the west, and to recruit 
his own forces so as to take the field early in 
the following spring, knowing that his enemies 
meant to be stirring betimes. But Lord 
Hopton 's strong position at Winchester and 
the oft-repeated solicitations of the Sussex 
Cavaliers made many persons think that the op- 
portunity ought not to be lost. 

The Cavaliers of Kent were anxious to strike 
a blow for the Royal cause, and it was thought 
that the union of Kent and Sussex might form 
the ^ basis of a powerful association of the 
gonthem counties on the King's behalf. Lord 



Hopton accordingly received permission to 
prosecute hii design, if at the same time he felt 
sure of being able to check Waller's march 
towards the west. Stout old Major-General 
Sir Jacob Astley was sent towards Winchester 
from Reading with 1000 disciplined troops, 
drawn from the garrisons of Reading, Walling- 
ford, and Oxford, Colonel Boles, of whom we 
shall hear more hereafter, being in command of 
the detachment from Wallingford. 

Lord Hopton being thus reinforced, and find- 
ing that Sir William Waller had concentrated 
his army at Farnham under the protection of 
the Castle, had betaken himself to London to 
solicit reinforcements, determined to march at 
once into Sussex. Just then h'^ received a most 
unwelcome letter from Prince Rupert ordering 
Colonel Gerrard's regiment to rejoin the Prince's 
own force, from whi h it had recently been de- 
tached. Mr. Warburton gives the reply of 
Lord Hopton, which throws considerable light 
upon the state of affairs at this critical juncture. 
It is as follows : — 

" May it please your Highness, — ^Your High- 
ness's commands concerning Colonel Gerrard*s 
regiment, as all other your command^, I shall 
ever be most ready to obey. I shall only offer 
to your Highness my present difBcuHy, which 
is, that we being here, near the enomy, and our 
horse decreasins; much, I am doubt "ul lest, in 
sparing a good old regiment, I may f i ve the enemy 
too great an advantage upon me in this champaign 
country ; unless your Highness will please to do 
me the favour to send me some other regiment 
that hath hai rest, till this be recreated. The 
truth is, the duty of the service here is insupport- 
able, were it not in this cause, where there is so 
great a necessity either of prevailing through 
all difficulties, or suffering them to prevail, 
which cannot be thought of in good English, 
therefore, if your Highness resume the horse 
regiment, I should be glad to give these some 
ease as I could. — I rest in all humility and faith- 
fulness, your Highness's most humbly devoted 
servant, Ralph Hopton. — Alrosford, Dec. 1643. 

For a full account of Colonel Gerrard and hit 
gallant kinsmen, the reader is referred to p. 79 
of the admirable and exhaustive work on ** The 
Two Battles of Newbury," by W. Money, Esq., 

F.8.A. 

The time seemed propitious for an advance 
into Sussex, into which county a party of 
Cavaliers had already made a raid some few 



Fight at South Habting. 



93 



weeks previonsly. The Scottish Dove, of 
October :^7tb, 1643, says : — " The Oayaliera have 
lately been at Pet worth (in Sussex), the Earle 
of Morthamberland's houses from whence they 
tooke twenty brave horse, and carried them to 
Oxford.' 

From the Perfect Diumall, of Friday, Novem- 
ber 23rd, 1 643, we learn that a portion of the 
garrison of Basing House had also rein oroed 
Lord Uopton, "and the common vote of the 
people speak him to be 8000 horse and foot, but 
very much unarmed. That they pr< ss hard 
towards Kent, and some of them are got as far 
as Pctworth, in Sussex.'* 

The dct ichment which thus visited Petworth 
for the second time was under the command of 
Lord Crawford, who was, however, speedily 
obliged to retire, and to take post at Alton. 

On the night of Thursday, November 23rd, 
1643, theie was a fight at South Harting, in 
Sussex. The register of that pa.ish contains 
the following entry, ^' There were 3 souldiers 
buried. Novr. 24th, 1643." The Rev. H. D. 
Gordon says, " Following this hint, and assum- 
ing ftom the loyalty of the parish that the 

* three souldiers' were King s men, I found, on 
inquiry, that there was a vague local tradition 
that there had been some fight under the Downs 
in a field on the east side of Harting, named the 

* Culvers,' adjoining Harting Vicarage, and that 
Oliver had been in the town. Subsequent 
search verified this entry of the register to an 
hour, and the exact spot indicated by the old 
nien's traditi n. These three soldiers were part 
of the Royalist cavalry on their way to Arundel, 
detached from Alton or Basing by Ludovic 
Lindsay, 15th Earl of Crawford, who was 
Ix)rd Hopton's chief cavalry officer.*' 

'* The register dates the burial on Friday, 
November 24th. On the previous night, Thurs- 
day JS'ovember 23rd, there had been, as the 'Mer- 
cnrius Aulicus ' or *Court Mercury ' of Sunday, 
December 10th, p. 7 7,de8cribe8, a fight at South 
Harting. It appears that the Royalist cavalry 
entered the village first, very weary from a long 
inarch, and took up their quarters. Some 400 
of the much despised Parliamentarian dragoons, 
under Colonel Norton, accidentaUy, it seems, 
caught the King's men asleep in South Hart- 
ing. But the six officers of the King's force 
who were quartered at Sir John Caryll's house 
near the church (Harting Place) were equal to 



the occasion, and passing along a lane at the 
back of the church, named Typpei-lane, they 
cleverly pi iced themselves in the Oulverrs fitJdfl 
between the hills and their enemy. Then, rily- 
ing on the fact that none are so mui-h exposed 
to panic as those who are trying to fiij; ten 
others, they charged the enemy, giving the 
signal * Follow, follow,' which in t e darkness 
would give the impression to the Pariiamen- 
tari ns that some Oi^ tie King's forces on the 
way to Arundel had been signalled back, and 
were coming down the hill liKe an av.ilan he.'* 

The following is the text of the '' Mi rcuriui 
Aulicus " of fcunday, Dec. 10th, 16-13 (HpoUing 
modernised): — **This day I was certain ly in- 
formed by an eye-witness of credit of one of 
the noblest pieces of cowardice that over at- 
tended a bad cause and conscience. It happened 
on Thursday, the 23rd of November liibt,i,uat in 
the dead of night about six score of the l!^ail of 
Crawford's regiment came into a village in 
Sussex, calltd South Harting, a pla e suffi- 
ciently known by leason it is the c« u^tant seat 
of the noble Knight and brave housekeeper Sir 
John Caryll. They entered the village very far 
spent with travel, want of sleep, and food, and 
extremely weather beaten with a rainy, stormj 
night. These their sufferings and indisposi- 
tions caused them presently to qutrter them- 
selves in the several houses of the t wn, only six 
of the chief officers and a boy lay in the 
Knight's house. Within less than an uour after, 
when all of them were now taking their rest| 
the famous Colonel Norton, of Hampshire, 
enters the village, not knowing till he was in 
the town that any of the King's soldiciswere 
there, but having notice thereof and of the 
assurance, by taking them utterly unpiovided 
for defence, that he might safely show a brave 
proof of his valour, he caused his men to rank 
themselves ten and ten, and so to m ke good 
every door and house of the town that none 
might escape, which being done, t. e rel els cry 
* Horse, horse,' in the street, which tiie King's 
soldiers mistaking to be the call of th( ir own 
commanders, offered in diveis places to come 
forth, but were presently shot or kilhd, so that 
seeing no possibility of bringing forth themselves 
or their horses into the street, almost all of 
them fled by backways on foot to s;ive them- 
selve6,leaving the rebels outrageoubly domineer- 
ing in the town, shooting into all houses and at 



94 



Sib William Waller Reinforced. 



•II persons, and barbaronaly nnng such of the 
King's men as their valour enableia to make any 
opposition. 

" In this hurly-burly word was given to the 
nx officers in the Knight's house how the town 
and their soldiers were surprised by the rebels. 
These six men^ with one boy, took horse, rushing 
out by a back lane upon ttie 400 rebels, for so 
have some of their own company since protested 
to have been their number, and crying out 
Follow, follow, follow,* as if they had already 
chased them, charged in upon them with so 
much fury and undaunted courage that they 
routed them, and presently drove them, killing 
and wounding them, quite through t' e town, 
forcing them over hedges and ditches, killing as 
many as the rebels had done of theirs, that is, 
•ome half-a-dozen, taking two prisoners, one of 
which being the trumpeter, wounding very 
many, having but five or six of theirs, and but 
one of these much wounded, the Earl of Craw- 
ford's own comet, but not dangerously, and 
brought off all their own arms and divers of the 
rebels' horse, with all Captain Botsworth'a 
.luit of arms (probably Bets worth of Milland). 
*' The rebels having since been faithfully 
acquainted with the truth of their beating, and 
how that their 400 horse and dragooners were 
so lamentably beaten and chased away by only 
six men and a boy (but when they were in their 
chase and flight here and there two or three 
soldiers btept out of their places where they hid, 
and lent some blows to their fellows), one of 
the rebels swore solemnly in these true and re- 
markable words, * By , we deserve all to be 

chronicled for the veryest cowards that ever 
lived I ' " Such was the fight at South Harting. 
On Friday, December 1 st, we hear of liord 
Hop ton's troops being at Andover and Win- 
chester, and that Sir William Waller was 
receiving reinforcements from Kent. Prince 
Maurice was half inclined to raise the siege of 
Plymouth, and to march to join Lord Hopton 
at or near Basing House. On the afternoon of 
Saturday, December 2nd, Sir William Waller 
reached London from Famham, and had a con- 
ference with the Earl of Essex at his house in 
the Strand. He asked for and obtained rein- 
forcements, and set out again for Farhham on 
the following Monday morning. On Tuesday, 
December 5th, Mr. Trenchard, the Chairman to 
the Committee of Accounts, was directed to give 
three days' pay *' to Colonel Pottley's men that 



lie here in Middlesex, to carry them to Sir 
William Waller." These troops were to be 
sent at once under an officer appointed by Mr. 
Trenchard. Colonel Pottley himself meanwhile 
writes from Farnham that Hopton's forces had 
beaten up one of their opponents' quarters, bat 
had done but little harm. On Saturday, Dec. 
9th, Mr. Trenchard was ordered to write to Sir 
William Waller, requesting him to send officers 
to take command of Colonel Pottley's men, each 
of whom was to receive a fortnight's pay upon 
arrival at Famham. Soldiers refusing to march 
were ** to be proceeded against according to the 
Law Martial," and Colonel Pottley was to be 
ordered to cashier those captains of his regiment 
that Mr. Trenchard had certified to be unworthy 
of their command. 

There was a report that the King had slept 
at Basing House on the night of Sunday, Dec. 
3rd, having brought with him 2000 horscbesides 
foot, and that he had since returned to Beading, 
taking with him much plate and treasure from 
Basing House, intending to cut his way through 
Waller's army,and to march into Kent. Another 
statement was to the effect that the King had 
sent for " plate and other ornaments for cere- 
monies of State from Basing House to Beading, 
where HisMajesty intends to keep hisChristmas," 
but the sole foundation for these reports seems 
to have been that some of the Royal cooks came 
to Basing House about this time with the 
Prince's regiment. On Saturday, December 
9th, a lieutenant of the Green Regiment of 
Trained Bands, quartered at Farnham, says that 
for some time past there had been alarms both 
by night and aay, and that on Monday, Dec. 
4th, he had been sent out in command of a 
forlorn hope of 80 musketeers to face the 
Cavaliers, who, "after some small firing and 
some great gun shot, ran away." On Tuesda;^, 
December 5th, a strong regiment joined Sir 
William Waller at Farnham from Kent. This 
reinforcement was the more welcome, as the 
London Trained Bands were now eagerly 
desirous to turn their faces homewards. On 
Monday, December 4th, a letter from the Earl 
of Essex was read in the House of Lords to 
the effect that Sir William Waller reports the 
King to be advancing towards Basin^r with all 
his forces, whilst his own army is but weak, and 
is in great want of recruits. The sum of 10002. 
was at once voted for the relief of Sir William 
Waller, who asserted that Lord Hopton's anny 



Lord Hopton's March to Arundel. 



95 



was three times as nameTOOs as his own. There 
were said to be 8000 men in arms for the Par- 
liament in Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, who were 
" not willing to have Sir John Culpepper made 
Viceroy, nor Sir Edward Deering Bishop of 
Canterbury.*' The only road for Cavaliers to- 
wards Kent lay through Sussex, " which they 
will at this season not be able to do." 

Liord Hopton, however, meant to try what 
could be done^ and taking advantage of an 
exceptionally hard frost, made his way with 
great ease over roads which were usually at that 
season of the year almost impassable, *^ and he 
came to Arundel before there was any imagina- 
tion that he had that place in his prospect." 

The Rev. H. D. Gordon says '• The cavalry 
force of Hopton in this brilliant feat passed • 
over the downs to Arundel, vik Petersfield, 
Harting, and Marden, and in order to secure 
the line of communication, Petersfield and 
Harting Place were for the time garrisoned for 
the King. Colonel Sir Edward Ford's own 
regiment was quartered at Up Park throughout 
December to guard the passes in the hills, which 
were their chain of communication with Win- 
chester and Oxford, and the possession of which 
secured their retreat." 

" The pleas of Sir William Ford, of Up Park, 
and John Caryll,of Harting," at the close of the 
war, are to be found amongs^ the Royalist 
Compositions, and show clearly the positions 
stated above. Caryll pleads *^ That your peti- 
tioner being at his father's house, called Harting 
in Sussex, which is in the midway direct from 
Winchester to Arundel, and the King's forces 
having made a garrison in the said house about 
December, 164B, Sir Ralph Hopton coming 
thither with part of his army, commanded your 

Petitioner to. attend him to Arundel, where he 
etained your petitioner until the Castle was 
taken by Sir WiUiam Waller." Sir William 
Ford, of Harting, Knight, complained that 
" 2000 coards of wood had been cut down in 
Harting Park (Up Park) for satisfaction of 
wrongs done to ceiiaine countrey people there- 
about by some parties of horse of Col. Ford, his 
tonne's, regiment." 

Whilst himself on the march to Arundel 
Lord Hopton despatched a detachment of 
cavalry to attack Lord Lumley*s house at Stan- 
stead, in the parish of Stoughton, in Sussex, 
*' which was then a ca8*«llated building, with a 
tnrreted gateway and a courtyard. As one of 



the possessions of the FitzAlans it had passed 
in 1580 on the death of the last Earl of Arundel 
of that name to Lord Lumley, the husband of 
Jane, one of his co-heiresses. It had, however, 
since his death been sold to Richard Lewknor." 
The Royalists were repulsed with loss by Col. 
Morley, or, as some say, by Colonel Stapley, or 
by Colonel Norton, of Southwick Park, and 
Endymion Porter's son, or brother (accounts 
vary) was **8ore wounded and taken prisoner." 
Lloyd's Memoirs says '^ Loyal blood like 
Harvies' went round the Porters' from the 
highest to the meanest, 26 of the name bavins 
eminently suffered for His Majesty." Colond 
Stapley is said to have faced the assailants with 
his regiment of horse, and to have fired guns at 
them, killing 250 men and capturing 300 horses 
This account, however, lacks confirmation. 

Colonel Norton, who was in command, during 
the absence of the Earl of Pembroke, of the 
cavalry raised in the four associated counties 
of Hants, Surrey, Kent, and Sussex, seems to 
have been posted at Cowdray House, the noble 
mansion of Lord Montague, which was taken by 
Lord Hopton, who placed a garrison in it, and 
also in Lord Lumley's mansion at Stanstead, 
which soon afterwards fell into his hands. 
Colonels Norton and Stapley commanded at 
Stanstead and Cowdray, but it is difficult to 
state whioh of these two commands either of 
them held. 

Colonel Anthony Stapley, of Patcham, as we 
are told by Mr. Blaauw, had in the preceding 
September prepared the garrison of Chichester, 
of which city he was the Governor, to march to 
the assistance of Sir William Waller, who was 
then in Dorsetshire. He was in 1640 and 1656 
returned both for Lewes and the countv, and in 
both instances,sat for the county. AltLough he 
had married the sister of the Royalist Lord 
Goring he was a zealous adherent of the Parlia- 
ment, taking the Covenant on Feb. 5th, 1644. 
He was one of the King's Judges, and signed 
his death warrant. Clarendon ranks him " in 
the number of the bladcest offenders." He 
died in 1658. 

Yarious preparations were made to check 
Lord Hopton's advance, but to no purpose, and 
a Parliamentarian officer, who is thought to 
have been Colonel Edward Apsley, of Worminff •> 
hurst, has left an interesting account of hu 
adventures and capture at this period. It is too 
long for insertion here, but is given in eseUmo 



96 



Arundel Castle Surrenders. 



both by Mr. Blaanw and Mr. Hillier. Lord 
Hoptoa reached Arundel on Wednesday, 
Dec mber 6th. Clarendon tells us that the 
position was naturally a strong one, and that 
the BO .new hat antiquated fortifications were in 
good repair, the moat being both broad and deep. 
The garrison of fifty-five men, although not 
•nffici?ntly numerous to hold out for any con- 
8idera<)lj perL)d, was nsyerthaless strong enough 
to r jp d any sudden assiult. But neither pro- 
visions nor ammunition, though often demanded, 
were abnndant within the walls, and Captain 
Capcot had not expected so nnwelcome an 
arrival. Accordingly, on Saturday, December 
9th, 1643, being the third day after Lord 
Hop ton's entry into Arundal, a threat of severity 
in case of assault was sufficient to effect the 
surrender of the castle. The besieging force 
was estimated at fully 2000 men. On December 
7th the Committee at Lewes informed Parlia- 
ment that the town of Arundel had been taken, 
and the castle besieged and in great danger, 
" whereupon, on December 9th, John Baker, of 
Mayfield, was appointed High Sheriff of 
Sussex, and the four associated counties of Kent, 
Sussex, Surrey, and Hamps'jire were ordered 
to try to relieve Arundel Castle, *'to clear the 
County of Sussex," and to secure that county, 
consulting to that end with the Earl of North- 
umberland, Lieut, of Sussex. Some of the Parlia- 
mentarian garrison joined Lord Hopton, others 
were made prisoners, and the townsmen of 
Arundel, who favoured the Parliament, were 
severely dealt with. Sir Edward Ford was 
appointed Governor, with a garrison of above 
200 men, provisions were collected, and the 
B lodes ditch made, as well as an earthwork 
connecting the Swanbourne Lake with the works 
surrounding the Little Park. Lord Hopton, who 
had also left a garrison at Cowdrav, and had 
been c ;eckedby Colonel Herbert Money, at the 
Bramber Bridge, near Lewes, was only able to 
remain six days at Arundel Castle. The Com- 
mittee of Sa ety wrote at once to the Earl of 
Essex, urging him to assist Sir W. Waller 
against the increasing Royalist forces in 
Hampshire and Sussex, and a contemporary 

Surnalist observes ** no doubt the rot was in 
antshire as well as Sussex, for it came thence!" 
Waller's journey to London had a successful 
issue. He exaggerated the strength of Lord 
Hopton^s army, and easily obtained aU neces- 
sary supplies and reinforcements. The True 



Informer of December 9th, 1643, has the follow- 
ing : — " That renowned and unmatcheable en- 
gineere, Collonol Wems. Lieutenant-G-enerall of 
the Ordinance and Traine unto Sir William 
Waller, according to the desire and appointment 
of the House of Commons in Parliament, went 
down from London on Tuesday ni:]^ht last, 
December 5th, with waggons laden with leather 
pieces of ordinance, and much other ammuni- 
tion, and is bv this time at Famham with Sir 
William Waller. Ther^ leather pieces are of 
▼ery great uso, and very easie and light of c;ir- 
riage. Ono horse may draw a poece, which will 
carry a bullet of a pounde and half e weight, 
and doe execution very farre. This is the said 
Colonel's particular invention, and will be of very 
greatservice untoSirWilliam s army , especially for 
this winter season." These leather guns were 
afterwards captured at Cropredy Bridge, 
loided with case shot. '^8000 from Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey are in armes against the 
Cavaliers.'* We shall meet some of these 
Surrey and Sussex men before Bjising ere long. 
The City of London was now requested to 
allow *' the longer stay of their forces,'* 5(X) men 
of the Windsor garrison were ordered to join Sir 
William Waller, t.'ie Kentish Committee wrote 
from Westerham to offer assistance, and Sussex 
was required immediately to pay 1080^. 5s. 5d., 
and to raise 125 horse. 

Numerous Cavaliers of rank had taken refuge 
at Winchester, amongst whom we may mention 
Bishop Curie and Dr. Peter Heylin. The latter 
was Rector of Alresford, and had written a 
"History of the Reformation.'* The Presby- 
terians hated him for having arranged his 
church according to the late injunctions. Chil- 
lingw rth, the clever author of " The Relij^ion 
of Protestants," accompanied Lord Hopton to 
Arundel Castle, and was there left with the 
office of what we should call Commanding Royal 
Engineer. 

The Parliamentarian regiments were re- 
cruited by means of impressment, voluntary 
enlistment, and also by allowing apprentices to 
count their time of military service as if it had 
been spent with their masters. But in this 
emergency the White and Yellow, two of the 
strongest regiments of the London Auxiliaries, 
were on December 13th, 1643, by consent of 
the City of London, which could re-call them 
at pleasure, ordered to march with all speed to 
Famham ; officers and men not marching out 



Preparing for Action. 



97 



were to be fined and imprisoned. Sir William 
Balfoar, with 1000 hone, was detached from 
the army of the Earl of Essex and placed 
under the command of Sir William Waller, who 



at once repaired to Famham, and speedily asoev^ 
taining that Lord Hopton*s forces were qnar< 
tered at too great distance from each other pi^ 
pared to strike a decisive blow. 



Chapter XVI. — Colonel Norton's Victory at Bomsey — ^Lord Crawford asks for Sack — 
Sir William Waller Attacks Alton — The Church Stormed—Disposal of Prisoners 
— Waller's March to Arundel — ^Sieqe of Arundel Castle — Skirmish at Havant 
— ^Warblington Castle — ^Arundel Castle Surrenders — Lord Crawford — Traces of 
THE Conflict. 



Sir William Waller now determined to attaek 
Lord Hopton*8 scattered f oroes in two places at 
once, ^* as beating up of quarters was his master 
piece." Colonel Norton, the " Idle Dick" of 
Cromwell, and now Governor of Southampton, 
received orders which he was not slow to execute. 
His old friend and comrade, Captain Francis St. 
Barbe, of Broadlands, had been slain in the first 
battle of Newbury, on the 20th of the preceding 
September, but he had as his subordinates 
Sergeant-Major (or Major) Murford, of whom 
frequent mention has already been made, and 
Captain Bowen. Major Murford's company was 
130 strong, whilst that of Captain Bowen 
mustered 96. Another account says Norton had 
less than 220 men. An attack was planned 
upon the town of Bomsey, which was then 
garrisoned b^ Col. Bennet's regiment of horse, 
variously estmiated to be both 1 30 and 200 strong, 
and a regiment of foot conmianded by Colonel 
Courtney, said to number 300, with a view of 
keeping in check the Parliamentarian garrison, 
which was ordered on Tuesday, November 29th, 
1642, to be established at Southampton. Sir 
Humphrey Bennet was, says Mr. Money, one 
of the Bennets of Pythouse, Wilts. Colonel 
Thomas Bennet was Prince Bupert's Secretary, 
and the family were staunch adherents to the 
Boyal cause. Sir Humphrey Bennet himself was 
High Sheriff of Southampton, and commanded 
a brigade of horse at the second battle of New- 
bury, which was fought on Saturday, 26th 
October, 1644. On this occasion his regiment 
oonsisted of nine troops, almost full, but having 
only two colours. We learn from a letter written 
at Southampton, on December 13th, that Colonel 



Norton*8 force left that town at three o*clock on 
the morning of December 12th. The forlorn 
hope was led by Lieutenant Terry, the first 
division by Sergeant-Major Murford, the main 
body by Colonel Norton, whilst Captain Bowen, 
with his men divided into two parties, brought 
up the rear. In this order they marched in 
suence to Romsey, which was reached about an 
hour after daybreak, whereupon the forlorn hope 
was sent to force its way over a bridge into the 
town. Major Murford, with some of his men, 
"fell upon their strong traverse, which was pre- 
sently quitted by their sentinels." He at once 
followed up his success, fought his way into the 
town, capturing the main guard, where- 
upon the Cavaliers threw down their arms 
and fled. Murford then entered several houses, 
and secured various prisoners, one of whom was 
" Captain Lieutenant Norton, brother to Colonel 
Norton, and a far honester man than himself.'* 
Seven Cavaliers were killed in the market-place, 
two of whom were captains. "Murford hath 
one of their commissions." Colonel Norton 
then entered the town with the main body of his 
forces, and the Cavaliers fled, most of them proba- 
bly taking the direction of Winchester. The pri 
soners, either 25 or 40 in number, included three 
captains, two lieutenants, one corporal, and 
several gentlemen. Nearly two hundred horses, 
numerous arms, and the magazines were cap- 
tured. Many muskets were broken by the 
victors, who also threw several barrels of powder 
into the river, and the triumphant Roundheads 
returned unmolested to Southampton. On the 
same night a party of thirty men sent from 
Southampton to Romsey brought back some 



Lord Gbawford Askb for "Sack." 



99 



plunder withont opposition, and on the follow- 
ing day there was a solemn thanksgiving for 
G^onel Norton's sncoess at Soathampton. 

The news of this disaster was bat u sad 
welcome to Lord Hopton, who returned to Win- 
chester from Arundel on the evening of De- 
camber 26th, but more doleful tidings still were 
to follow. It will donbtless be remembered 
that Lord Crawford had taken post at Alton. 
Our old friend Lieutenant Archer says on Fri- 
day, Deoember 1st, 1643, " towards the evening 
intelligenoe came that the Lord Crawford was 
come to Alton with a regiment of ho»e and 
another of foot, and began to fortify that town 
with all the speed he could, and that Sir Ralph 
Hopton hid quartered many of his men at 
Alresford and Petersfield, which was done in 
policy to keep our forces from Winchester, 
while their main body got into Sussex and 
Kent, at which time they took Arundel Castle, 
or within a day after." The infantrv regiment 
here referred to was largely composed of Welsh- 
men and Irishmen, and had been recently sent 
from the garrison of Wallingford to reinforce 
Lord Hopton. Clarendon says that it was about 
500 strong, but the epitaph of its Colonel states 
that it was not less than 1300. It was under the 
command of Colonel John Bolle, second son of 
Sir John Bolle, who died in 1606. He was an 
ancestor of the present Warden of Winchester 
College, to whom I am indebted for much 
information concerning him. This gallant 
soldier was a brother of Sir Charles Bolle, of 
Louth Hall, in Lincolnshire, who on one occa- 
sion concealed himself beneath the arch of a 
bridge near the gaol at Louth, whilst the 
enemy's troopers galloped unsuspectingly above 
his head. He raised a regiment amongst his 
tenants for the King, and gave the command of 
it to his brother John. 

Colonel John Bolle did great deeds at Edge- 
hill and other places at the head of his regiment, 
whose ranks, sadly thinned bv the ravages of 
war and disease, seem to have been afterwards 
filled with Welsh and Irish recruits. 

On the evening of Saturday, Dec. 9th, most 
of Waller's men were drawn up in Farnham 
Park, and a party was that night sent towards 
Alton, which beat up Lord Crawford's quarters, 
and afterwards fell back upon Farnham. But 
more stirring work was at hand. 

An attack in force upon Alton having been 
decided upon, Lieut. Archer says, " Tuesday, 



Dec. 12th, most of our men went presently 
into the town (Farnham) to refresh and prepare 
themselves for the service, where, although they 
before save their general consent, many of them 
stayed oehind, and went not with their colours. 
Nevertheless we advanced without them." 

During the morning hours of this memorable 
12th of December Lord Crawford had sent a 
messenger to Farnham, asking Sir William 
Waller to send him to Alton a runlet of sack, 
promising to send a fat ox in exchange. " Our 
worthy Sir WUliamsentin a loving compliment 
to the Lord Crawford half a hogi2iead of sack, 
who, mistrusting the matter and the messenger, 
caused the messenger and divers others to taste 
thereof, and then caused it to be carefully laid 
by for his own drinking." Sir William Waller 
demanded the promised ox, whereupon Lord 
Crawford replied that he would bring it him- 
self. Waller *^ fails not at nightfall to go in 
search of his ox, and, instead of a beast, brought 
away 565 prisoners." His men, 5000 in number, 
mustered without beat of drum in the park at 
Farnham, and commenced their march about 
seven o'clock in the evening, going in the 
direction of Basing House. But after advanc- 
ing about two miles the cavalry halted for an 
hour upon a heath between Crondall and Farn- 
ham, and awaited the arrival of the inf antnr, 
and thus reinforced continued their marda, 
which was favoured by the hard frost, which at 
this time lasted for six weeks without inter- 
mission. Lieut. Elias Archer says : ^* But 
having marched that way about two miles we 
returned to the left." Another eye-witness 
says that the whole force marched as if towards 
Basing until one o'clock in the morning, and 
then ** faced south towards Alton between the 
hiUs." Lieut. Archer says that they '*in a 
remote way between the wood and hills marched 
beyond Alton, and about nine o'clock on Wed- 
nesday morning, December 13th, came upon the 
west side of the town, where we had both the 
wind and hill to friend." Sir William Waller's 
scouts were vigilant, so that his main force ar- 
rived without attracting observation. **Mercurius 
Anlicus" admits that the Cavalier scouts had con- 
centrated their attention on the main road lead- 
ing from Farnham to Alton, not expecting an 
attack from any other quarter. Some of Sir 
William's scouts were captured, but others 
broaght information that Lord Crawford was 
quartered in the town with between 300 



100 



Waxleb Attacks Alton. 



and 500 hone, in addition to the infantry 
regiment of Colonel John BoUe. Scarcely 
had they made their report before Lord 
Crawford and his troopers were both seen and 
heard galloping at speed out of the town towards 
Winchester, having promised their comrades 
of the infantry that they would speedily return 
with reinforcements. They quitted Alton on 
the eastern side, but being unexpectedly headed 
back by the Parliamentaiian horse, tbey galloped 
back through t e town, and rode to the south- 
ward direct for Winchebter. whilst in their rear, 
now sabeiing one, now capturing another, rode 
the pursuing mail-clad squadrons of Sir Arthur 
Haslerig, known as ** Lobsters," from their 
iron shells, and, says the stem Puritan 
chronicler, ^* our Foot made the woods ring with 
a shout." Three or four Cavaliers were slain 
in the pursuit, which was followed for about 
half a nule through narrow lanes, and about 30 
horses and some prisoners were taken by Sir 
Arthur*s men, who then returned and blocked 
up all the entrances to the town, leaving Lord 
Crawford and his men to make the best of their 
way to Winchester. 

Nor were the infantry idle meanwhile. 
Lieut. Archer says, " Then Sir William's own 
regiment of foot, Sir Arthur Haslerig*s five 
companies, and five companies of Kentishmen 
went on upon the north and north-west side, 
and ffave the first onset by lining of hedges and 
the like, but could not as yet come to any per- 
fect execution, in respect that our London Regi- 
ments were not come in sight of the enemy, 
and therefore they bent all their force against 
those three regiments, and lined divers houses 
with musqueteers, especially one great brick 
house near the church was full, out of which 
windows they fired very fast, and might have 
done great prejudice to those men, but that 
when our train of artillery came towards the 
foot of the hill they made certain shot, which 
took place upon that house, and so forced them 
to forsake it. In the meantime our London 
regiments and four companies that belong to 
Famham Castle came down the hill ;then the Red 
Regiment aud the Green coats and the four com- 
panies of FamhamCastle,set upona half moon and 
a breast work, which the enemy had managed, 
and from which they fired very hot and des- 
perately till the Green Auxiliaries marched on 
the other side of a little river into the town 
with their colours flying, and being in the wind 



of the enemy, fired a little thatched hooae, 
and so blinded them that this regiment 
marched forwards, and coming in part behind 
the works, fired upon them, so that they were 
forced to forsake the said half-moon and 
breast work, which they had no sooner left 
but presently the Green-coats and part of the 
musqueteers of the Red, and our Yellow regi- 
ment entered, while the rest of our regiment 
matched into the town with their colours 
flying.*' Another eye-witness, already referred 
to, says that the infantry advanced as far as 
the Market Place. 

Lieutenant Archer continues : '* Now was the 
enemy constrained to betake himself and all his 
forces to the church, churchyard, and one great 
work on the north side of the church, all 
which they kept near upon two hours veiy 
stoutly, and, having made scaffolds in the 
church to fire out of the windows, fired very 
thick from every place." 

The other account says that the Cavaliers, 
being all musketeers, retired to the works near 
the church, ' ' where they had double trenches 
and a half -moon." The church and a bam 
close by were their ** chief est refuge ;" and 
there was " a very hot fight near two hours by 
reason of a malignant, who wUlingly fired his 
own barn and other houses." The smoke caused 
much annoyance to the assailants, who lost 
about three men ** by reason of which smoke." 
The battle word of the Cavalieis was 
^^Charles," that of their opponents being *^ Truth 
and Victory. " 

The fight continued, says Lieutenant Archer, 
'* till divers soldiers of our regiment and the 
Red Regiment fired very thick upon the south- 
east of the churchyard, and so iorced them to 
forsake that part of the wall, leaving their 
muskets standing upright, the muzzles whereof 
appeared above the wall as if some of the men 
had still lyn there in ambush, and our men 
seeing nobody appear to use those muskets, con- 
cluded that the men were gone and consulted 
among themselves to enter two or three files of 
musqueteei's, promising Richard Guy, one of 
my captain sergeants, who was the first that 
entered the churchyard, to follow him if he 
would lead them. Whereupon he advanced, and 
coming within the churchyard door, and seeing 
most of the Cavaliers firing at our men from 
the south and west part of the churchyard, 
looked behind him for the men which promised 



The Ghubch Stormed. 



IQl 



to follow him, and there wm only one mns- 
qneteer with him.*' 

''NeTertholess, he, flonriahing his sword, told 

them if they would oome the churchyard waa 

their own ; then Symon Hutchinson, one of 

Lieutenant-Colonel Willouffhbie^a sergeants, 

forced the mosqueteers, and brought them up 

himself. Immediately upon this one of the 

leigeanta of the Bed B^ment, whose name I 

know not, and, therefore, cannot nominate him 

as his worth deeeryes, brought in another diyi- 

sioD of muaqueteers, who, together with those 

which were there before, caused the enemies* 

forces to betake themselves towards the church 

for safeguard, but our men followed them so 

dose with their halberts, swords, and musket 

stocks that they drove them beyond the church 

door, and slew about ten or twelve of them, and 

forced the rest to a very distracted retreat. 

Which, when the others saw who were in the 

great work on the north side of the churchyard, 

they left the work, and came, thinking to help 

their fellows, and, coming in a disorderly 

manner to the south-west corner of the church, 

with their pikes in the rear (who furiously 

charged on in as disorderly a manner as the rest 

led them), their front was forced back upon 

their own pikes, which hurt and wounded many 

of the men, and brake the pikes in pieces. By 

this time the churchyard was full of our men, 

layiog about them stoutly with halberts, swords, 

and musket-stocks, while some threw hand 

granadoea in at the church windows, others 

attemptinf^ to enter the church, being led on by 

Sergeant-major Shambrooke, a man whose worth 

and valour envy cannot stain, who in the 

entrance zeceivea a shot in the thi^h, whereof 

he is very ill." Major Shambrooke is elsewhere 

said to hiaTe been wounded in the thigh in the 

church, by the pistol of a prisoner, to whom he 

had given quarter. '* Great hopes there is of his 

qpeedy recovery.'* An entry having been forced 

into the ohuroh, the exterior and interior of 

which ntill bear many a bullet mark, Colonel 

Bolle declared with an oath that he would '* run 

his sword through the heart of him which first 

called for quarter.'* Clarendon says that he 

hoped to defend the church ** for so many hours 

that relief might be sent to him, but he had not 

time to barricade the doors ; so that the enemy 

entered almost as soon, and after a short 

leaiatanoe, in which many were killed, 

the aoldien, overpowered, threw down their 



arms, and asked quarter, which waa 
likewise offered to the Colonel, who re- 
fused it, and valiantly defended himself, tiU, 
with the death of two or three of the assailants, 
he was killed in the place, lus enemies giving 
him a testimony of great courage and resolu- 
tion." According to a familv tradition the 
Colonel was shot in the pulpit, but, according to 
'*Mercurius Aulicus," he was knocked on the 
head with the butt end of a musket. The 
Weekly Account of Dec. 2uth, 1643, says, *'Iam 
certainly informed there were not above fifteen 
pieces found in the pocket of Colonel Bolles, 
who, until he fell himself, did bravely encourage 
and lead on his soldiers.** 

This gallant soldier*s epitaph is inscribed on 
two brasses, one of which is afi&xed to a pillar 
near Bishop Morley's monument in Winchester 
Cathedral, and the other is in Alton Church. 
It states that the strength of his regimeat was 
1300, and that he took refuge in Alton Church 
with about 80 of his men ; that the fight lasted 
six or seven hours, and that Colonel Bolles 
killed six or seven of his assailants before he 
was slain, together with sixty of his men. The 
author of this epitaph, who claimed kinship 
to the gallant Colonel, erroneoasly stated the 
date of Alton Fight as 1641, instead of 1643, 
and it has been justly remarked ** As no hero 
was ever perhaps more deserving of an honour- 
able commendation to posterity, so never per- 
haps was there an epitaph more devoid of 
grammar and orthography than that which is 
here erected to his memory.'* It thus concludes : 

*^HiB Gratious Soueraigne, hearing of his 
death, gave him his high Commendation in ys 
pationate expression : — 

Bring me a Moorning Scarffe, I have Lost one 

of the best 
Commanders in this Kingdome. 

Alton will tell you of that famous Fight 
Which ys man made, and bade this World good 

night. 
His Vertious Life fear'd not Mortality, 
His Body must, his Yertues cannot die. 
Because his Blond was there so nobly spent, 
This is his Tom be ; that Church his Monument. 

Bicardus Boles, Wiltoniensis in Art. Mag. 

Composnit Posuitque Dolens. 

An. Dmi. ItidS.** 



According to Lieutenant Archer, " He 
shun, they generally yielded and deured quarter, 



102 



Killed, Wounded and Prisoners. 



except some desperate villains wMch refused 
quarter, who were slain in the church, and some 
others of them wounded, who afterwards were 
erantcd quarter upon their request.*' The 
Lieutenant says that Waller's loss was "not 
above eight or nine at the most, besides what 
were wounded, and I conceive their loss of men 
to be about firty or sixty, most of which were 
slain in the church and churchyard after we had 
enteied.*' Other accounts say that the 
Cavaliers had 40 or 100 killed, and that Waller 
lost only five killed, five or fifteen wounded, 
" and about six scorched with powder bv reason 
of their own negligence." -* Mercuiius Aulicus'* 
says that '* 27 of the King's men fell at Alton, 
and that only 3 were made prisoners, whilst 
Waller had 200 men killed in the church and 
churchyard I" 

Master Elias Archer says that when all re- 
sistance was at an end the prisoners who had 
been taken in and about the church were placed 
in a large bam " which joyned to the church- 
yard, and after the church was cleared of our 
men, they were all put into the church, and the 
rest which were taken in several houses in the 
town were put to them, and there they were 
coupled together and brought to Famham, the 
number of them being 875, amongst whom were 
about fifty commanders besides hoi semen,which 
were taken in pursuit of the Lord Crawford, 
who ran away from the town as soon as we gave 
the first assault upon their works." Archer 
thinks that Waller's cavalry ^* made our number 
of prisoners near 1100, many of those prisoners 
being men of considerable respect in the King's 
army." Another account says that there were 
700 prisoners taken in the church, nearly 100 in 
the barn, near the churchyard, and more than 100 
in the field with, " divers Irish men and women," 
and significantly adds that ^^here was greatwrath 
against the Irish." Another writer gives the 
number of piisoners as 760. From 100 to 200 
horses were captured, and 1000 arms, most of 
which were given to certain auxiliaries from 
Kent, who soon afterwards joined Sir William 
Waller, armed only with clubs. Amongst the 
prisoners were one Colonel, one Lieut. -Colonel, 
one Major, and 13 Captains. Three comets 
were taken, one having upon it the letters 
" C. P." and the Prince of Wales's arms, another 
with the arms of the Earl of StraflFord, together 
** with divers other colours hid in the church." 
Waller at once employed the inhabitants of 



Alton to "slight," or demolish the fortifications 
which had been constructed in and about the 
town by the Cavaliers. The prisoners were 
fastened together in couples with match, " and 
are now in Famham Church and Castle, where 
they may hear better doctrine than they have 
heard at Oxford or amongst the Irish rebels." 

Some of Waller*s west countrv recruits are 
said to have fought up to their knees in dirt. 
"The Weekly Account says, with reference to the 
Cavaliers, "I cannot learn of any store of money 
they had," but another writer asserts that the 
victors took much spoil " insomuch that divers 
of our soldiers strutted along with their hands 
full of gold and silver, saying " Look here, bovs, 
when was it thus with me before !" They also 
made prize of good arms and clothes. 

Lord Crawford left his hat and cloak behind 
him at Alton, and owed his escape to the speed 
of his horse. It will be remembered that he 
had on the previous day received with due 
tasting precautions a present of some wine from 
Sir William Waller. This he also left behind 
him in his flight, and it was ever afterwards re- 
membered against him that he " left his sack at 
Alton. By reason of this unexpected company 
he was struck with a panic fear, and left the 
wine without a compliment for Sir William 
Waller's own drinking, who was the right owner 
thereof, whose soldiers wanted no tasters of the 
same I" 

The following characteristic letters from 
Hopton and Crawford were read in the House 
of Commons on Monday, December 18th, to- 
gether with a letter from Sir William WaUer, 
whose first messenger, announcing his victory, 
had reached London on December 13th : — 

" To Sir W. Waller. — Sir, — ^I hope your gain- 
ing of Alton cost you dear. It was ^our lot to 
dnnke of your own sack, which I never intended 
to have left for you. I pray you favour me so 
much as to send me my owne chirnrgion, and 
upon my honour I will send you a person suit- 
able to his exchange. Sir, your servant, 

Craford ** 

" To Sir W. Waller.— Sir,— This is the first 
evident ill successe I have had. I must acknow- 
ledge that I have lost many brave and gallant 
men. I desire you, if Colonell Bolles be alive, 
to propound a fit exchange ; if dead, that you 
will send me his corps. I pray vou sonde me a 
list of such prisoners as you have, that sobh 
choice men as they are may not continue long 



Disposal of Prisoners. 



lOS 



unredeemed. God give a sadden stop to this 
inae of English blood, which is the desire, Sir, 
of jour faithf all friend to serve yoa, 

Winton, 16th Dec Ralph Hopton.*' 

Clarendon adds — **The Lord Hopton sns- 
tained the loss of that regiment with extra- 
ordinary tronble of mind, and as a woand that 
would bleed inward; and therefore was the 
more inflamed with desire of a battle with 
Waller to make even all accounts.*' A little 
more patience, my Lord Hopton, and yoar wish 
shall be folly gratified. 

It was noticed that Alton was taken at the 
▼ery time when the Cavaliers at Oxford were 
making ** bon-fyers with much triumph'* for 
the death of Pym. 

On Friday, December 15th, Sir Arthur Hasle- 
rig and Sir Gilbert Crerard were ordered by the 
House of Commons " to prepare a letter to be 
written to Sir William W<dler to acknowledge 
the great service he has done, and how it has 
cdeaaed God to bless it with good success." The 
Mouse thanked the officers and commanders, in- 
dnding those belonging to the city, for their 
▼alour and good service, and wished '* to en- 
courage them in the perseverance." 

One thousand horse-shoes and eight thousand 
nails were ordered to be issued from store on 
payment to Sir William Waller. Cavalry shoe- 
ing smiths now use only six nails per shoe, 
whilst civilian smiths still use eight. Three 
hundred muskets, bastard muskets, and calivers 
(the caliver was a lighter kind of musket), three 
hundred swords, one thousand clubs, fifty 
barrels of powder, and four tons of match, the 
two last items being drawn from the Navy 
stores, were to be sent to Waller's army, and 20v>/ 
was to be spent on arms and saddles for Capt 
Savile's troop. About 40 prisoners were taken by 
Waller during the week following the Alton fight, 
and were secured with their comrades in Farn- 
ham Church and Ca&tle. On the third day they 
were offered freedom on condition of taking the 
GoTenant and engaging to serve the Parliament. 
A number of them, variously stated as being 
300, 500, and 600, accepted these terms, took the 
Covenant in the chancel of Farnham Church, 
and during the following week proved the 
groundlessness of the doubts which were freely 
expressed as to their fidelity by a fierce assault 
upon their former comrades at Arundel. About 
&00 others, many of whom were Irishmen, re- 



fused these offered terms, and were detained in 
custody. 

On Monday, December 18th, the Committee 
of Safety was directed to dispose of the 
prisoners taken at Alton, ** and if any be Irish 
rebels, to consider what is fit to be done with 
them." The Committee for Prisoners was to 
decide about those who were not exchanged or 
who refused to take the Covenant. The London 
trained bands now marched homewaids, and the 
prisoners, tied together with match, were brought 
up to town, some being consigned to the custody 
of each regiment. 

On Tuesday, December 19th, the trained 
bands, with their captives, halted at Hammer- 
smith, and on the following day 37 officers, 330 
soldiers, and four servants to the principal 
officers were marched under a strong guard to 
the Royal Exchange. Ten principal officers and 
forty others were committed to Lord Petre's 
house, in Aldersgate-street, 20 were sent to the 
Gatehouse, 5U to the Marshalsea, 50 to Win- 
chester House, 50 to Lambeth House, 5 > to the 
Fleet, 40 to Bridewell, 40 to Maiden Lane, 30 
to London House, 20 to Ely House. Ttiirty- 
two others were lying sick and wounded at 
Farnham and Alton, and were said to be well 
cared for. On the same day the House of 
Commons voted that a sum of 26/.. realised by 
the sale of some raw hides which had been 
seized on their way to the Mayor of Beading, 
should be paid ** to a lieutenant in Sir Arthur 
Haselrigge's regiment that hath lost a leg in the 
service at Alton." 

Lady Butler, a well-known courtesan, who 
often appeared in public clad in male attire, on 
hearing that her paramour. Sir Giles Porter, 
had been wounded at Alton, shot herself with a 
pistol. The chronicler adds, '* Qualis vita, finis 
ita. As was her life, so was her end !" 

Thus did Lord Crawford " leave his sack at 
Alton I" 

There must have been sad hearts at Basing 
when news arrived of the disaster at Alton, in 
the immediate neighbourhood. Bat misfoi tunes 
never come singly, and a more grievous blow 
was ere long to be given to the Boyal cause. 

On Friday, December 15th, the newspapers in 
London stated that the King had marched from 
Oxford to Beading, and that the Prince's own 
regiment, which had lost a cornet at Alton, had 
brought from Basing much money ** in trunks 
iron chests, boxes, and the like,'* much plate 



104 



Requisitioning Supplies. 



Iiavin^^ been there deposited in safe keeping 
together with " crucifixes, candlesticks, jewels, 
ana Popish trinkets," a large proportion of 
which was promptly sent to the Mint established 
in loyal Oxford dnring these troublous years. 

The Committee of Safety had meanwhile 
been ur&rinof the Earl of Essex to come nearer 
to Sir William Waller, or at any rate to send 
him some infantry, " or otherwise he will not be 
able to prosecute this advantac^e which he has 
now gotten, for the Kinsf*s forces increase in 
Hampshire and Sussex, and divers new regiments 
are raising there, which would be very pre- 
judicial to the public,unless presently prevented/' 
and a news writer observes ^*No doubt the rot 
was in Hantshire as well as in Sussex, for it came 
thence." The Earl of Essex grumbled on 
December 14th, and four days later the Com- 
mittee of Safety informed him that Prince 
Rupert was marching to join Lord Hopton, with 
a view to forcing Waller to an engagement with 
6000 horse and foot, desiring him to advance to 
Windsor, or to go to the assistance of Sir 
William Waller. Another account says that 
Rupert was marching southwards from North- 
amptonshire, and had with him ten guns, in 
adoition to his cavalry and infantry. 

This order of the Committee was confirmed 
by the Parliament on December 20th, Sir 
William Waller having gone towards Arundel, 
leaving a garrison at Farnham, " and that Sir 
Ralph Hopton, as the Houses are informed, 
hath drawn all the forces he can make towards 
Basing." 

On Monday, December 18th, also, measures 
were taken to reinforce Waller, as the King was 
drawing all his forces towards him. 500/. was 
ordered to be spent *' for the better enabling and 
encouraging dOO men to march to Waller from 
Windsor," 600 men of the city regiments being 
tent to supply their place. 

On December 20tn the answer of the Earl of 
Essex was read in Parliament. It was to the 
effect that he considered Sir WiUiam Waller to 
be in no great danger, since he had such a strong 
base of operations as Farnham, which had lately 
been regularly fortified, and *^ that the enemy, 
especially at this season of the y^ar, will not be 
able to do him any harm ;" that he was, never- 
theless, sending to Sir William Waller Colonel 
Behre with nearly 600 horse, ** and so well com- 
manded" that they will easily be able to face 
1000 OavaHers. This letter was written at St. 



Albans on December 18th, 1643. Sir William 
Waller was, however, perfectly capable of secur- 
ing his own safety, and of this he speedily 
gave proof. 

On December 2nth the sum of 300/. was 
ordered to be spent in purchasing arms and war- 
like stores for the Parliamentarian garrison at 
Southampton, and Ludlow records in hiB 
Memoirs that lust before the commencement of 
the siege of Wardour Castle, of which he was 
the Governor, he went to Southampton to buy 
all the ammunition which Colonel Norton oould 
spars. On Satnrday, December 23rd, 1643, the 
Q-ovemor of Poole received permission to com- 
pound with the prisoners whom he had taken at 
Dorchester, "and also with Mr. Wyatt, that 
endeavoured to betray Poole." The money 
thus realised was to be expended upon the de- 
fences of Poole. 

" Mercurius Aulicos" of December 25th has 
preserved the following warrant sent to the 
tenants of the Marquis of Winchester by 
Col. Jones, the Governor of Farnham Castle : — 

" These are to give you notice, in regard yon 
have made such a return to my warrant, issued 
out to the High Constable or your Hundred, 
that except you send into Farnham Castle, by 
Monday next, without further delay, the several 
proportions of wheat, malt, barley, and other 
things assessed and charged upon yon, accord- 
ing to the said warrant, you are to expect the 
same penalty with which the Marquesse of 
Winchester threatens you, there being more 
reason that you should serve a Protestant before 
a Papist. Given under my hand at Farnham 
Castle, the 8 day of Novemb., 1643. 

Samuel Jones, Collon. 

To the Tythingman of Sherfield." 
On which the journalist satirically remarks, 
"Yes, Master Jones, wee'l call you Master 
Colonel when you know how to spell the word; 
it is most reasonable such a personage as your- 
self should be served before the Lord Marquesse 
of Winchester, especially of such as are hit 
Lordship's tenants." The women of England 
found that the long duration of the war had a 
very depressing effect upon the matrimonial 
market, and in the Harleian Miscellany are three 
witty but coarsely worded petitions purporting 
to emanate from the maidens, wives, and widow? 
of the kingdom, urging on the Parliament the 
desirability of a permanent and lasting peace. 
The maidens one and aU express their eager- 



A Touching Letter. 



105 



to marry at onoe, if only the men would 
return f ron tbe wars ; the wires deplore the 
absence of their husbands ; and the widows 
unanimonslyexpress their determination to marry 
at the least onoe more, as soon as the war is 
over. As it is now, so was it then. But one 
soldier's wife, Susan Rodway by name, lonely 
at horns, with a sick child to care for, wrote a 
letter to her husband, which is here transcribed, 
with the original spelling, as some readers may 
like to see how soldiers' wives wrote two cen- 
tari'^8 ago : — 

"Most deare and loving husbane, my king love 
— ^I remember unto yon, hoping that you are in 
good helth, as I ame at the writting heareof . 
My little Willie have bene sicke this forknight. 
I pray you to come whome if e youe cane cum 
saMy. I doo marfuU that I cannot heere from 
vou ass well other nayberes do. I do desiere to 
heere from you as soone as youe cane. I pray 
yone to send me word when youe doo thenke 
youe ahalt returne. You doe not consider I 
ame a lone woemane; I thought you woald 
never have leave me thuse long togeder, so I 
rest evere pra3ring for your savese returne, 
Your loving wife, 

Susan Rodway, 
Ever praying for you tell deth I depart. 

To my very loving husbane, Robert Rodway, 
a traine aoudare in the Red Reggiment, under 
the command of Captaine Warrin. Deliver 
thia with spide, I pray youe." 

Alas I poor Susan I Your letter, duly en- 
trusted to ^' Robert Lewiuffton, the Hampshire 
carrier," was intercepted by a lieutenant of 
Lord Hopton's army, and never reached your 
buflband's hands. Forwarded to Oxford, it, after 
aome weeks' delay, was published for the infor- 
mation of the whole kingdom in the columns of 
^ Mercurius Aulicns." And it is much to be 
feared that there was an ominous reason for 
your husband's long silence, for Captain Warren 
led OB his men as a forlorn hoper during one of 
the fiercest assaults at Basing House, in Nov., 
1643, and your dearly loved Robert may even 
then have been sleeping in a soldier's grave 
beneath the stately ramparts of " Loyalty 
House." We may wonder too what was the 
fate of '* Little Willie," who ^' have beene sicke 
this forknight," about whom his mother is so 
anxious 1 But a truce to moralising. 

Sir Edward Ford had been left by Lord Hop- 
ton in command at Arundel Castle, and had 



under him more than 200 men and '^ many good 
officers, who desired or were very willing to 
stay there, as a place very favourable for the 
levies of men which they all intended, and it 
may be that the more remained there out of the 
weariness and fatigue of their late marches, and 
that they might spend the rest of the winter with 
better accommodation." So says Clarendon, 
and continues : ^^ The Governor was a man of 
honesty and courage, but unacquainted with 
that anair, having no other experience in war 
than what he had learned since these troubles. 
The officers were many without command ; 
many whereof were of natures not easy to be 
governed, nor like to conform themselves to such 
strict rules as the condition of the place required, 
or to use that industry as the exigence they were 
like to be in made necessary." Amongst them 
was '^Colonel Bamford, an Irishman, though 
he called himself Bamfield ; who, being a 
man of wit and parts, applied all his faculties 
to improve the faction, to which thev were all 
naturally inclined, n^ith a hope to make himself 
Governor." Lord Hopton also left in the 
castle the Rev. Dr. William Chillingworth, a 
native of Oxford, and a Fellow of Trinity 
College in that University. He was a very dis- 
tinguished controversialist, and was the author 
of the well-known " Safe Way to Salvation, or 
the Religion of Protestants." Dr. Calamy, 
quoted in " Dalla way's Arundel," says : ^* In the 
beginning of the war he was with the Earl of 
Essex, and when with him in Cornwall, he 
showed himself a person of great strength and 
undaunted courage. His commands were as 
readily obeved by any colonel in that army as 
the General's own. He invented at the siege of 
Gloucester engines after the manner of the 
Roman ^testudines cum pluteis,' which ran 
upon cart wheels, with a blind or planks mus- 
ket proof, and holes for four musketeers to play 
out of, placed upon the axletree, and carrving a 
bridffe before it. The wheels were to fall into 
the ditch, and the bridge to rest upon the town's 
breastwork, so making several complete bridges 
to enter the city." At Arundel Castle he &d 
under his charge two small guns, called 
*^ murderers," the only ones mounted on 
the works. **Some say that he was actively 
engaged during the siege in constructing 
machines after the Roman method, and that the 
vexation arising from their failure greatly 
hastened his death. He was a good logician. 



106 



Waller's Mabch to Arundel. 



and used his logic to some purpose in theology ; 
but he left out an important consideration in his 
military elenchus when he forgot that the 
Romans did not employ " villainous saltpetre" 
in their sieges." Lord Hopton laid in a good 
store of provisions, and left these orders with 
th ) garrison, ** In the first place, setting all 
other things aside, to draw in store of provisions 
of all kinds, both for the numbers they were 
already and for such as would probably in a 
short time be added to them ; all which from 
the great plenty that country then abounded 
with was very easy to have been done." But 
Sir William Waller " found that garrison as un- 
provided as he could wish. For instead of in- 
creasing the magazine of victual by supplies 
from the country, they hid spent much of that 
store which the Lord Hopton hid provided." 
Sir William Waller having determined to 
attempt the recovery of Arundel Castle, the 
City of London was requested ** to allow the 
longer stay of their forces ;" five hundred men 
of the Windsor ffarrison were, as we have seen, 
ordered to join him ; the Kentish Committee 
wrote from Westerham to offer assistance, and 
Sussex was required to pay immediately 
1080/. 5s. 5d., and to raise 125 horse. 

And now, as Mr. Gordon tells us, Sir William 
Waller marched in pursuit of the hitherto 
victorious Cavaliers, with a larger army than had 
entered Sussex since the battles of Senlac and 
Lewes. From his own letter we learn that he 
marched from Famham on Sunday, December 
17th, 1643. and a letter from one of his officers, 
preserved by Mr. Gordon, which originally 
appeared in the "Mercurius Civicus"of Dec. 
21st, of that year, states that the hour of de- 
parture was " about two of the clock in the 
afternoon, marching towards Hazleworth 
(Waller himself says Haslemere), our noble 
general seeming to go another way, to amaze 
the Papists and malignants, and the better to 
prevent intelligence, and abont midnight came 
with his whole army to the said town, where the 
rendezvous was that night. Monday sunrising, 
his honour wheeled about towards Medhurst, 
where my Lord Mountacute*s (Montague) house 
is (Cowdray), which said lord is a known and 
prof est Papist." Sir William Waller, writing 
from Arundel, on Friday, Dec. 22nd, said that 
the garrison of Cowdray consisted of four troops 
of Cavalier horse and 100 infantry. " I deter- 
mined to give them the good night." Accord- 



^^U^Ji ^'^o regiments of cavalry were sent to 
blocK up the various roads in the neighboorhood, 
" but they were too nimble for me, and escaped 
hither, where I overtook them on Tnesdaj 
night." The officer continues, ** The house is 
now possest by the Parliament forces, 
where we staid that night, and furnished 
the said castle, for indeed it may well 
be called so in regard of the strength 
thereof, with all necessaries for defence to awe 
the Papists and malignants, wherewith the said 
town IS much infested and infected. Tuesday 
morning we marched from Medhurst, sending 
out a party of horse to Petwoxth, having 
thought to surprise the enemy there, but they 
fled before our success, Hoptoqi and the great 
ones to Winchester, and the rest to Arundel 
with bag and baggage ; all that night we lay on 
a heath, within a mile of Arundel." The Par- 
liament ordered the goods plundered at Cowdray 
to be brought to London and " sold to the best 
value." Other contemporary accounts say that 
Lord Hopton evacuated Petersfield and Aires- 
ford in great haste, leaving many arms behind 
him at the former place. Having concentrated 
his forces at Wincnester, he was " entrenching 
apace," 1000 men being daily employed as a 
fatigue party. Forced labour was also exacted 
from the country people, and Lord Hopton was 
summoning all men between the ages of sixteen 
and sixty to join his standard. Five or six who 
refused to take service under him were hanged 
at Salisbury, as were also certain others in 
various places. 

Mr. Gordon says, ^* The march of the main 
body of Sir William Waller's army over Black- 
down Hill must have been an imposing sight, as 
it passed the friendly mansion of the Yaldens, 
and it is strange that no local records or tradi- 
tions remain concerning it. Probably some de- 
tachments went south, and leapt upon the 
Sussex Weald bv the bowery slopes of HoUy- 
oombe and Milland. Medhurst (t.6., Midhnrst, 
still so called by our peasants, who never say 
Mtcfhurst) found itself the centre of a fiood of 
men on that Monday night, and Cowdray Park 
must have been full. Would that some of the 
old trees now standing could tell us of the camp 
fires that they saw that December night." 

Meanwhile it was reported in London that 
Colonel Norton had surprise and taken 200 
Cavalier horse, who were quartered at Twyford, 
about three miles from Winchester. Sir William 



Arundel -Castle Besieged. 



107 



Courtney, of Brambridge, a Cavalier, afterwards 
paid a fine of 252. Ss. Id. as a composition for 
his estate. Colonel Norton was the son in-law 
of Sir Walter Erie, a stannch adherent of the 
Parliament, and, according to Mercnrins Aulicns, 
of Wednesday, August 16th, 1643, his mother 
was as devoted as himself to the Puritan cause. 
^* Mercnrins" is, as usual, uncomplimentary, but 
jonmalistic satire is by no means of modern 
origin: — 

**It was also signified from thence (Ports- 
month) that the Lady Norton, mother to that 
most noble Colonel who hath done such wonders 
of late days, and governess for the present of 
the town of Portsmouth, for the Committee 
dare do nothing without her advice, was very 
bnsily employed in making some new works 
about Portsey Bridge ; and was not only every 
day in person amongst the workmen, whom she 
encouraged much bv her presence, but brought 
with her also with her every day 30 or 40 maids 
and women in a cart (they may live to be so 
ooadied hereafter) to dig and labour in the 
trenches. To the great honour of her sex, of 
her person more, who in a short time will grow 
as able to command-in-chief as the good Lady 
Waller to possess the pulpit. It was further 
signified from thence that the Committee by 
her direction had caused a dungeon to be made 
(here as dark as hell, that if the liberty of the 
snbject should be laid up there nobody should 
have hope to find it, intended for such male- 
factors, as it now appears, who either do refuse 
to take the new oath or to pay their taxes, or 
otherwise shall show any good affections to his 
sacred Majesty." 

On Wednesday, December 20th, 1643, the 17 
days' siege of Arundel Castle commenced. Mr. 
Blaanw, Mr. Hillier, Mr. Dallawa^, Mr. Cordon, 
and others have treated this subject with much 
care, and it is only necessary here to rapidly 
sketch the course of events, with dne gratitude 
to those who have thus facilitated our tisk. 

From a letter written by Daniel Border, from 
Arandel, on January 9th, 1644, " to a gentleman 
dwelling in Mugwell-street," it appears that Sir 
WOliam Waller's chief engineer was captured by 
the garrison. From the account given by ** Mer- 
eorins Aulicus," it seems that Waller must have 
despatched a reconnoitring party to Arundel, on 
Tuesday, December 19th, in advance of his army. 
** Just as Sir William Waller approached Arundel 
Castle the Governor had taken in more ammuni- 



tion and match from Weymouth, who, going up 
to the castle, caused a house to be fired. 
Instantly there came staring four or five rebel 
commanders, and were seized by the garrison 
soldiers, who being asked why they came hither, 
answered that Sir William Waller bade them 
fall on where they saw fire. Soon after this a 
bam was fired, and eight more were taken in the 
same manner ; one of them they call * the devil 
with one leg,' a famous engineer, but he was too 
busy with the fire." 

At early dawn on the morning of Wednesday, 
December 20th, Sir William Waller surveyed 
the enemy's position, and says that he speedily 
found a place ^^ to flank their line with our 
ordnance. We fell on upon the north side of 
the works, which we did so scour a weedy hiU 
in the park on the west side of the pond with 
our pieces, that we made it too hot for them." 
Another account says that an attack on the 
north-west and south-west of Arundel com- 
menced at eight o'clock in the morning. The 
encouraged assailants at once stormed a verv 
strong new retrenchment, probably constructed 
by Lord Hopton ^^ from the town gate down to 
the aforesaid pond by the mill." Another 
division simultaneously ** forced a very strong 
double work in a narrow passage by the milL" 
The outworks, together with some 80 prisoners, 
were taken after about half an hour's fighting, 
and about ten o'clock the Cavalier horse made 
^* a brave sally," but were repulsed. The storm- 
ing party '* beat them into the castle, and 
entered the first gate with them; the second 
they made good and barricaded, and there they 
are welcome." A forlorn hope was then ordered 
to scour the streets, and captured a captain, a 
lieutenant, and several other prisoners. Certain 
townsmen having taken refuge in the Church of 
St. Nicholas, preparations were made to smoke 
them out, whereupon they speedily surrendered 
at discretion. The struggle had been severe 
though brief, and the beleaguered garrison, which 
Waller knew to be in great want of supplies, 
kept up a brisk fire of musketry from the castle, 
but were not able to command any considerable 
portion of the town. Only three or four men 
are said to have been killed whildt entering 
the town, but one man was wounded in the 
thigh upon the bridge, and Captain Butler re- 
ceived a shot in the holster as he rode over. 
The number of wounded was not large, but in- 
cluded Lieut.-Colonel Burcher, wounded in the 



108 



The Siege Continues. 



Btomach. He, however, speedily recovered. 
Lieat.-Colonel BaniBay, who was one of the first 
to enter the town, *' whilst casting his eye to- 
wards the castle, was unfortunately slain with a 
musket bullet from thence ; he was interred on 
the following Saturday, six trumpeters going 
before the corpse with a mournful sound, his 
sergeant-major, to whom his place fell, follow- 
ing, and then all the officers of his regiment." 
The besieged hoisted a red flag of defiance, for, 
says Whitelock, " The Earl or Essex's colours 
were a deep yellow ; others setting up another 
colour were held malignants, and ul-affecte4 to 
the Parliament's cause. So small a thing is 
taken notice of in the jealousies of war I" 

The prisoners taken at Alton, and who had 
joined Sir William Waller here, proved their 
fidelity by a vigorous attack upon their former 
comrades, and great praise was bestowed upon 
the blue-coats, who ran up the enemy's works, 
and beat them off with the butt-ends of their 
muskets. One of Widler's men, actuated either 
by anger or treachery, tried to shoot him, but 
his musket missed fire, and the would-be assas- 
sin was hanged without delay. Sir William 
Waller says, " I am very weak in foot, and my 
horse so hacknied out that they are ready to 
lie down under us. I expect Colonel Bayne 
here this day, and Colonel Morley." The first- 
named officer was, it will be remembered, 
bringing up the cavalry reinforcement, 600 
atrong, sent to Waller by the Earl of Essex. 
That night most of Waller's infantrv were 
quartered in the town of Arundel, whilst a 
regiment of cavalry was on the alert to check 
any attempt to relieve the castle. 

On Thursday, December 21st, Colonel Morley 
arrived with his regiment, and some of the 
adherents of the Parliament in the neighbour- 
hood, hearing of scarcity in Waller's army, sent 
in as a present six loads of provisions, an ex- 
ample wnioh was speedily followed by others. 
The besieged ref us^ either to give or to take 
qaarter, and the long frost, which had aided the 
operations alike of Hopton and of Waller, at 
last ended in a thaw. Jacob Travers, writing 
from the army, says that the weather was cold 
and the nights long, and that the soldiers were 
axposed to "high winds and extraordinary 
showers of rain." In order to check the fire of 
musketry from the castle, Major Bodley, '* per- 
ceiving divers in the castle look forth in a bal- 
cony," posted himself and twelve musketeers 



" in a private place of advantage," and by a 
well directed volley " slew and wounded divers 
of the enemy." 

That night two " saker drakes," or light field 
pieces, together with certain musketeers, were 
placed in the tower of the church, from which, 
on the following day, a heavy fire was directed 
upon the upper portion of the castle. Many of 
the garrison were captured whilst endeavouring 
to escape. Sir Miles Livesay arrived with a 
regiment of horse from Kent, and Sir William 
Springate brought up his regiment of Kentish 
infantry. Preparations were made to draw off 
the water of the Swanboume Lake, which 
supplied the wells of the oastle. There were 
lOU prisoners in Arundel Church, who had been 
captured when Waller entered the town. A 
certain Richard Smith, a deserter from the 
army of the Parliament, " for twenty shillings^ 
whereof he had twelve pence in hand, by them 
hired to go to Hopton for aid," was ariested ai 
a court of guard four miles distant. When 
questioned by the captain of the guard, he said 
that he had lost the letter addressed to Lord 
Hopton. Having been proved to be ** an arch 
spy in our army," he was hanged on the bridge, 
within sight of the castle. He said that ''Uie 
enemy's strength in the castle was 1000 foot 
and 100 horse, but no provender for them. 
That they had store of oxen, but no beer or 
wine, save water only, which was in the castle 
well ; that the common soldiers with him had 
that day half a pound of bread weighed out to 
them." 

On Saturday the draining of the lake was 
completed, and many fugitives let themselves 
down from the castle walls by ropes, but were 
for the most part captured. "The besiegers 
strengthened their guards, and Sir Henry Hey- 
man came with his regiment from Kent. 

On Sunday desertions from the garrison were 
frequent and a heavy fire was directed against 
the castle from the guns in the church tower. 
Colonels Head and Dixie arrived with two 
Kentish regiments, which, together with 
'* divers regiments from Sussex," made Waller's 
force amount to not less than 10,000 men. A 
number of starving horses were turned out of 
the castle, and one of Waller's men, in his 
anxiety to secure one or more, ventured too 
near the castle and was slain. About noon on 
Monday,Deoember 25th, about thirty Cavaliers 
attempted to make a sortie, but upon Waller's 



Lord Hofton'b Bbuevino Army. 



109 



dmnis beating and his tnunpeta aoondii^ to 
aims they hastily retreated. Sir WilEam 
Waller refused to exchange prisoners) and to 
promise quarter to the garrison if they snrren- 
dered the castle. On Ti^aday, Deoember 20th, 
some gnns were planted in **a new place," 
whic'i made the besieged garrison afraid to show 
themselves, and other meaimres to check the 
advance of any relieving force were also taken. 
Lord Hopton was meanwhile most anzions to 
relieve the beleaguered Cavaliers. But there 
were, unfortunately, sad dissensions in his army. 
The English — Irish who had come over to rein- 
force the Cavaliers — constantly staled the Cor- 
nish men, who were numerous m the army, 
Cornish Choughs, Puritans, and Roundhead 
rogues ; whilst the men of Cornwall in return 
retaliated with the epithets of Irish Kernes and 
Popish dogs. From words they came to blows. 
Several Comishmen were killed, and many of 
their comrades, variously estimated at 500 and 
1500 in number, deserted their colours and 
returned to their homes. 

Whitelock in his " Memorials" says that 800 
native Irish landed at Weymouth in January 
1644, under the command of Lord Inchiquin, 
to aid the cause of the King. They were 
attacked bv the garrison of Poole, and suffered 
considerable loss in killed and wounded. Two 
of their guns were also captured, and their 
magazine of gunpowder was blown up. White- 
lock remarks, on March, 1644, " Divers of the 
Irish, about 1500, were cast away at sea coming 
to serve His Majesty. It was observed that 
these bloody Irish coming over hither never did 
any service considerable, out were cut off, some 
in one place, some in another. In aU places the 
vengeance of God follows bloodthirsty men.'* 

Determined, however, to make an effort to 
relieve Arundel Castle, Lord Hopton ordered 
the county to send one hundred carriages to 
Winchester for the use of his army, and on 
Tueadav, December 26th, news had been received 
in London of his having sent an armed force to 
break down the bridge over the Test at Bed- 
bridge, thus cutting off the town of Southamp- 
ton from supplies from the New Forest, in the 
hope that Sir William Waller would send troops 
from Arundel, if he did not altogether raise the 
nege. This proceeding had, however, only the 
effect of stimulating Sir William Waller to 
greater exertions. The two Houses of Parlia- 
ment ordered necessaries for the supply of South- 



ampton to be furnished by the Isle of Wighty 
and Lord Hopton's men retired to Winchester 
without gaining any advantage, except kiUing 
three or four of Colonel Norton's men. 

Lord H^ton himself now marched across the 
county to Petersfield, which he reached on Wed- 
nesday, 27th, with 2000 cavalry and 1500 in- 
fantry. Waller's scouts at once reported the 
approach of this relieving force, and stating 
that they had actually seen it upon the march» 
** On the news of this the besieged began to hope 
again in Winchester and Oxford, and came 
forth to the balcony again,'* only to be shot 
down by certain musketeers who had been 
posted in the ruins of an old chapel. An oxhide 
f>oat was discovered in the river " which run- 
neth near the east side of the castle," which 
had been used to ferry over a messenger sent to 
Lord Hopton with a request for immediate relief. 
No sooner had the royalist general marched 
out of Winchester towards Arundel than the 
ever active Colonel Norton, with the garrison of 
Southampton, boldly advanced to within two 
miles of Winchester, and made prize of more 
than fifty fat oxen. 

On Thursday, December 28th, there were 
further desertions from Arundel Castle. A flag 
of truce was hoisted, and an application was 
made by the garrison to Sir William Waller for 
a supplv of sack, tobacco, dice, and cards, in 
return lor which they offered beef and mutton. 
They complained of a want of both bread and 
water, ana sent numerous oxen out of the 
castle that night. On this day *'a party of 
His ExceUency 's horse encountered with a party 
of Sir Balph Hopton's near Petersfield, and 
took prisoners two Quartermasters, one sergeant, 
and two common soldiers." 

At seven o'clock on the morning of Friday, 
December the 29bh,Sir William Waller recovered 
possession of Chichester, which, partly through 
the influence of Sir William Ford, of Up Pane, 
Sir Edward's father, had been secured for the 
King on the 22nd of the preceding month. The 
constables and tythingmen of Singleton and 
West Dean were ordered to impede Lord Hop- 
ton's march by every possible means, and the 
besiegers removed some ammunition from Mid- 
hurst to Arundel for safer custody. As the 
CavaUers were now dose at hand Sir William 
Waller left 1500 men to continue the siege, and 
marched to meet them. The two armies faced 
each other on North Marden Down and at West 



no 



SKIEH18H AT HaYANT. 



Dean. A few shots were exchanged, and three 
or four men killed on each side, whereupon 
Lord Hopton retreated nine miles to Heaveon 
(Havantr). Another acdonnt says that the 
scene of this skirmish was only three miles from 
Arundel. 

On Saturday, Dec 30th, notwithstanding Sir 
W. Waller's proclamation that no quarter would 
be given to deserters, fugitives continued to quit 
tite castle. One of them was a sergeant, who 
complained of a scarcity of food, with the excep- 
tion of "powdered beef" and "a few live beeves." 
Beef was plentiful to the last, but no bread was 
served out to the garrison after Christmas Day. 

Among the State Papers (Domestic), 1643, is 
one dated 28th December, written by a Royalist 
of the name, real or assumed, of Harrison, to a 
" Mr. Jean Bradley, English gentleman, of the 
CoUege of Toumay, Paris." 

It is quoted by Mr. Gk>rdon, and is as fol- 
lows: "28, lObr, 1643, .... Sir William 
WaUer was bravely repulsed and soimdly beaten 
from Basing about five or six weeks ago, with 
the loss of the best part of 1000 of his men and 
the diminution of his credit with the citizens. 
But since it hath been his foHune, he being four 
or five thousand strong, and the other but weak 
for number, to surprise at unawares, and, after 
firm fight, with the slaughter of more of his 
side, to take two or three hundred of my liord 
Crawford's men, who were brought to this town 
(Famham or Guildford ?) in triumph about a 
week ago from South Harting, as I think the 
place is called in Sussex." 

This account evidently refers to a skirmish 
between SirWilliam Waller's forces and those of 
Lord Hopton about the time of the march of 
the former general to Arundel, where he com- 
menced the siege of the castle on December 
20th, 1643. Mr. Gordon is of opinion that it 
has reference to the retreat of Lord Hopton 
after the failure of his attempt to reueve 
Arundel Castle, and that Colonel Norton was 
the victor in this encounter; It may well be 
that " Idle Dick Norton" was Lord Crawford's 
antagonist, but as Lord Hopton did not retreat 
from Arundel until DecemlMr 29th, this engage- 
ment must have taken plaoe some eight days 
previonsly. 

On Saturday, December 30th, relief was 
urgently r equ eued by the Parliamentarian 

grrison of Wardonr Castle, of which Colonel 
idlowywhom we shall hereafter meet at Basing 



House, was the Gk>vemor. In the journals of 
the House of Commons of this date we find 
mention of " the British Army" in Ulster, so 
that this much used phrase can boast of aa 
existence of nearly two centuries and a half. 
The Earl of Essex was also ordered to march 
either to Windsor or to some place from which 
he would be able to assist Sir William Waller, 
as Lord Hopton was knowfi to be in motion. 

On January 2nd, 1644, Colonel Norton wrote 
a letter givinff an account of a successful brush 
with the Cavuiers on their retreat from Arundel. 
From this letter it appears that on Saturday, 
December 30th, he marched to join Sir William 
Waller, but could obtain no intelligence of the 
whereabouts of Lord* Hopton 's arm^. Stress 
of weather obliged him to quarter his troopers 
less than a mile distant from the enemy, who 
were " upon a hill undiscovered." Scouts, how- 
ever, speedily brought word of the proximity 
of a hostile force, and Colonel Norton prepiu:ed 
to repel an attack. After facing the Cavaliers 
for some time, he saw that their numbers were 
hourly increasing, and accordingly began to 
retire in the direction of Chichester, covering 
the retreat in person with fifty men of his own 
troop. The pursuers attacked in force, striving 
to cut off the rear guard, whereupon Colon^ 
Norton "was fain to make a stand," and to 
retire so as to form up on an adjacent heath. 
After some manoeuvring, his men continued 
their retreat in good order, but on reaching 
Havant met " the two regiments of Dragoons, 
so they say, of Lord Crawford and Colonel 
Ennis, coming out of a cross lane. Some of 
them faced us, while the rest marched by," 
wearing red uniform. At once Colonel Norton 
charged them, heedless of superior numbers, and 
as soon as he came within half pistol shot the 
Cavaliers broke and fied. Not many of them 
were killed, except a captain and a captain 
lieutenant, " but I think few escaped without 
broken pates." Several prisoners were secured, 
with a loss of two or three of Colonel Norton's 
men, who were kiUed. Their victorious com- 
rades safely escorted the prisoners to Chichester, 
and Colonel Norton proceeded to Portsmouth, 
from which place, on January 2nd, 1644, he 
despatched the letter from which we have learned 
the foregoing particulars. 

Between Saturday, December 30th, 1643, and 
Thursday, January 4th, 1644, there were con- 
tinual desertions from the garrison of Anmdel 



Warblinoton Castle. 



Ill 



Oartle, and those who still held oat were anzions 
to treat for a Barrender, bat Sir William Waller 
ie(|iiiring them to sarrender "at meroy/' the 
negotiations proved froitless. On January Ist, 
1644, Mr. Niooll was directed by the Parliament 
to request the Earl of Essex to grant SirWilliam 
Waller a comnussion as major-general to com- 
Biand tiie forces of the four associated ooanties 
of Hants, Surrey, Sussex, and Kent, " socord- 
ing to the ordinance for that aasodation," and 
the storekeepers were directed to fumish Sir 
William Waller with aay necessaries which were 
not in store in the Tower of London. The 
eonunission was at once granted by the Earl of 
Essex, but not without an energetic protest, 
and was deliyered to Sir William on January 
3rd. On the same day it was ordered that the 
xegiment of horse ^hich had been ordered to be 
raised for service under Sir Richard Grenvilie 
should be completed by the Committee of the 
four associated counties, and that Mr. Trenohard 
should pay on account 40/. to Lieut. -Colonel 
Cooke, 40/. to Colonel Van Hust, and 20/. to 
Oaptaiu Smith, " to fit and despatch them away 
to the service of Sir William Waller." 

On January 5th we read of a skirmish near 
Petersfield between 200 Cavsliers and 80 of the 
cavalry lent by the Earl of Essex to Sir WiQiam 
Waller. The latter were victorious, and, with 
a loss to themselves of six men, captured five 
Boyalist officers. A day or two before a body 
of 500 or 800 (accounts vary) well-armed 
soldiers, whilst on the march from the western 
counties to join Lord Hopton, suddenly mutinied, 
and, marching to Poole and Lyme Begis, enrolled 
themselves as soldiers of ihe Parliament. 

Lord Hopton himself tried to aid the garrison 
at Arundel by laying siege to WarbHngton 
House, between Chichester and Portsmouth, 
which Colonel Norton in the early days of 
January occupied with a garrison variously said 
to number 40, 50, 60, and 80 men. Of this 
castle, the ruins of whidi are well worthy of a 
visit, Mr. Moody says that it " appears to have 
been built with brick, faced on the outside with 
hewn stone, and wss originally a square pile of 
about 209 feet, surrounded by a quadrangular 
court, but the only part now standmg is a gate- 
way and tower, fast mouldering away. The 
whole was surrounded by a fosse ten feet deep, 
and included about an acre of ground. Before 
tiie northern angle appears to have been an en- 
trenched camp of five acres, now overgrown 



with wood, surrounded by a bank nearly eight 
feet high, and a ditch of a similar depth to that 
around the castle.'* ('* Antiquarian Sketches of 
Hampshire," p. 340.) 

The Bev. W. Norris, M .a., to whose kindness 
I am much indebted, says : ** Henrv yill. con- 
ferred Warblin^on on Sir Bichard Cotton, the 
Controller of his Household. To him I am dis- 
posed to attribute the erection of the present 
castle, oi which the tower remains, the style of 
the architecture of which is tibat of a Tudor 
rather than of an earlier age. It remained in 
the hands of the Cottons till the Civil War. 
Sir Bichard Cotton received King Edward YI. 
in it in the year 1552, and, according to a terrier 
of the manor, it was in perfect repair in the 
year 1633. After that we know only of a ruined 
tower, a broken arch, and a few nondescript 
mounds, and remains of a moat ; but the story 
is soon told. The Cottons were Boyalists, the 
Civil War broke out in the year 1642, and those 
who adhered to the Boyal cause suffered for their 
loyalty." ** The church as well as the castle 
must have been battered in the Civil War. A 
fragment of a tomb now in the vestry was once 
built into the south-west wall of the chancel, 
showing only one flat side, on which was engraved 
a cross in a circle. Some thought it was a 
Saxon altar, some that it was the dedicatory 
stone of the church. When restoring the 
church in 1860, and tryin^f whether there were 
any remains of a window m that place, I had it 
taxen out, and it turned out to be part of a 
broken monument of about the age of Queen 
EUeabeth. So it appears that the Bepnblicans 
were not behind the Bef ormers in destructive 
seal. The church, like most other churches at 
the Bestoration, was imperfectly repaired. Much 
was done in the year 1800 to remedy the evils it 
had suffered, which considerably facilitated the 
still further restorations which were made in 
1859, 1862, and 1864." 

A contemporary writer says that Lord Hopton 
" after lon^ siege and loss of more men than 
were there m garrison," took Warblington Castle, 
and another remarks, ** Sir Balph Hopton has 
.spent his time frivolously against Warbleton 
House, betwixt Winchester and Portsmouth, 
where we leave him till divine justice finds him." 

On Saturday, Jan. 6th, 1644, ihe Pariiament 
ordeied 1002. to be given to Major Scott, and 
Captain Oochram, the Mayor of Bye, ^* in 
testimony of their good services to the State." 



112 



Abukdel Oastlb Surbknders. 



The GommisBionen of Ezoiaewere alao directed 
to advance 4000Z. " in regard of the great ex- 
tremitieathat Sir William Waller's army was in.*' 

Sir William had now a force of 10,000 men 
under his command, and had received either 
four or six heavy guns from Portsmouth, which on 
Thursday, Jan. 4tb, opened fire upon the castle. 
Discord reigned within the walls, and Clarendon 
says, " By some of the soldiers running out to 
him, he found means to send in again to them ; 
by which he so increased their faction and 
animosity against one another that after he had 
kept them waking, with continual alarms, three 
or four davB, near half the men being sick and 
unable to do duty, rather than they would trust 
each other longer they gave the place and them- 
selves up as prisoners of war upon quarter, the 
place bemg able to have defended itself against 
all that power for a much longer time.'' 

On Friday, January 5th, the defenders of the 
castle, reduced to extremities, were extremely 
anxious to come to terms with Sir William 
Waller.* A message was sent out by a drummer, 
who, being hungry and seeing abundance of 
food in the besiegers' lines, surrendered himself 
as a prisoner, whereupon a second drummer was 
sent out of the castle. Three commissioners 
were appointed on either side to draw up 
articles of surrender. The Cavaliers named 
Colonel Bamfield, Major Bodville or Bovill, and 
a captain, Sir William Waller nominating Col. 
Wems, Major Anderson, and a Kentish captain. 
He invited the Cavalierofficersto dine with him, 
as he did also Lady Bishop, the daughter of the 
Earl of Thanet, with her two daughters, one of 
whom, Diana, only fifteen ^ears of age, was the 
young wife of Henry Gkirmg, the only son of 
tiady G-oring, who, with her daughters, met her 
here. No definite agreement was come to, as 
tibe Cavalier demands to depart unmolested 
were refused by Sir William Waller. That 
eveninff the Commissioners returned to the 
castle, out the ladies with their maids were pro- 
vided with quarters by Sir William Waller. 
" The soldiers and Governor himself were in a 
miserable distress and perplexity all the night." 

The youthful Mrs. Henry Goring returned 
to her husband, and soon afterwards a drum was 
sent out with Colonel Rawlence and Major 
Mullins, who promised the speedy surrender of 
Sir Edward Bishop and Sir Edward Ford. The 
drum was sent back to the castle, but returned 
fter midnight "with a letter of simple de- 



mands.'* The guards around the castle were 
at once trebled to prevent anyone from escap- 
ing, and the drum was sent back, with an order 
that the two hostages were to come forth at 
once if they desired a further cessation of hos- 
tilities. They gave themselves up about two 
hours after midnight, and the fortress was 
formally surrendered about nine o'c lock in the 
morning of Saturday, January 6th, 1644, upon 
the following conditions : — 
" Propositions made by Sir William Waller to 
the besieged in Arundel Castle, 

First — I require the Castle of Arundel to be 
delivered into my hands by to-morrow morning, 
ten o'clock. 

Second, — That all Colonels of horse and foot, 
and all horse, arms, ammunition, and military 
provision whatever be then delivered to me en- 
tire and unspoiled. 

Third, — That all Commanders, officers, and 
gentlemen have fair quarter and civil usage. 

Fourth. — That all soldiers sh ill have quarter 
for their lives. 

Fifth, — That for securitv of performance, Sir 
Edward Bishop and Sir Eaward Ford be imme- 
diately delivered into my hands. 

Faoplanation, 

One. — By fair quarter, I mean giving life to 
those that yield, with imprisonment of their 
persons; but civil usage, which is sufficient 
security that they shall not be plundered. 

TiDo. — Concerning the place they shall be 
sent to, I will not determine, but will be left to 
mine own freedom, without further capitulation. 

Three. — The ministers are included in the 
articles, and are prisoners, as well as the soldiers. 

Four. — ^When I send away the officers, I shall 
take care that the^ shall not want horses to 
carry them, but will not be bound to let them 
have their own horses." 

The condition as to ministers was added with 
a view to securing the person of Dr. Chilling- 
worth, who was in the castle. Seventeen 
colours of foot and two of horse were taken, and 
more than 1000 prisoners, besides 100 taken at 
the capture of the town, and those who were 
caught whilst escaping from the castle. An 
eye witness says : " I never saw so manv weak 
and feeble creatures together in my life, for 
almost all the common soldiers were half starved,- 
and many of them hardly able to set one foot 
before another." There were amongst them 
about 100 officers, 50 country gentlemeui and 



Stanstead House: Taken. 



113 



about 800 soldiers, fiye hundred of whom joined 
Sir William Waller. The rest were sent np to 
London guarded by f onr troops of horse, some 
in carts, some on foot. Three days were 
required for the journey, and on arrival the 
Committee of Militia assigned the captives to 
▼arioos prisons. A Committee consisting of 
Mr. Downes, Mr. Bavenscroft, and Colonel 
Alexander Popham was ordered to decide the 
fate of those who refused to take the Solemn 
Ijeagae and Covenant. Sir William Waller was 
empowered to determine the amount of ransom 
to be paid by the *^ gentlemen, not soldiers," 
who had been captured, and was to send up to 
the Parliament a list of the ransoms paid. 

A complete list of the officers and gentlemen 
who thus became prisoners of war will be found 
in Mr. Dallaway's "History of Arundel." Sir 
Edward Ford and Sir Edward Bishop w)re 
declared by Parliament incapable of any empliy- 
ment. Sir John Morley was allowed to com- 
pon nd for a fine on Oct. 23rd, 1644. On Sir 
William Waller's letter describing the taking of 
Arundel Castle being read in the House, on 
January 8th, it was ordered that Mr. Cleere, 
Burgeon, should be recommended to the Masters 
and Governors of St. Thomas Hospital as the 
snccessor of Major Mullins, who had been taken 
in arms at Arundel. On Saturday, January 
27th, the governing body of theHospital claimed 
their right of free election. Their petition was 
referred to the Committee f orHospitals, who, on 
January 30th, ordered the election of Mr. 
Cleere. It was also ordered on January 6th 
that Dr. Chillingworth, Master of the Hospital 
at Leicester, having been taken in arms at 
Arundel, should be deprived of his office, which 
was to be conferred upon " Mr. Gray, Minister, 
brother to the Earl of Kent." Vexation, incle- 
ment weather, privations, and the harsh treat- 
ment of the Puritan ministers did their work, 
and before the end of the month Dr. Chilling- 
worth breathed his last at Chichester. The cir- 
cumstances of his death are graphically described 
by Mr. Dallaway. 

About 200 horses, 2000 arms, many oxen both 
alive and dead, 20 barrels of powder, and 40002. 
in money rewarded the victors. Great was the 
Bubsequent destruction. The north-west side 
of the castle was dismantled, and the great hall 
with the adjacent buildings were destroyed. 
The College of the Holy Trinity was also greatly 
injured, and its windows, which contained a 



series of portraits of the Earls and Countesses 
of Arundel, were irretrievably ruined. Sir 
William Waller now sent ''2000 horse and foot 
and two drakes to besiege my Lord Lumley's 
house in Sussex.*' This was at Stanstead, and, 
as we have already seen, had been garrisoned by 
Lord Hopton when he made himself mast^-r of 
Arundel Castle. It surrendered at once, and 
the ironworks in St. Leonard's Forest, where 
the Boval ammunition had been made, and 
which belonged either to the Crown or to 
Boyalists, were destroyed at the same time. 
Amberley Castle is also said to have been dis- 
mantled at this pciiod of the war. Sir William 
Waller now resolved " that if Sir Ralph Hopton 
will not find out him, he will find out Hopton," 
and asked the Parliament to at onco send him 
the City Regiments, under Major-General 
Browne, as he was anxious to give battle to the 
Cavaliers, who were still at Havant, leaving 
these regiments to garrison Arundel, under the 
command of Colonel Morley and Colonel 
Springett. 

On January 8th, 1644, Sir H. Yane, jun., 
and Sir Arthur Heselrig were directed by the 
House of Commons to prepare a letter for Sir 
William Waller, which was to be signed by Mr. 
Speaker Len thai, '*to congratulate him on his 
great and good success, and to encourage him 
according to his intentions to prosecute the ad- 
vantages it has pleased God to bless him with." 
The Committee of Safety was to consider how 
to improve the advantages which Waller had 
gained, and Mr. Downes, Mr. Ravenscroft, and 
Colonel Alexander Popham were ordered bv 
the Parliament to proceed to Arundel to thauK 
both the victorious General and his officers and 
men, and to inform them that the Parliament 
would do its utmost to enable them to advance 
against the enemv. 

On Januaiy 6th Colonel Potley, who held a 
command underWaller, was maliciously wounded 
by one of his own men, who was of course 
hanged forthwith. 

On January 8th Sir William Waller, having 
been reinforced by the London Brigade, wroi^ 
from Broadwater to the Parliament reporting 
that a large vessel named the St James, of Dun- 
kirk, having been chased by a Dutch man-of- 
war, and bemg unaware of the surrender of the 
castle, had entered the river Arun for safety, 
and had taken the ground "at Heene, near 
Arundel Castle." She mounted 24 brass g^uns, 



114 



Lord Gbawford. 



And had on board about 100 barrels of powder, 
'*with good store of arms for the Engliah-Irufti 
that make havoc in Cheshire," said to be 2000 
in number, besides other valuables. Several 
Oavalier officers were also on board. She was 
ordered to be detained, and the cargo was stored 
in Arundel Castle till the question of prize 
money should be decided by the Court of Admi- 
ralty. If she should prove lawful prize, the 
soldiers were to profit by the capture. 

On January 15th another letter was witten 
by Sir William Waller from Arundel, asking 
that the ship might be sold, so that his men 
might receive their arrears of pay. This letter 
was referred to the Committee of Safety. A 
lar^e picture of St. Ursula found in this ship, 
which had been painted for the Church of St. 
Anna at Seville, was exposed to view at West- 
minster, and pamphlets were written to prove 
that it represented Queen Henrietta Maria 
urging Eling Charles to surrender his sceptre to 
the Pope I 

Mr. Green and Sir A. Heselrig wore directed 
to iivrite to thank Sir William Waller for his 
oare in this matter. The Spanish Ambassador 
interfered, and various merohants claimed the 
oargo, and at length the St James^ of Dunkirk, 
was released on August 24th, 1644. Colonel 
Morley, as Governor of Arundel Castle, was 
ordered to paj 40002. salvage to Waller*s army 
as compensation, and to account to the claimants 
for wliat hud been already sold or usod. Colonel 
Stapley, the Governor of Chichester, objected 
to quarter some of Sir W. Waller's troops in 
that city, but on January 10th the Earl of Essex 
ordered him to obe^ Waller in all things, as 
being his commanding officer. 

On Tuesday, January 16th, Mr. Trenchard 
received instructions to provide 1000/. worth of 
shoes, stockings, and boots for Waller's army, 
the value of which was to be deducted from 
their pay. Three hundred muskets and three 
cartloads of ammunition for the same army 
passed throuffh Lewes on January 8th. Sir 
William Waller in his "Vindication" says, '*A11 
that I got in the war by way of purchase or 
booty was one month's pay, as a Colonel of 
Horse, upon the surrender of Chichester. . . 
I had likewise 7002. for my part of tibie salvage 
of a ship that was driven on ground near 
Arundel when I lay before the castle, of which 
I gave the House a dear information when I 
d^ivered in my account. Besides this, of gift 



at several times 1 received 1002. from Mr- 
Dunch, of Pewsey, as I take it, who with a great 
deal of kindness sent it to me, though a stranger 
and utterly unknown to him, when I lay at 
Kewbridge, and 502. 1 had presented tb menom 
the town of Lewes, in acknowledgment of my 
poor service at Arundel, which I likewise 
reported to the House ; and in plate at Glouces- 
ter, Hereford, and Poole, to the value of 1001., 
or 1502. at most. And this is the utmost reckon- 
ing I can make, if it were my last reckoning, 
except I should put to account every horse 
gotten from the King's party upon the service, 
'and bring in a little painted cabinet and some 
toys, worth 122. or 142., presented to mv wife 
by the merchants of that forementioned dhip, 
as a token of their thankfulness for the care I 
had shewed to preserve their goods." 

Mr. Hillier, in his admirable *^' Sieges of 
Arundel Castle," gives some congratulatory 
verses presented to Lady Waller after her hus- 
band's signal success in Sussex. 

Much mention has been made throughout 
those operations of Lord Crawford. A few 
particuhrs concerning bun will, therefore, not 
be out of place. 

Ludovic Lindsay, 15th Earl of Crawford, 
joined Charles I. at the raising of the standard 
at Nottingham. He " was made welcome and 
created commander of the volunteers." He 
was with his regiment at Edgehill, on October 
23rd, 1G42, and at Chichester, on December 29th, 
in the same year. Colonel, Major, and Captain 
Lindsay, of his regiment, together with about 
sixty other officers, chiefly Scotsmen, were taken 
and sent up to London. Yicars says that their 
horses " were verv dainty ones !" Lord Craw- 
ford speedily ma^ good this loss, and took part 
in the battle of Lansdown, on July 5th, 1643. 
Soon afterwards, having been sent to bring up 
some powder, he was intercepted by Sir WilBam 
Waller, and lost one or two troops, besides the 
ammunition. He, however, played a distin- 
guished part at the great battle on Boundway 
Down, fought at the first battle of Newbury, 
on September 20th, 1643, and had, as we have 
seen, a very narrow escape at Poole, only five 
days afterwards. At Alton, on December 13th, 
he had " got out with his troops," but being 
overpowered, was obliged *' to get away with a 
few," leaving his **sack," hat, and cloak behind 
him, and owing his safety to the speed of his 
horse. He went north with Montrose, but soon 



Tbaces of the Conflict. 



115 



returned to England, and held command as a 
major-general at Marston Moor, on Jnlv 2nd, 
1644, " incurring the greatest hazard of any." 
Captured when the town of Newcastle was 
stormed, on October 9th, 1644, he was sent to 
Scotland, and condemned to death. Reprieved 
for a short time, the victory of Montrose, at 
Kil^th, where his regiment suffered terribly, 
set him free once more. After Montrose's 
defeat at Philiphangh, on September 13th, 1645, 
liord Crawford took refoge m France and Spain. 
He was at Badajoz^in June, 1649, and took part 
in Paris in the tnmnltsof the Fronde, gnarding 
Cardinal de Betz, in his citadel of Notre Dame, 
in company with fifty Scottish officers, who had 
seen service under Montrose. He is said to have 
died in France a childless man, in the year 1653. 
Such was the stirring life of " a steadfast 
Scottish Cavalier, all of the olden time !" 

Gladly, did space permit, wonld we insert the 
Hev. H. D. Gordon's description of the (entrench- 
ments htill plainly visible at South Harting, 
but we can only note that Harting Place, the 
residence of the Caryll family, was plundered 
several times, and the church converted into a 
stable or hospital. On the summit of the 
downs are several mounds immediately facing 
the park palings, near Two Beech Gate, from 
which several e^rietons have been disinterred 
and carefully laid to rest in the churchyard. 
Mr. Gordon tells us that a lane in the neigh- 
bouriiood is still euphoniously styled " Kildevil 
Lane," and says ^* There is a large green mound I 



south of Up Park House, in which tradition 
says a number of horses were buried, and there 
is a similar tamulus further to the south at the 
fern-beds between Compton and East Marden, 
called "Solomon's, alias Baverse's Thumb." 
Some years ago a man grubbing a fence near 
Compton Down pulled up an ash stump that 
disclosed a nest of silver pieces of the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, no doubt hidden there before 
some local fight. In fact, that the fighting 
spread far and wide over tbis portion of the 
Downs is shown from the circumstance that the 
Bev. A. Locke, Vicar of Chalton, recently 
picked up some cannon balls of the period of 
the Civil War in digging the f^und for his 
school. An axe-pike of the period, and other 
relics, point to the same conclusion ; these were 
found, together with a skeleton, at S toner wood, 
near Petersfield, by the Bcv. G. Taswell, in 
making a garden. Tho axe-pike is 22 inches 
long. It is handled like a modem spade, so 
that the wooden shaft was enclasped by the 
iron, the older pikes were driven into their 
wooden handles like modem hay-forks. Some 
skeletons were also discovered at Bepton, in the 
neighbourhood of Midhurst, by Mr. Eames, who 
found that the skull of a very large specimen 
had been fractured as if by a sword-cut or shot. 
In South Harting Church there is the follow- 
ing inscription : — "Major John Cowper lost his 
life in Winchester Castle in the service of Eling 
Charles the First ; he was plundered and 
sequestered of all he had by the rebels.'* 



Chapter XIX. — ^Bival Parties at Winchester — H.M.S. ** Mayflower" — Captain Ball 
AND Tobias Baisley — Colonrl Ludlow taken — Calenture — The Isle op Wight 

AND LyMINGTON — GrOVERNOR MURPORD AT SOUTHAMPTON — BOYALIST PlOT — SKIRMISHES 

NEAR Southampton — Outrages at Winchester — Preparations for Battle — ^Fioht- 
iNQ at Basing House and Bomsey — Sir John Oglandrr. 



The ** Perfect Dinmall," of January 8th, 
1644, announced that Lord Hopton was hemmed 
in between Chichester and Winchester, and 
that it would be difficult for him to escape from 
Sir William Waller's army. Despite all predic- 
tions to the contrary, the Boyalist Commander 
*< made a nimble retreat to Winchester," whither 
Waller prepared to follow him, leaving Colonel 
Norton to hold Cowdray House, so that we 
read in February, 1644, of ^' the garrison of 
Colonel Norton in Cowdray House, which lies 
indeed as a forlorn hope between them and their 
enemies." 

The city of Winchester certainly contained 
some friends to the Parliament, for in a Boyal 
Message addressed to its citizens in December, 
1642, the King declared with reference to the 
capture of the city by Sir William Waller, that 
<< you have openly declared yourselves enemies, 
and evil entreated those whom you had cause to 
entertain with all love and respect, flatly oppos- 
ing our authority, and betraying those to ruin 
tl^t were the instruments of our preservation,*' 
oonduding with a threat of forgetting that they 
were his subjects in the severity of his chastis- 
ing them. The citizens justified their conduct, 
which they declared was sanctioned by all laws, 
human and divine, saying that " we cannot be 
justly blamed for endeavouring to secure our 
lives, and to keep our wives and daughters from 
rapine and inevitable destruction," and conclud- 
ing by asserting at one and the same time both 
their loyalty and their resolution to continue 
the same course of action. 

But on December 30th, 1643, we find the 
following entiy in the Corporation records : — 
*< Taken out of the coffer, plate delivered to Mr. 



Jasper Cornelius, appointed to receive the same 
for His Majesty^s use, by virtue of an ordinance 
sent by His Majesty to the Mayor and Alder- 
men of the City for the loan of money or plate 
for the maintenance of the Army, by the con- 
sent of the Mayor and all the Aldermen of the 
City, one silver ewer, weighing 32oz. 4-loz. ; 
three silver bowls, 31oz. 4-loz. ; two silver wine 
bowls, 15oz. 4-3oz. ; one gilt bowl with the 
cover, 31 oz. 4-2oz. ; one great silver salt, weigh- 
ing 28oz. : one silver tankard, 19oz. l-2oz. ; one 
silver basin, 74oz. ; total, 225oz. 4-]oz., at 5s. an 
ounce, amounting to 58/. 168. 3d." A loan never 
destined to be repaid I Mr. Jasper Cornelius 
was an attorney by profession, and was a firm 
supporter of the Boyal cause. 

At the end of the year 1643 and during the 
spring of 1644 there were four Parliamentary 
armies in England, besides garrisons and local 
forces — ^Essex's own main arm^ ; Waller*s, 
raised, or to be raised, also for action, chiefly in 
the south and west ; Manchester's, of the seven 
Associated Eastern Counties ; and the Army of 
the Fairfaxes in the north. 

One ofthe King^s ships, named the Jfa^oioer, 
which had been flagship at Falmouth, was taken 
by the Parliament's ship, t?te Eighth Whelp^ 
and brought as a prize to Portsmouth. On 
Januaiy 8th, 1644, the storekeeper at that port 
was ordered to deliver to ^* Henry DoUing, part 
owner of the ship Ark of Poole, appointed by 
the House to lie before that town for defence 
and saf e^fuard thereof, six pieces of ordnance, 
with carnages, ladles, emptions, shots, and other 
gunner's stores," forming part of the armament 
of the MayifloweTy allowing Captain Dolling to 
select his own guns. Alderman Towse and 



Captain Ball and Tobias Baisley. 



117 



other Oommiiisionera of Ezciae had advanced 
500/. from their own pDrsea " for supply of the 
pnssing necessities of the town of South- 
ampton," paying the money to George Gallop 
and Edward Exton, Esqs., M.P.s for the town, 
at the time when Lord Hopton had broken down 
the bridge at Redbridge. They were now 
reimbaraed from the Excise duties. 

But we must return for a moment to Basing 
House, which had steadily held its own, doing 
as it hid done after the first Battle of Newbury, 
'when we read ^* the Marquesse of Winchester 
urith his forces at Basing hath also gathered up 
many stragglers, whereof some are officers.*' 
Sut now some within the walls began to lose 
lieart, and on Jan. 11th we are told of various 
C ivaliera with their horses coming from Basing 
House to Major-General Browne, who was in 
command of some London Trained Bands at 
Croydon, saying that they had been forced to 
take up arms, offering to serve the Parliament, 
and being enlisted accordingly. The Marquis 
had not only to contend with open enemies and 
faint h&irts, but he also had some trouble in 
controlling the lawleas spirits of certain of his 
own partisans, who thought that loyalty and 
plunder were synonymous terms. A certain Capt. 
Hall (omplained that he had been deprived of 
luH horses by Major-General Astley, after he had 
at his own expense raised a whole regiment for 
the Kiig. Warburton, in his Memoirs of Prince 
Bupert and the Cavaliers (p. 212). gives the 
old General's letter to Prince Rupert, with the 
oriffin il spelling, which does not make Captain 
Biul appear to much advantage. Mrs. Ball s ems 
to have been a help-meet for her husband : 
" May it pleas your Highnes, — As conseminge 
one Yt cales himselfe Capne. Ball, yt hath 
oompiiyned vnto yr ELighnes yt I hive tacken 
awaie hia horsses from him, this is the trewth. 
He hati livedo neare this towns ever since I 
came heather, and had gotten not above twelve 
men together and himselfe. He had so plundered 
and oppressed the pepell, pajdng contributions 
as the Marques of Winchester, and the Lord 
Hopton complayned extreamly of him ; and he 
went under my name, wtch he vsed falscely, as 
givinge it out he did it by my warrant. Off 
this he gott f aierly offe, and so promised to give 
DO mor canes of oomplavnt. Now, ewer since, 
he hath continewed his old coures in so extreame 
a wale as he and his wife and sone, and 10 or 12 
horsses he hath togeather, spoyles peepell, 



plunders them, and taekes violently thear goodda 
from them. As vpon complayntes of the contrite 
and the Committie hier, I could do no lose then 
comitt him, and took awaie som nine or ten 
horsses from him and his, for he newer had mor, 
and these not armed ; which horsses ar in the 
custodie of Sir Charles Blunt. Divers (persons) 
claims satisffaction from him for thear goodee 
he hath taken from them : as one man 30 
powndes worth of hoppas he took from thorn 
vpon the high waie. And this dav t e Comittie 
heir hath given warninge that both he and hie 
compliynt shall be heard ; all wtch shall be 
amplie informed hereafter to yr Highnes yt yr 
Highnes may se no w rouge shall be don him. 
Yr Highnes most humbell and obediant scervant, 
Jacob Astley. Beading, this 1 1th Jan., 1 644.*' 

After Ciptain Ball had thus been rendered 
harmless, the Marquis, feeling sure that he would 
not be long left in peace, was anxious to obtain 
accnrate information as to the state of affairs in 
London. He selected as the fittest man to act 
as a spy a certain Tobias Baisley, who, a norter 
by occupation, had formerly served the Parlia- 
ment, bat had deserted their cause, and taken 
service under Prince Rupert, who left him at 
Basing. He was employed *' at 5s. a week with 
meate and drinke in Basing House to make 
bullets,*' and was now and again sent foi-th to 
gain intelligence. In this he was so far succese- 
ful that he had ** betrayed divers c rriers with 
their waggons too and carriages to the Cavaliers!" 
Poor Tobias paid dearlv for his visit to town. 
He was arrested in London as a spy, and " Mer- 
curius Civicus,'* from whence this true and 
veracious story of Tobias is taken, tells us the 
result. ** A Covncil of War" assembled on 
Thursday, February 6th, 1644, and Tobias was 
condemned to die. On Tuesday, February 18th, 
he was taken to Smithfield, *' guarded by Mr. 
Quarterman, the Marshall, and divers others of 
the City Officers, and a company of the trained 
bands." Arrived at the place of execution the 
Marshall appeared in a second capacity, vis , 
that of Chaplain, and catechised the prisoner 
at length as to his religious belief. This done, 
** and thereupon the people being satisfied, the 
executioner, Brandon (who is said to have after- 
wards beheaded the King), was commanded to doe 
his office, whiche he did, though the porter shewed 
much unwillingnesse to go off the ladder." 

All things considered, tne reluctance of poor 
Tobias is not greatly to be wondered at. 



118 



Colonel Ludlow Taken. 



Wardour Gastlei of which Colonel Ludlow 
was GoTemor, had long been besieged by the 
Cavaliers, and about the middle of January Sir 
William Waller assured the garrison that if they 
would hold out for another fortnight he would 
either relieve them or lay his bones under the 
castle walls. Poole and Southampton were 
strongly garrisoned for the Parliament, and 
between these two towns Colonel Ludlow's 
troop had taken post, with the double object of 
harassing the enemy, and if possible raising the 
siege. The troopers fell into an ambuscade, and 
Cornet, afterwards Major, William Ludlow's 
horse was wounded in two places. A bullet 
passed completely through the Cornet's body, 
notwithstanding which he recovered, to the 
astonishment of every one. 

Colonel Ludlow having discovered a consider- 
able amount of treasure concealed in the Castle, 
offered the garrisons of Poole and Southampton 
700^. or 800/. if they could succeed in raising 
the siege. All efforts and offers, however, were 
in vain, and Lord Hopton having reinforced the 
besiegers with a strong detachment of Mendip 
miners, commanded by Sir Francis Doddington 
and an engineer, Ludlow was obliged to sur- 
render on February 18th, 1644. 

He was conducted by his captors that night 
to the house of Mr. Awbery, at Chalke, and 
from thence was sent to Oxford by way of 
Salisbury and Winchester. At the latter city 
Lord Hopton strongly urged him to desert the 
service of the Parliament for that of the King, 
as did also " a relation of mine, Colonel Richard 
Manning, who, though a Papist, commanded a 
regiment of horse in the King's service." But 
all solicitations were fruitless. His captivity 
was not of long duration, and on the 17th of 
April the House of Commons was informed of 
his release by exchange. He was soon after- 
wards appointed Sheriff of Wiltshire, and 
accepted a commission as Major under Sir 
Arthur Haselrig. During the month of May, 
1644, he did good service under Waller, who 
blockaded Oxford on one side, whilst Essex took 
post on the other. 

Before Friday, January 12th, Lord Hopton 
had been reinforced by 28 colours, or 500 men, 
and five days later he was reported to be planning 
with the advice of his cavalry to place guns and 
a fixed camp in a commanaing position upon 
" Warhill," or WeyhUl. One fortified post was 
to be established at Winchester, another at 



Weyhill, and a third at Beading, at a distance 
of 15 or 20 miles from each other, so as to main- 
tain an easy communication with Oxford. On 
January 19th Hopton's forces were in motion 
towards Salisbury and Andover, but operations 
were greatly impeded by a hard frost and a 
deep fall of snow. Sir William Waller was 
in London on January 24th, and five days after- 
wards Colonel Turner's regiment of horse, which 
had lately been under the command of the 
Earl of Essex, was ordered to join his army, in 
which, since the capture of Arundel Castle,much 
sickness, especially calenture, had prevailed. 
Mr. Blaauw says, '^ Calenture needs a dose of 
archeology now-a-days, though formerly an item 
in the London Bills of Mortality. This fatal 
fever especially attacked those who lay exposed 
to unwholesome night air. In the delirium 
peculiar to it, surrounding objects assumed the 
aspect of verdant meadows to the eyes of the 
sufferer, who when at sea would madly throw him- 
self into it,as if seeking the refreshment of a cool 
walk upon land. Dryden and Swift have made 
fine poetical use of this delusion. Probably 
Falstaff died of it, for Mrs. Quickly, describing 
his last symptoms, after lamenting that he was 

* so shaked of a burning quotidian tertian,' says, 

* after I saw him fumble with the sheets and 
play with fiowers, I knew there was but one 
way, for 'a babbled of green fields'. Hen . v., 
Act 2nd." 

Amongst the victims was Colonel Springet, 
who was joint Governor of Arundel Castle 
with Colonel Morle^, and on February 3rd, 1644, 
he was buried at Rmgmer, hb native place. 

On January 17th the Parliament ordered the 
sum of 300/. to be paid to Colonel Norton, the 
' Governor of Southampton, for the purchase of 
arms, and about a week afterwards several 
letters from Thomas Came, Esq., the Deputy- 
Governor, and from several Deputy-Lieutenants 
of the Isle of Wight, were read, asking the 
Parliament to allow the Charles, man-of-war, to 
remain at her present station for the protection 
of Burst Castle and Lymington Fort. They 
also asked that Parliament would provide for 
the defence of the island, and place a strong 
garrison in Hurst Castle, as 800 native Irian 
rebels, under Lord Inchiquin's command, had 
landed at Weymouth and were plundering Dor- 
setshire. Five hundred others were expected. 
During the following month a party ox them 
plundered Lady Drake's house in Dorsetahin, 



The Isle op Wight and Lymington. 



119 



baming it to the ground. She herself escaped 
to Lyme, wearing, indeed, a pair of shoes, but 
otherwise almost naked. On January 24th the 
Ijords at a conference desired the Commons 
to provide for the safety of the Isle of Wight. 
The Charles was ordered " to reside where she 
18 now/' for the period for which she was yic- 
tnalled. The Earl of Warwick was ordered to 
send ships to lie off the Isle of Wight and all 
the western coasts for their protection. The 
Committee for the safety was to provide for 
Hurst Castle and L^mmgton Fort, for the 
Btrengthening of which 500Z. wis voted on 
February 17th. The necessary funds were 
advanced by the Commissioners of Excise, of 
whom Alderman Towse was one, together with 
200/. for Newport garrison. 

Some extracts from the '-Lymington Records," 
which are given by Mr. Wise in lus book on the 
'* New Forest," throw light upon the condition 
of the country at this period. They are as fol- 
lows : — " 1643. Quartering 20 soldiers one daie 
and night, going westward for the Parliament 
Service, IBs. 2d." . ** 1646. For bringing the 
towne chest from Hurst Castell, 2s." ^^ Watche 
when the allarme was out of Wareham, 4s." ^Tor 
the sending a messenger to the Lord Hopton 
when he lay at Winton with his army, with the 
townees consent, 14s." Notice here that there 
were evidently two parties in the town, " with 
the towne's consent." ** 1646. For keeping a horse 
for the Lord GeneraFs man, 38. lOd." " 1650. 
Paid to Sir Thomas Fairfax, his souldiers going 
for the Isle of Wight, with their General's passe, 
128." ''1643. BUletingof seamen, 4/. ''1645. 
For cheese and beer for the souldiers, 10s. lOd." 
" 1646. Warning the Watch when the alarme 
was for Watch and Wards, and Beer, 7s. 5s., 
5fl. 6d., in all 17s. 6d. For 21b powder, 2s. 8d." 
^* 1650. For quartering of souldiers at the Mayor's 
bouse, 48. 6d., and grasse for their horses, 4s. 8d." 
We learn also from Woodward that there were 
also influential Cavaliers in the town. The Dore 
family made great sacrifices both for Charles I. 
and for the Duke of Monmouth, and when in 
1648 Prince Charles (afterwards Charles II.) 
appeared off Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) with 
2000 men and 19 ships, in the hope of rescuing 
his father, he was aided by Barnard Knapton, 
the Mayor, and certain burffesses of Lymington. 

'* Merourins Aulicus " tella an amusing story 
OD October 2nd, 1643 :— " One John Stanley, 



who was Purser to a ship, was pleased to send 
his powerful warrant for venison in these very 
words, ' These are to will and require you upon 
sight hereof to kill, or cause to be killed, one 
fat buck of this season, and send him to the 
" George," in Limmington, to be sent aboard our 
ship, and this shall be your warrant. Per me 
John Stanley. To Mr. George Rodney, Master 
Keeper, or to any of his Under Keepers.' " 

Did the Purser get his vemson after all ? 

On February 5th, 1644, a very interesting 
letter was written to Captain Thomas Harrison, 
who was afterwards one of the regicides, by Mr. 
Peter Murford, who had been Governor of 
Southampton, but had been superseded by 
Colonel Norton, under whom he was now 
acting as Sergeant Major, or, as we should now 
say. Major. As his name frequently occurs 
about this time in connection with South- 
ampton affairs, a few notices of him may be of 
interest, albeit they are drawn from the hostile 
" Mercurius Aulicus." Mr. Murford was a tailor 
by trade, as plainly appears from this extract, 
be iring the date of Wednesday, Sept. 30, 1842 : — 
" And the members may well think to tax all 
the world when Mui^ord, the pretended 
Governor of Southampton (nine of whose pro- 
fession make one man), hath power to fine that 
town as seemeth best to his greatness. For as 
by letters from Winchester we were this day 
certified. Colonel Morley, the Sussex rebel, 
having at Bingwood surprised two or three 
straggling soldiers of His Majesty's forces and 
brought them into Southampton, was as a 
grateful welcome entertained with a banquet at 
the Councell House of the town by that imperial 
seamstris Mistris Murford, and after dinner 
was created burgess of Southampton by Mur- 
ford himself. But the poor townsmen paid for 
all ; it so pleasing this mighty Governor that he 
assessed tne town to 650^, which they were 
forced to pay suddenly to avoid plundering, 
which he threatened, especially the old Mayor, 
who was constrained to ransom his goods with 
40^. And m the same letters it was further 
signified that this infamons Governor puUed 
down the picture of Queen Elizabeth from over 
the north gate of that town (called the Bar 
Gate), saying that the Queen was the occasion 
of all these troubles, for if she had made a 
thorough reformation all this fighting would 
have b^n spared. But if nothing but religion 



120 



GOYEBNOB MUBFOBD. 



Iiad stirred this good man's spirit, he might 
^ill have governed the shears and thimble and 
let corporations alone." 

On October 2nd, 1643, we hear of stirring 
joenes at Southampton. ** The good Governor 
this last week, as this day we were certified, had 
a full commission to exercise marshall law, and 
therefore made the Earl of Southampton's house 
ft common gaol, on such delinquents as His 
Mightiness shall think convenient. By virtue 
whereof he sent abroad his strict warrant com- 
manding all villages near unto Southampton to 
ftssist him with men and money in fortifying the 
town, among whom the Tythingman, of 
Stoneham, was convented before him for neg- 
ligence in executing of his Worship's new 
warrants, whereupon Murford said unto him, 
' Sirrah, if the King send to vou, then you can 
presently go, run, and ride ; but when I send, 
you will not step a foot, but) Sirrah, when I 
speak the word hereafter. 111 make you fly, or 
vou shall hang for it." In imitation of whom, 
Lis own Sub-Committee, Richard Major, Paul 
Mercer, Peter Legaye, and others, moved very 
eagerl^rat the meeting in Southampton, that 
the King's proclamation for non-payment of 
rents to rebels might be burned by the hand of 
the common hangman at the market-place, but 
were prevented by the good old Mayor of that 
town, who hath sufficiently smarted for his 
loyalty." 

Once more, on Tuesday, October 14th, 1643, 
we are told " Nor is the city of Coventry only 
happy in a good servant, the town of Souta- 
ampton being able to match Purefojrs with her 
famous Governor, Master Murford, one who, 
thoughl know not the man, is resolved still to 
trouble me with his weekly actions. For 
having, as we told you heretofore, decreed to 
make the Earl of Southampton's house a prison, 
this week he sent in fifty prisoners to take pos- 
session, and to show his mightiness, he assembled 
his Committee, viz., Mercer, Legay, Major, and 
the rest, at their meeting place in Southampton, 
where, after a serious debate, it was concluded 
that all the coal in Netley House, a house 
belonging to the Lord Marques of Hertford, 
now Clumcellor of the University of Oxford, 
should be removed to Southampton by some of 
the rebels of Master Murford s garrison, which, 
in obedience to the just authority of this rebel- 
lion, was quickly performed ; whether they will 
f etdi coals so eamly from Newcastle we shall 



see ere long, but if they do not they tell us tha^ 
they will cut down all the woods within three* 
score miles of London." Governor Murford** 
chaplain was the Rev. Nathaniel Robinson, a 
friend of Oliver Cromwell, who, in 1649, was 
settled in the Rectory of All Saints' Church, 
Southampton, and who negotiated betweea 
Oliver and Richard Major, of Hursley, concern- 
ing the mirriage of Richard Cromwell and 
Dorothy Major. Murford and his friends, 
Legay, Mercer, and others, towards the end of 
the year 1643 announced t le discovery of ^a 
real or pretended plot to betray the town to the 
Cavaliers, ** but the offenders were only the 
inhabitants of the town, and such only as had 
somewhat to lose, as appeared by a good round 
assessment levied on them within few hours alter 
breaking open of the plot." 

From Murford's letter of February 5th, 1644, 
we learn that after destroying the bridge over 
the Test at Redbridge, Lord Hopton's troops 
retired to Winchester. On the following day 
a letter reached Mr. Robert Mason, a merchant 
of Southampton, from Mr. Jasper Cornelius, a 
Royalist attorney at Winchester, asking him to 
persuade Murford to betray the town to Lord 
Hopton. Murford talked the matter over with 
Colonel Norton, who ordered him to send a 
favourable reply. Mr. Jasper Cornehus offered 
him 1000/. in money, a better office than that 
which he then held, a pardon under the Great 
Seal, and an assurance of the King's favour. 
Bv Colonel Norton's secret directions, Murford 
asked for either the 1000/. at once, or else 500L 
and the Royal pardon. Colonel Norton mean- 
while informed the Earl of Essex and Sir 
William Waller of the offers made by Cornelius. 
The pretended treaty was protracted, in order 
to gain time, in the hope that Lord Hopton 
woidd blockade Southampton, and be defeated 
by Sir William Waller on his return from 
Arundel. The promised pardon was at length 
sent, but no money. The r jward was only to 
be paid when the work was done. A month 
went by, and eight letters passed between the 
negotiators, Mr. Robert Mason being bound to 
secrecy by oath. At length Murford told him 
that Colonel Norton knew everything. Masoa 
made an earnest appeal for mercy, for the sake 
of bis wife and large family, but in vain. Hs 
was, however, allowed to return to hia own 
house, three doon distant from Murford's, and 
profiting by the opportonity, before he could be 



Skirmishes hear Southampton. 



121 



Rireated he made hia escape to Winchester, 
where he was welcomed and employed in a con- 
fiddnfeial position. Lordfiopton now despatched 
troops to blockade Southampton, and several 
flkirmiahea took place, in ail of which the sol- 
diers of the Parliament had the advantage. On 
January 31st, 1644, a comet, five soldiers, and 
their horses were taken prisoners. Two days 
Afterwards two men of the town were captured 
with their horses and arms, three or four being 
wounded. One of the latter, a captain, was on 
February 5th dying of hia wounds, at Uomsey. 
On a previous occasion we find the Mayor and 
some of the richer burgesses favoured ^*the 
Madgnants," or Cavaliers. On February 6th 
the Liord Admiral, thefiarlof Warwick, seat the 
Maria pinnace to Southampton Water, to guard 
the town, which was then threatened by the 
BoyaUsts, LiordHopton's men having committed 
Curtain depredations on tae land side, so that 
there was in tae waole county '' nardly anything 
left for mxn or beast." Lord Hopton was 
expecting to be reinforced eitaer from Oxford or 
the Wost. Major-General Browne wiJi the 
City Brij^e was fortlfymg Petworth, in order 
to prevent a Cavalier inroad into Suiuex. Lord 
Hopton 's army was about 7000 strong at Win- 
chester, and was recmiced with Irishmen, horse 
raised in the western counties, and pressed men. 
The persons and estates of t.iose refusing to 
serve the King were alike liable to be seised. 
Tae Cavaliers at Winchester were now ^'fortify- 
ing apace," but mmy of them, who were Fro- 
test uits, declared that they woold not serve with 
the Lrish troops, who had either arrived or were 
daily expected. In one of the skirmishes near 
Boathampt n, a Parliamentarian officer was 
taken phs jner. flis men followed the retreat- 
ing Cavaliers, and brougbt them to action again 
at tha Tillage of Twyford. The prisoner was 
placed in the front rank, but the Parliamen- 
tarians fired hotly, killed eight of their oppo- 
nents, pat the rest to flight, and rescued their 
oflloer. On February l^th the counties of Kent, 
Sarrey, Sussex, and Hants were raising bOO^ 
men to check the movements of Lord Hopton, 
who had formed the plan of aiding CoL Massey 
in Gloacestershire and Wiltshire. 

Sir Benjanun Tichbome, M.P for Peters- 
fieldy a staunch Cavalier, dwelt in the old 
moated, oak-panelled family mansion at West 
Tisted, which is fnll of interest to the 
ardusologist. His home was, howeveri seised 



upon by Sir William Waller, who established 
there a cavalry outpost. This circumstance 
would have teen forgotten if a casualty had 
not occurred, which was duly recorded in the 
paruh register. For the following entry, which 
speaks for itself, I have to thank the Kev. Mr. 
Stewart : — 

'' A soldier, one Leiftenant Vernon, under a 
gentleman, one Captayne Gibbon, of a Kentish 
re/iment of Horse for the Parliament against 
tne King, in the tyme of ye Civill Warre 
betweene King Charles and his Parliament, 
being quartered at Sir Benjamin Tichborne's 
house, was buried in the Charnell of West 
Tisted, on the north side, directly under the 
little window. He was unfortunately killed by 
his Captayne's Groome of his horse in the 
kitchen standing by the fire on the Monday 
before, being February the 10th, bemg aboat 
9 of the clock at night. Shott into his left 
shoulder through the bare (breast ?) bone, with 
a pistoU charged with two bnlletts. The Cap- 
tayne's man that did it was tried by a Conned 
of Warre as a thing of inf ortnne, and not of set 
purpose maliciously. The Colonoll of the 
Kentish regiment was one Colonel Lacy, Feb. 
12, 1644. A memorable accident I " 

** Mercnrius Aulicus*' tells us that the good 
people of Odiham were sadly disturbed whilst 
at church on February 11th. Some of the 
garrison of Farnham Castle rode into the 
church during the service, and " presented their 
jpistols at Master Holmes, the minister, paying 
with a loud impudence, * Sir, you must come 
down, for we do not allow of such kind of 
preaching.' " One trooper fired his pistol in 
the church ; a number of women fainted, *^ and 
one Bushell's wife fell down dead." 

On Thursday, February 15th, it was known 
in London that two troops of Hopton 's men 
had reconnoitred Southampton. Colonel Norton 
sallied out upon them, and "many were wounded 
in their wheeling." No less than 80 of them 
were killed and taken, the fire on both sides 
being w«f 11 sustained. One hundred good horses, 
120 arms, and other plunder rewarded the 
victors, whose loss is not stated, and the rest of 
the Cavaliers fled in disorder. Hampshire men 
were ordered either to supply Lord Hopton't 
cavalrr with horses, or to pay 10/. per man in 
lien of each horse. A weekly payment of 25s. 
per week was levied **upon such as are bat 
meanly landed." Imprisonment and plunder 



122 



Outrages at Winchester. 



awaited those who refused payment. Almost 
all the sheep, not omitting pregnant ewes, are 
said to have been devoured by the Cavaliers, 
who were charged with having eaten up 3000 
sheop within twelve days at Odiham without 
payment. 

On the 19th of the following month a petition 
was presented by " the Master and Almesf oik 
of the Poore Hospitall of St. Mary Magdalen, 
neare Winchester, to the Bight Honourable 
Ralph, Lord Hopton, Baron of Stratton, and 
Field Marshall G-eneral of His Majesty *s 
Western Forces.'* The petitioners stated that 
they could not live without charitable additions 
to their endowment, and that 16 acres of barren 
arable land and dry common for 120 sheep was 
all the land they possessed, which they dili- 
gently cultivated. That about Christmas, 1643, 
Lord Hopton*s men had killed 36 of their sheep, 
necessitating the removal of the rest to a dis- 
tance of sixteen miles. Of this they had made 
uo complaint. *' But your petitioners do farther 
shew that within four nights last past the 
soldiers keeping their rendezvous there have not 
only devoured nine quarters of their seed barley 
for this season, being the full provision for the 
same, and have broken down and burnt up the 
great gates, all doors, table boards, cupboards, 
gyses, timber partitions, barnes, and stables 
there, but have also used violence to the house 
of God, burning up all the seats and pews in the 
church, also the Communion table, and all other 
wainscot and timber there that they could lay 
hands on, and have converted the said house of 
God into a stable for horses and other profane 
uses, to the great dishonour of God and grief 
of soul of your poor petitioners, being very aged 
and impotent persons, and thereby made desti- 
tute of the means of having either temporal or 
spiritual food." Lord Hopton endorsed this 
petition with an order that Henry Foyle, Esq., 
and Commissary Fry should protect these dis- 
tressed almsfolk. 

About the middle of February, 1500 of Lord 
Hopton*s cavalry were at Salisbury marching 
to the westward. Having been suddenly recaUed 
to Hampshire, some 500 of them deserted their 
oolours. The rest were " badly armed, not 
worth much, as were many Cavaliers elsewhere." 
Lord Hopton had ordered some dozens of maps 
of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey to be sent to him 
from London, for the use of his officers. His 
■apply of ammunition was now fast failing him. 



On Saturday, Feb. 17th, Sir William Waller 
was quartering his army near Chichester and 
Arundel. The London Brigade was at Petworth. 
Its officers maintained strict discipline, and on 
Feb. 20th, '* a corporal was to be tried by a 
Council of War for revealing the watchword in 
the night time." Some of Colonel Norton's 
men were in garrison at Cowdray House, near 
Midhurst, five miles from Petworth. Detach- 
ments of Cavaliers from Winchester were hover- 
ing about Alton, and giving constant alarms to 
the garrisons at Cowdray and Petworth, but 
inclement weather prevented any m:iportant 
military operations. 

On February 20th, the Parliament passed an 
Ordinance for giving an allowance of 12,000/. 
per month to the Scottish Army, to commence 
on the Ist of March, and two days afterwards 
news reached London that Lord Hopton and 
Sir William Ogle were discussing the advisability 
of demolishing the fortifications of Winchester, 
and evacuating the city, for the double reason 
that it was difficult to provide for the wants of 
4000 caval^ as well as infantry, and that Sir 
William Waller was threatening a personal 
advance in force. ** Mercurius Aulicus," on 
February 23rd reports a mutiny of some of 
Waller's troops, and that Captain Guthred and 
some others had come over to the Cavaliers. 
Waller was expecting to be reinforced by 3000 
foot, 120 horse, and 500 dragoons, which had 
been lately raised in the four associated counties 
of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Hampshire. 

On February 27th Hopton was impressing 
men, many of whom deserted at the first oppor- 
tunity. Of 600 men thus forced into his ranks 
100 deserted at once, and 200 more were missing 
when the detachment reached Winchester, 
despite the exertions of a guard of horse. Many 
country gentlemen were said to bepreparing to 
abandon Hopton, and to welcome Wal^r when- 
ever he shomd advance into Hampshire. The 
29th of February brought news that Sir WilliAm 
Waller's rendezvous was to be at Chesterfield, 
and that he would march towards Winchester 
after another ten days. The Kentish men were 
to be there, also 1200 foot, 400 horse, and 200 
dragoons, Sussex and Surrey sending their due 
proportion under "that valiant soldier Sir 
Ridiard Grenville." 

And now the greatest disaster of ail for the 
King's troops was at hand. After the oaptnrt 
of Arundel Castle and his victory at Alton, 



Pbeparations for Battle. 



123 



Sir William Waller was eager to proceed on 
kia inarch into the western counties, more 
especially as the 1000 horse which, nnder the 
command of Sir William Balfour, the Earl of 
Essex had been obliged, sorely against his will, 
to lend his subordinate but rival Waller, might 
be withdrawn at any time. Besides, the Auxi- 
liary Regiments of London were anxious to 
return home, their period of service having 
nearly expired. Accordingly, as an old writer 
observes, '^ Sir William Waller, after his reduce- 
ment of Arundel Castle, marched to find out 
my Lord Hopton, to cry quits with him for his 
ddEeat at Roundway Down" (near Devizes). 

Lord Hopton, on his part, was nothing loth, 
especially after the disaster at Alton, which 
"inflamed him with desire of a battle with 
Waller to make even aU accounts. '* The King, 
having heard of the strong reinforcements 
granted to Sir William Waller, sent a large 
force of volunteers from Oxford to reinforce 
the army under Hopton. They were under the 
command of the Earl of Brentford, a man whom 
Clarendon says had been a very good ofiQcer and 
had seen mnch service. His courage and boldness 
no man doubted, but long- continued and heavy 
drinking bouts had weakened his mental powers, 
which never had been very great, *' he having 
been always illiterate to the greatcdt degree that 
can be imagined I" Being an intimate friend 
of Lord Hopton, and wishing to pass the winter 
in active service rather than in repose, he asked 
permission to march to Winchester, which was 
very readily granted by the King, On his arrival, 
Hopton gave him a most cordial welcome, and 
offered him the supreme command of the whole 
force. This offer, however, he refused, but 
promised to aid in all expeditions to the best of 
his ability. If the fortune of Cheriton fight 
had been different, the two generals would have 
marched together to the aid of the Cavaliers of 
Sussex and Kent, and would have made the 
King supreme in those t'v^o counties. 

Sir WiUiam Waller was massing troops near 
Famham, meaning to seek the Cavaliers, and 
^'they cheerfully embraced the occasion and 
went to meet him." A contemporary account 
■ays: ''Both armies were near one another a 
good space, for my Lord hovered about Win- 
chester and those parts." 

On the Ist of March, 1644, Hopton was said 
to have barely 6000 men at Winchester, and 
deaertions from that garrison were frequent. 



Sickness was decimating both armies, but the 
Cavaliers were the greatest sufferers. The town 
and garrison of Portsmouth were distressed for 
provisions, as Hopton 's outposts were in occupa- « 
tion of Southwick, Bishop's Waltham, Fareham, 
and other places in the neighbourhood. One 
hundred barrels of powder were ordered to be 
stored in Arundel Castle for the supply of 
Waller's army, and on March 7th orders were 
given that forty other barrels from the powder 
mills, near Guildford, should be sent for the 
same purpose to Famham Castle, the garrisoning 
of which at this time caused some anxiety to 
the Parliamentary Committee of both kingdoms. 
All the officers of cavalry and infantry regi- 
ments raised in Kent, and the Governors of all 
the garrisons in the four associated counties of 
Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Hants, wore to obey 
the orders of Sir William Waller as Major- 
General of the Association. Sir William himself, 
when present in the House of Commons about 
this time, obtained authority to make a summary 
levy of horses in three days in West Sussex, so 
as to complete the proportion of cavalry to be 
provided by the county for the regiment then 
being raised for Sir Richard Grenville. The 
Committee of Militia wrote " to encourage the 
City Regiment, now in Su8sex.to continue for yet 
longer upon the service, the necessity for it at 
this time being so important." Sir John Trevor 
was raising money in Sussex for Sir William 
WaUer, and on Thursday, March 7th, the Com- 
mittee of Militia and Mr. Molins, Comptroller of 
the Ordnance, delivered to that General's army, 
" One demi culverin, called Killcow, three 
drakes at Leaden Hall, one demi culverin 
drake, and one sacre drake, upon shod wheels, 
with their carriages, and for carriages, with 
provisions for sixty shot round." Hampshire 
and Sussex Puritan recruits were coming in 
apace, and Kentish Volunteers nearly 5000 
strong destined for the same service were being 
maintained at the expense of their county. On 
Sunday, March 10th, eighteen loads of ammu- 
nition left London for Waller's army. Sir 
John Evelyn and other Hampshire gentlemen 
had promised allegiance to the Parliament, and 
had taken the Covenant, but on March 2nd it 
was debated whether or not they were again 
eligible for seats in the House. 

Colonel Harvey, who was beaten at Basing 
House, in company with Colonel Norton, on 
August 2nd, 16&, was now sent with his regi- 



124 



Basing House and Bomset. 



ment of horse to join Sir William Waller at 
Famham, and our old acquaintance, Captain 
Bwanley, the terroi* of Southampton, ahout this 
time m ide prize of a ship of Bristol, laden with 
arms and ammunition for the King. On or 
about March 9th some of Lord Hopton's cavalry 
from Winchester faced Southampton. Colonel 
Norton sent out a party to skirmish with them 
until some other troops who had made a long 
and circuitous march could attack them from 
an ambuscade in their rear. The result was 
most disastrous to the Cavaliers. One of the 
sons of Sir John Stawell was killed. This 
family was constantly active on the side of the 
King. The Cavaliers are said to have carried 
off five cartloads of their dead, and the slain and 
prisoners are variously estimated at 80 and 140. 
^tween 6 ) and 80 horses were brought back to 
Southampton, together with two cornets and 
other officers. Colonel Norton lost only three 
men, according to one writer ; but all concur 
in stating that his losses were but slight. 
Sir William Balfour, Major-General of Horse 
under Sir William Waller, was now in Hamp- 
shire with 4000 horse and dragoons, and on his 
march from Beading to Devizes took a few 
straggling Cavalier horsemen, who were billeted 
at Andover, and immediately afterwards occu- 
pied Newbury, which now had a garrison of 
5000 horse and foot, and from whence Captains 
Dolbery, Turner, and Thompson were sent with 
about 2 horse to face Basing House. " The 
foxes and wolves there cams out," and followed 
the retreating Boundheads as far as Odiham, 
plundering meanwhile and capturing a waggon- 
load of provisions. Thereupon they halted and 
retired towards Basing House, their strength 
being almost the same as that of their oppo- 
nent<4. Now, in their turn, did Balfour^s men 
advance to the attack, killing twenty Cavaliers, 
routing the others, recapturmg the waggon, and 
taking many prisoners, or, according to two 
chroni lers, capturing **many troops of horse and 
provii-ion carriages," or ** six waggons of beef, 
malt, and bacon going to Basing House." 

Sir William Bufour's troopers then advanced, 
somewhat to the alarm of the garrison at Win- 
chester, but ** that good knight, Sir John Smith, 
beat up the rebel quarters at Bramdean, Peters- 
field, and Alton." recapturing the provisions, 
and making the unwelcome Parliamentarian 
Intruders retire. On Tuesday, March 12th, 



Lord John Stuart, one of the Duke of Bich- 
mond's brothers, who was in command of Lord 
Hopton's cavalry, led a party of Sir Edward 
StawelFs horse and foot **to a place near Alres^ 
ford." The same day a party of Cavaliers 
marched out of Bomsey, and when approaching 
the New Forest met a party of their comradesy 
who did not recognise them, and shots were 
exchanged. This mistake having been rectified, 
the whole force returned to Bomsey, which 
some of Colonel Norton's men from South* 
ampton, led by Captain Thomas Evans, had 
that evening occupied, " where they had but a 
short night's rest." Early in the morning of 
March 13th the Cavaliers entered the town, 
Burpiised their opponents, who were about 120 
in number, and veiy well armed. From 80 to 
100 prisoners were taken, the rest by different 
ways escaping. Captain Evans had in his 
pocket a commission as Governor of Bomsey. 
Six of the prisoners were found to be deserters 
from Lord Hopton's army, and were summarily 
hanged, at the especial request of their own 
regiment. 

Meanwhile things were by no means going on 
smoothly in the Isle of Wight. On Tuesday, 
March 12th, the petition of Captain Scofield, 
John Baskett, and Bichard Bury, gentlemen, 
and others against Col. Came, *' the present 
Deputy Governor of the Isle of Wight," was 
read in the House of Commons, and referred to 
the Committee for the safety of the Isle of 
Wight. Another petition was in course of 
signature in the Island, which the Committer 
received orders to supjiress. Colonel Came, 
who was accused first of discountenancing the 
friends of the Parliament, and secondly of 
countenancing those of the King, was to be 
summoned to appear in London to answer these 
charges. The Earl of Pembroke, the Governor 
of the Isle of Wight, wrote to the standing 
Committee there ** to take care of the safety of 
the Island, especially of Cansbrooke Castle and 
Sandown Fort. And that James Millis and 
Captain Hunt may be secured, or sent out of 
the Island by the Committee, that they may do 
no prejudice to the safety of the Isle." On 
Friday, March 22nd, a petition of the knights, 
gentlemen, snd inhabitants of the Isle of 
Wight was read, and the Earl of Pembroke 
received further orders to take care of the 
Island until the matter should be decided by 



Sir John Oolandsr. 



125 



authority. Colonel Came was afterwards 
acqaitted of the two charges brought against him 
by a majority of 21 and 20 votes respectively. 

Notice was also taken on March 22na of '* the 
demeanour and carriage of one Oglander iu the 
Isle of Wiirht." On this point " Meronrins 
Anlicns" enlightens nson Monday, August 14th, 
IWS:— 

**Thi8 day also we received intelligence that Sir 
John Oglander being in the Isle of Wight, one, 
who is a safficient brother, said to him that the 
King's ships were goodly ships. *Yes,' said 
Sir John, ^ but they woald be better if they 
were restored to their true owner,' meaning 
His Majestv. The Roundhead replied, * Why, 
what wonla you gain if the King had them 
all?' 'No matter for gain,' said Sir John. 
* I would I had given 50O/. of my own purse 
so as the ships were in the right owner's posses- 
sion.' 'And verily,' said the other, *it shall 
cost you 500/.,' and so presently informed 
against him, and caused hun to be fetched to 
prison, where now the good knight is kept close 
only for discovering a good wish to His 
Majesty." 



On Tuesday, March 19th, 1644, two letters 
from the Earl of Warwick, dated, one, three 
days previously, and the second the day before, 
were read in Parliament, enclosing "extracts of 
Captain Jorden's letter and Captain Thomas, 
his letter from Portsmouth and Stokes Bay," to 
tbe effect that they had chased the Earl of 
Marlborough, "and had taken four prizes of 
good value, the one of thirteen guns, belonging 
to Lyme." 

On March 25th it was decided that the Sum- 
mer Guard should consist of eighteen merchant 
ships. The two second rates and one third rate 
men-of-war previously ordered to be sent to 
sea were countermanded. A strong escort was 
to be provided for certain ammunition carts 
which were to be sent to Sir William Waller. 
But all these matters of detail were in the 
following week to be dwarfed by the great 
struggle which has been variously styled the 
Battle of Cheriton, Alresford, Brandon Heath, 
Brandon, Bramdean, and Winchester, as well as 
Cheriton Down Fight and Cheriton Fight. 
Truly manifold are the appellations of this 
dread and stem reality ! 



Ohapteb XX, — ^A Battle Imminent — Sir William Waller's Advance — ^Lord Hopton's 
Entrenchments — ^West Meon Occupied— Cavaliers at Albebford — Skirmish at 
TiSTED — Ciieriton Pight — Struggle in the Wood — The Tide Turns—Hopton 
Retreats — A Cavalry Charge — Keen Pursuit — Trophies op Victory — ^Losses on 
Both Sides — The Earl of Forth — ^Winchester Surrenders — Lady Hopton taken 
Prisoner — ^Rejoicings in London. 



Encouraged by the presence of the Earl of 
Forth, his firm friend and superior officer, and 
sorely grieved by the late disasters at Alton 
and at Arundel, Lord Hopton, having been aldo 
reinforced from Oxford, was anxious to try 
oondusions with Sir William Waller. He and 
Lord Forth intended, if successful, to advance 
into Sussex and Kent, in which counties Rush- 
worth says " they were like to find manv to join 
them. * ' The same author sajrs that the Cavaliers 
were 13,000 or 14,000 strong, and that Sir Wil- 
liam Waller, Sir William Balfour, who com- 
manded the cavalry. Sir Michael Livesay, who 
had brought up a force from Kent, and Major- 
Genehil Browne, who led the London Brigade, 
had upwards of 10,000 men. But most authori- 
ties give the numbers on each side as being from 
8000 to 10,000. The Parliamentarian Generals, 
especially Sir William Waller, " who wished to 
cry quits with Lord Hopton for his defeat at 
Roundway Down" on July 13th, 1643, were by 
no means reluctant to stake the issue of the con- 
test upon the result of a battle. Waller was 
elated by his previous victories gained at Alton 
and Arundel, and knew that his London Brigade 
was exceedingly anxious to march in the 
direction of the metropolis. Moreover he feared 
the speedy recall of the cavalrv which had 
lately been lent to him by the Earl of Essex. 

According to a letter from Petworth we 
learn that the White and Red Regiments and 
the Southwark Regiments, which composed the 
London Brigade, were to advance on March 16th 
from Petworth to Midhurst, at which latter 
town they halted for five days. Lord Hopton, 
who on March 19th was said to have under his 



command 10,000 men, the majority of whom had 
been impressed, was now concentrating all his 
forces from the western counties, preparatory to 
a general rendezvous on Tichbome Down. Many 
of his pressed men were expected to desert, if 
opportunity offered, and there was a report that 
10,000 arms had been landed at Weymouth from 
Dui^irk for the Cavaliers. Sir William Bal- 
four, who was in command of 4000 horse and 
dragoons, was on March 18th, says *' Mercnrina 
Britannicus, ' ' "betwixt Winchester and Romaey. 
and the rebels in Oxford are betwixt fear and 
despair.** Sir William Waller was on his march 
from Sussex with six or seven thousand horse 
and foot, the county of Kent having sent him 
500 cavalry and 1200 infantry. The armies were 
nearly equal in number, and Lord Hopton waa 
busily fortifying Winchester, and <* building a 
great fort about one mile thence, to keep off all 
approaches thereunto, but the hills so command 
that city that his labour will be lost, and his 
great sconce " or redoubt *' prove useless.** Is not 
this great fort or sconce the well-known earth- 
work, with its clump of fir trees visible from afar, 
known to all men as Oliver's Battery, so callea 
probably from having been occupied by that 
stern soldier, Cromwell, in October, 1645 ? 

On March 18th, Sir William Waller reached 
Chichester with his train of artillery, and on the 
following day a solemn fast was observed by 
his army, just one week before the appointed 
time, as the following week was likely to prove 
somewhat eventful. All the farmers' teams 
were impressed by Waller for the transport of 
his baggage and guns. Sir William Balfour had 
also taken up a position nearer to PortsmouUi, 



Sir Wiluam Waller's Advance. 



127 



And on March 2(Hfa tlie whole army was to 
advance towards Winchester. On the 21st Sir 
William Waller himself was still in Ghiohester, 
but some of his forces had marched to Cather- 
ington, and others were quartered at Havant. 
The London White and Tellow Regiments, 
under Major-General Browne, were at Midhurst, 
and the horse and foot from East Kent, under 
Sir Michael Livesay, had effected a junction 
with the rest of the army. Sir William 
Balfour's 4000 horse and dragoons were '* at 
Portdiester, Portsmouth, Petenfield, Lippocke, 
Ac." The Surrey forces of the Parliament 
were on the march towards G-odalming, and a 
traveller reported that for nineteen miles 
together all the towns and villages were filled 
with the soldiers of the two (^posing armies, 
each of which was said to be 10,000 strong. On 
March 2l6t, a solemn Day of Humiliation was 
observed at the Qhurch of St. Martin's in the 
Fields, for the success of Sir WiUiam Waller, 
who was even then expected to act upon the 
defensive, as he was advised to do by the Parlia- 
ment. He had appointed Tichborne Down as 
a rendezvous for the London Brigade, and also 
for the cavalry force under Sir WiUiam Balfour. 
When it was known in London that Waller was 
actually on tbe march towards Winchester 
through Petersfield, ** two gallant pieces of 
ordnance, fit for battery, with divers carriages 
and ammunition," were at once sent to him. 

Lord Hopton and the Earl of Forth had pre- 
viously chaUenged Waller to fix the day and 
place for a battle, and by the night of Saturday, 
March 23rd, some of the troops on either side 
were within six miles of one another. Some of 
the Cavaliers were posted on the downs a mile 
distant from Winchester, whilst others were con- 
structing entrenchments upon Tichborne Down. 
Mr. Duthy says (*' Sketches of Hampshire," p. 
194) : — " There is a tradition that when Aires- 
ford was oecupied by the Royal Army under 
Hopton, before the battle of Cheriton, some of 
the outposts were on the ridge of Ovington 
Down, where the present turnpike road now 
skirts Sir Thomas Dyer's park, and a field, which 
is still known by the name of Butcher's Close, is 
pointed out as the spot where the Commissary 
collected and slaughtered cattle for the use of 
the King's Army. Marks of entrenchments are 
viable, or were lately so, which were probably 
thrown up at the same period." Other entrench- 
ments are also to be traced upon Gander's Down, 



apparently intended to protect the old road from 
the Four Lanes, Beauworth, to Winchester. But 
Lord Hopton 's soldiers were mostly *'young boys, 
forciUy taken from their parents and masters, 
who also want arms and military exercise I " 

For information as to the manoeuvres on both 
sides W6 are much indebted to Mr. Duthy's 
''Sketchesof Hampshire," Woodward's "History 
of Hampshire," and other sources. Major- 
General Browne was in command of the London 
Brigade, and in an account of the battle, *^ pre- 
sented to the Bight Honourable the Lord 
Mayor" by one " imployed in the service of the 
City and State to attend the London Brigade," 
we are told that " upon Thursday, the 21 of 
this instant, March (oar Brigade being quartered 
at Midhurst), our major general received orders 
from Sir William Waller to advance towards 
Winchester, to a town called Traford, which 
accordingly he did with incredible speed, almost 
at an hour's warning, and that night arrived 
there, which we found to be a small village, not 
above seven or eight houses to quarter all our 
men. There we met with much hardship." 
No long halt was made in the village, for from 
"an account published three days after the 
battle, as sent in a letter from an intelligent 
officer in the armie to his friend in London," we 
learn that " on Monday last, March 25, we (the 
writer was one of the London Brigade) were 
drawn forth from a town called Traford into 
a heath appointed by Sir William Waller for the 
meeting of all his forces." Traford is evidently 
Treyford. 

At this rendezvous three disorderly soldiers 
of the London Brigade were executed. One 
was tied to a tree and shot for killing his com- 
rade. Another, who belonged to Sir WUliam 
Waller's own regiment, was hanged as a deserter, 
as was also the third for mutiny, and for level- 
ling a musket at his captain in order to rescue 
an offender. Towards evening on Monday, 
March 25, the London Brigade approached West 
Meon, which village they were informed was 
five miles distant from Alresford, six miles 
from Bishop's Waltham, and nine from Win- 
chester. This brigade, f oiming the advance 
guard of Waller's army, also ascertained that 
the Cavaliers were assembled in force only some 
five miles off. Lord Hopton 's outposts had 
already occupied the village, and *^asthe quarter- 
masters came riding in, with a piece of a trooo for 
their guard," a bri^ skirmish took place, which 



128 



Oavauebs at Albesfobd. 



resulted in the retreat of the Cavaliers, leaving 
behind them in captivity their commanding 
officer, ** with a good horse under him, and good 
store of money." Soon afterwards a rumour 
was circulated that 600 Cavaliers were entering 
the villa^^e, which caused the Londoners to 
evacuate it. Some few j^ots seem to have been 
exchanged, but Captain Robert Thompson 
bravely led on a forlorn hope of musketeers, 
and secured the possession of West Meon to Sir 
William Waller. Lord Hopton, being duly 
informed of this brush with the enemy, quitted 
Winchester on Tuesday, March 26th. on which 
day Sir William Waller and his staff had reached 
Petersfield, from whence he advanced as far as 
East Meon. During the day six troops of his 
cavaliy encountered sixteen troops of Royalint 
horsemen near West Meon. Three of Lord 
Hopton *s men were made prisoners, and the rest 
retii'ed, having probably accomplished their 
object of ascertaining the strength of the enemy. 

On Wednesday, March 27th, Sir William 
Balfour, who had under his command Sir Arthur 
Haslerig's cuirassiers, known to fame as ** The 
Lobsters," ftom their iron shells, was sent by 
Waller with a large force of cavaliy to occupy 
the town of Alreaford. But Lord Hopton was 
too quick for him. Putting himself at the head 
of 8uO horse and dragoons, and ordering the 
infantry to follow with all f<peed, he hastened 
to secure the town. His force and that of Sir 
William Balfour marched in full view of one 
another nearly all the way, but the Cavaliers 
were the first to ariive, and Balfour and his 
troopers reluctantly fell back to quarter them- 
selves in the neighbouring villages. 

On Wednesday, March 27th, the Cavaliers 
received a considerable accession of strength, 
and made an attack in force, hoping to surprise 
the enemy, whom they expected to find at 
church, the day having been set apatt for a 
solemn fast. But in this they were disappointed, 
for the Londoners had taken advantage of their 
halt at Midhurst to keep the fast during the 
previous week. **Thus the Royalists found 
them prepared for their reception, full of confi- 
dence instead of humiliation, under arms instead 
of at prayers." The assailants, however, suc- 
ceeded in capturing some stragglers, and 
*< appeared in a great body upon the hill on the 
left hand of the town,** or, as we should rather 
call it, the village of West Meon. On the same 



day Major-General Browne, in obedience to 
orders received, marched out of West Meon 
towards Cheriton, the enemy meanwhile 
threatening an attack in force. Some tumuli 
called " The Devil's Jumps," West Tisted Com- 
mon, which are said by local tradition to be the 
graves of soldiers, perhaps cover the remains of 
those who fell on this day. " We drew our men 
into a body near the town (West Meon; and 
marched as forlorn," in hourly expectation of 
an attack, until at length they were obliged to 
halt **a mile or more from the village in extreme 
danger." So writes one who styles himself **aa 
Eye- Witness.** This gentleman had been sent 
by the Lord Mayor and the Committee of the 
City MiUtia to foUow Sir William Waller's 
army, and to report the proceedings of the 
London Brigade, and seems to have been the 
first specimen of a war oorrespondent on record. 
Unfortunately, his excessive modesty has buiied 
his name beneath the obscurity of two centuries, 
and to us modems he can only be a nameless 
»» Eye- Witness.** 

At length Sir William Waller brought up his 
brigade trom East Meon, and the united force 
advanced until they ** came near to Cheriton, 
to a place called bv some Lamborough Fi. Id,** a 
name which it still retains. There and on the 
adjacent common they quartered for the night, 
** the enemy lying upon Sutton Common, and 
some part of them nearer to us, so near that the 
sentinels could hear one another talk.** On 
Wednesday and Thursday nights Waller's 
troops ** lay in the open field about three miles 
from Alsford, where the enemy kept a garrison.*' 

On the morning of Thursday, " a commanded 
party sent to view the enemy ** met with a 
Cavalier forlorn hope of considerable strength. 
The tavalry fought desperately, and two heroes, 
whose n:imes are unfortunately not recorded, 
gained for themselves great renown. 

Then spur and sword was the batUe word, and we 
made their helmets ring ; 

Shouting like madmen all the while ** For God and 
for the King ;** 

And though they snnflBed psalms, to give the rebel 
dogs their due, 

When the roaring shot poured thick and hoi, they 
were steadfast men and true. 

(THE Old Cavalibb). 

At length a gun, which did great execution, 
was brought to bear upon the Royalists, who 
thereupon retreated somewhat hastily. ^* Mer- 



Chebtton Fight. 



129 



CQiios Aulicns *' gives an account of this day's 
proceedings, which Mr. Duthj thus admirably 
summarises : — 

*'It would appear from the accounts pub- 
Eshed by the Cavaliers, in what may be termed 
their Court Gazette, that Lord Uopton made a 
partial attacic upon Waller during his march 
from West Meon, and having driven him from 
an eminence on which he was stationing his 
troops, sent Colonel George Lisle with a body 
of men to retain possession of it, which that 
officer gallantly executed, bivouacking there all 
night. If this be correct, it must have been 
W^aller*8 original aim to have occupied ground 
nearer Alresford, on the ridge extending fiom 
Tichborne to Bramdean Common, and the 
less elevated swells to the south ol it between 
the wood called Sutton Scrubbs and East Down 
Farm, and that he was driven from his position 
and compelled to take up his quartera farther 
off, in the vicinity of Cheriton. On these 
eminences Colonel Lisle was probably posted, 
for on the mommg of Thnrsd^iy, the 28th, it 
was discovered that his post was commanded by 
still higher ground, to which the enemy had 
retired. Skirmishes now ensued, and each 
party seems to have claimed the advantage. 
The Cavaliers assert that, notwithstanding the 
strength of Waller's position, which was such 
as he usually chose, a spot inters3cted with 
hedges and trees, behind which his men were 
strongly posted, and from which they poured 
such tremendous voUies as few soldiers had ever 
experienced before, yet the gallant Colonel 
Appleyard, being ordered to drive them from it, 
* so led up his men, and they so followed their 
leader, that the confident rebel, with all his odds, 
was forced from his seat, and made give place to 
his betters.' If this was the case, he certainly 
recovered it again, for here he was posted on the 
ensuing morning. In their account of the trans- 
actions of the 28th, the Roundheads state that 
parties of theirs, in making reconnaissances, 
were attacked by the enemy, who were received 
^ith great gallantry by their horse, and on a 
considerable body of the Royalists coming to the 
relief of their comrades who were engaged, a 
gun was brought to bear on them, which did 
considerable execution, and caused them to 
retreat in disorder." Appleyardwas wounded, 
either on this or the following day. He was 
taken prisoner at Naseby, in 1645, together with 
the following officers of his regiment, some, if 



not all, of whom fought at Cheriton : — Captaina 
Triwhit, Masters, Sanderson, and Hubbart, 
Lieutenants Middleton, Thompson, Lewen, and 
Baker." They wore yellow uniform." 

It is evident that the skirmishes on this day 
were by no means of a decisive character. 
Whitlocke's memorials say that the armies for 
" two or three days faced each other, and had 
some light skirmishes with the horse, and Sir 
William Waller's men took about thirty of the 
enemy, and slew one captain and an Irish rebel." 
Councils of War were held this day in both 
camps, and on either side it was decided to fight 
on the morrow, the setting of whose sun many 
a brave soldier both of King and Parliament 
was fated never to behold. 

Early on the morning of Friday, March 29th, 
Sir William Waller's men were seen to be 
strongly posted on the high ground which 
extends from the neighbourhood of the village 
of Cheriton to the farther end of Cheriton 
Wood, which lay in the front of their extreme 
right, at which part of the line the London 
Brigade was posted. Lord Hopton's regiment 
took advantage of the numerous lanes leading 
fiom Alresford and the neighbourhood of 
Bishop's Sutton to crown the eminence that 
extends ftom Tichborne to Bramdean Common. 
Before the battle began, the Cavaliers 
employed " a subtle device, such that none could 
fathom," which was the announcement of a 
victory over the Scotch anny by the Earl of 
Newcastle, at the very time that the Scottish 
warriors had defeated the Earl, and also of an 
exaggerated account of Prince Rupert's success 
at Newark. 

The contest is variously said to have com- 
menced at eight, nine, and ten o'clock in the 
morning. The "Fi< Id Word * was the same in 
both armies, **God with us," which Sir William 
Waller discovering, substituted for his own men 
** Jesus bless us," which towards the close of 
the struggle was exchanged for ** Glory to God 
alone!" 

The gaining of Chenton Wood ** was con- 
ceived to be of extraordinary advantage," and 
four files per company of the London Brigade 
were formed up lOOu strong as a forlorn hope, 
and were sent to occupy it under the command 
of an officer who is variously styled Captain, 
Sergeant Major (i.6., Major), and Colonel 
Thompson, or Tompson, and who, it will be 
remembered, had commanded a forlorn hope at 



130 



The Tide Turns. 



West Meon on the previons Monday evening. 
The attack proYed snccessful, in spite of the 
efforts of the forlorn hope of the Cavaliers, who 
fought hand to hand, and from tree to tree. 
Lord Hopton had foreseen this attack, and had 

Elanted some drakes or field pieces upon the 
igh ground at the north-eastern side of the 
wood which commands the rest, ''which thev so 
furiously discharged that we were forced to 
retreat,'* and although reinforced by musketeers, 
the Londoners did not hold the wood for more 
than an hour, durinj; which time their casualties 
were numerous, and they lost Captain-Lieut. 
Milton wounded and taken. Was he a relative 
of the poet ? A map of this neighbourhood 
still gives the name of Gunner*s Castle to some 
houses at a cross road close to the position said 
by the contemporary historians to have been 
■elected by the Boyal artillery. Colonel 
Thompson's leg was so badly shattered by a 
cannon shot as to render amputation necessary. 
After the retreat of the Londoners Lord 
Hopton 's cavalrv began to charge, *'and our men 
bravely received their first shock.and answered 
them blow for blow, and bullet for bullet." 
Nevertheless, although they had the support of 
a large force of musketeers, who, posted in 
coppices and enclosures kept up a heavy fire, 
the Parliamentarians were forced to give ground. 
But the country was unfavourable for cavalry 
manoeuvres, being of a heathy nature, and a 
Parliamentaiian writer remarks that "the ground 
where the enemy's horse stood was so uneven 
that they could not march in any order.*' This 
circumstance, together with the warm greeting 
which they had met with, no doubt damped 
their ardour in this " sharp battle." 

Clarendon says, "The King's horse never 
behaved themselves so ill as on that day, for 
the main body of them, after they had sustained 
one fierce charge, wheeled about to an unreason- 
able distance, and left their principal officers to 
shift for themselves," and he speaks in another 
place of ** the few horse that stayed and did 
their duty." 

On the other hand Sir William Waller's horse 
" did little for the space of an hour after their 
retreat." 

The ''foot regiments on both sides fought 
stoutly on both sides, and came up to push of 
pike ; the London forces aud Kentish men with 
Waller, and Sir Arthur Haslerig and Balfour 
did brave service." Mr. Duthy says, " The posi- 



tion originally occupied by each army was 
strong. The ground rapidly descending in front 
of the Parliamentarians formed a regular 
escarpement, and before the Royalists it was 
equally but more irregularly steep, while the 
wood and detached hedges and coppices lay 
between them both. It was necessary, nowever, 
in order to come into contact, that one party at 
least should descend from their vantage ground^ 
and it seems as if the Cavaliers, encouraged by 
the success of their first onset, at which time 
the Roundheads acknowledged ' that the day was 
doubtful, if not desperate,' pushed forward 
with more valour than prudence across the 
broad valley which separated the armies, up to 
the rising ground, where Waller's men la^ 
entrench^ behind hedges and thickets. This 
took place chiefly on the left of the Parlia- 
mentarians soon after the discomfiture of their 
horse, and the vantage ground which they occu- 
pied enabled them to throw their enemies into 
confusion and to become assailants themselves. 
They drove the Royalists from hedge to hedge 
till they forced them to the top of the hill, pro- 
bably to the edge of Tichborne Down." The 
fighting on the right and in the centre seems 
to have been less severe than it had been on the 
left. 

But now Major-General Browne collected 100 
musketeers from the hedges, and led them in 
person to attack the wavering, but not as yet 
routed Royalist cavalry. It was now about one 
hour past noon, when " the London regiments 
drove the enemy from the hedges, which they 
had lined with musketeers, and gained a. paasaf^e 
to a wood, which stood the Parliament's forces in 
great stead. ' ' They ' ' falling unexpectedly upon 
the enemy's horse, gave fire so bravely on them 
that they were forced to wheel about, and there- 
upon our body of horse came on again, and gave 
them so hot a charge that they were forced to a 
disorderly retreat." These London musketeers 
fought " most gladly and courageously. They 
charged quite through the enemy's body, and put 
them to a rout, so that they were forced to 
retreat to the top of the hill where they first 
appeared." This hill was probably Tichborne 
Down. Seeing that the fortune of the day was 
going against him. Lord Hopton, who, by the 
admission of his enemies, "managed his forces 
soldier-like " on this and many other occasions, 
sent off his baggage and artOfery and a portion 
of his infantry towards Alresf ord, so that ** only 



The Bist&eat. 



131 



the hone and a few of the foot were left to fight 
OB," and to cover the retreat of the main body 
of the army. 300 Roondhead musketeers now 
left the shelter of the hedges, and advanced at 
■peed, so that the Royalist foot, " who all the 
day till then had stood to it, perceiving their 
horse begin to fly, do seek for shelter by 
flight themselves, and throw down their arms." 
To make matters worse, Sir William Balf oar, 
with his 4000 well-armed cavalry, including Sir 
Arthur Ebislerig's iron-clad ** Lobsters," who 
had been repulsed in the earlier part of the day, 
ODce more charged the disheartened infantry, 
oomnleting their discomfiture. Sir William 
WaUer, as this living torrent of cuirassiers 
swept past him, making the very earth tremble 
beneath with the trampling of their chargers, 
*' bravely encouraged them to second the example 
and courage of their leader, and they did notably 
serve to increase the victory. The Kentid^ 
regiment of horse, assisted witb Col. Norton's 
regiment, stood manfully to it, and never lost 
ground." Colonel Norton, who had lived much 
at Alresford, was well acquainted with every 
lane in the neighbourhood, and ia said to have 
brought up his renowned troop of Hambledon 
Boys, and charged the Cavaliers in the rear, thus 
not a little contributing to the victory. The 
Kentish regiment gave no quarter to the Irish, 
"who first ran for it, and threw down their 
arms. They were mostly red coats of Lord 
Inchiquin's regiment, led by his brother." 
Another account says, ** The first of the Eling's 
men that are said to run away were two regi- 
ments of Irish." The officers did their best to 
rally the fugitives, " beating and cutting them 
with their swords," but to no purpose. ** There 
was a hollow betwixt both bodies, which each 
endeavonring to gain, manv men found it for 
their graves* on lK>th sides. * This is probably 
the lane leading from Sutton Scrubbs towards 
Cheriton, which, on that fatal day, according to 
village tradition, ran with blood. The victory 
was complete. Those who followed the 
pursuit found nearly 2000 arms under the 
bedgee^ and many of Lord Hopton's newly- 
raised Hampshire levies made the best of their 
way to their homes without opposition from the 
victors. Lord Hopton in person did his best 
to cover the retreat with a body of cavalry 
composed of the regiments of Colonels Butler, 
NevUl, and Howard. Colonel Butler received a 
wound in the leg, but. reached Oxford in safety. 



Sir W. Balfour and Sir A. Haslerig were ener- 
getic in the pursuit, and, in spite of the efforts 
of the Royalist cavalrv, succeeded, after a chase 
of between two and three miles, in overtaking 
the i-etreating infantry, who, according to rustic 
report, shouted to their mounted comrades 
" Face them, face them once more ; face them I " 
Thus urged, the cavalry made a final charge, 
only to be broken and chased until the infantry 
were a second time overtaken and attackeo, 
losing many men. It was five o'clock in the 
afternoon before the battle was at an end, and 
neither army was sorry to perceive the coming 
on of night. As the Cavaliers retreated through 
the town of Alresford they set fire to it at both 
ends, probably in revenge for the Parliamentary 
politics of some of its principal inhabitants. 
The soldiers of the victorious army, however, 
speedily arrived, and aided the inhabitants to 
extinguish the conflagration, which only 
destroyed four or five houses. Sir William Bal- 
four, who commanded the cavalry, in his 
account, written on the following day, said that 
the pursuit was kept up till Winchester was not 
four miles distant, and informed the Par- 
liament that he was drowsy for want of sleep, 
which he considered a sufficient reason for cur- 
tailing his official report. Misled by unfriendly 
rustics, and seeing that most of tne infantry 
were retreating in the direction of Winchester, 
Sir William Waller urged on the chase towards 
that city, and so failed to secure all the fruits 
of his victory. "Mercurius Aulicus" asserts 
that Lord Hopton took three colours from him, 
carrying them off in triumph. The same 
newspaper says that Hopton lost neither guns, 
colours, nor carriages. Another account says that 
Waller captured seven guns, but Roshworth 
says that only two guns fell into his hands. It 
is expressly stated by one writer that two hours 
before the defeat became general, Lord Hopton 
sent away nine guns towards Winchester, with 
an escort of 300 men, leaving only two on the 
field, which were afterwards captured. Six of 
the nine guns were buried in a place of security, 
and the other three were conveyed in safety to 
Basing House. One hundred loads of com, meaL 
and provisions, two waggons omveying fiela 
pieces and muskets, and 30 other conveyances 
are said to have rewarded the victors. 

Favoured by the darkness Lord Hopton, 
" with his horses and carriages, it being in the 
I night, wheeled about through a narrow lane, and 



132 



Mutual Losses. 



80 went anperceived to theii garrison at Baaing 
Hoase/' which he himself reached in company 
with the Earl of Forth and fourteen other 
officers. The line of retreat seems to iiave been 
through Avingtou, and thence towards Basing 
House, which a considerable body of troops 
succeeded in reaching in good order. All 
through the night did the disheartened Cavaliers 
march in haste, exclaiming as they hurried 
towards Alton, Basing, and Winchester, *' The 
kingdom's lost I the kingdom's lost I'* and kill- 
ing more than 200 horses in order to block up 
the narrow lanes with their bodies so as to 
impede pursuit. 

The slaughter was considerable, most of the 
Irish neither giving nor receiving quarter. The 
number of the killed and wounded is variously 
stated, but the most reliable estimate gives 900 
as the loss on the side of the Parliament, and 
1400 as that in Lord Hopton's army. Few men 
of note fell in Waller's army. Major Bosville, 
or Bovill, who had been one of the Commis- 
sioners to arrange the terms of surrender at 
Arundel, received a mortal wound in the 
stomach, and Colonel John Meldrum, who in 
1642 had been Lieutenant of the 2nd Troop of 
Horse, was shot in the arm and wounded in the 
head. In his will he is described as being ** very 
much wounded.'' After the Restoration his 
remains, in common with others, were exhumed, 
and thrown into a common pit in St. Margaret's 
ohurch-yard. Colonel Dolbeir, or Dalbier, here- 
after to prove a foe to Basing House, was 
wounded, and Colonel Thompson lost his leg, as 
we have already seen, during the attack upon 
Cheriton Wood. Captain Fleming was also 
wounded, but recovered. On April 17th, two 
members of the House of Commons were sent 
to visit him, and to present him with, thirty 
pieces of gold, promising him at the same time 
further supplies of money. 

The losses on the King's side in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners were indeed grievous. 
'The death of Lord John Stuart, second brother 
to the Duke of Richmond, who commanded 
Lord Hopton's cavalry, was especially lamented. 
He was '* a young man of extraordinary hope, 
and whose courage was so signal in this action 
that too much could not lutve been expected 
from it, if he had outlived it, and he was so 
generally beloved that he could not but be very 
generally lamented." He was little more than 
twenty-one years of age, and was far more at 



home in the camp than he was at Court. Lloyd 
tells us that he * not only led a vanguird of 
light horse, charging the enemy most gallantly, 
but also discreetly composed a difference 
arising in the command and service with these 
words, 'Lot us dispute the main with the 
enemy, and we shall have time enough to dis- 
pute punctilios between ourselves.' " He was 
wounded in six places during the action, and 
had two horses killed under him, and is thought 
to have received his death wound in the hollow 
way before referred to, from Colonel John 
Meldrum, who was,like himself, a gallant soldier. 
Sir John Smith, brother to Lord Carrington, 
and Commissarv-General of the Horse, was also 
mortally wounded. He belonged to an ancient 
Roman Catholic family, had seen much service 
in Flanders, and had long been celebrated as an 
experienced cavalry officer. He had done many 
deods of valour during the war, made a daring 
escape from his prison in Windsor Castle, and 
recovered the Royal Standard at the Battle of 
Edge-hill. This exploit is thus described by Mr. 
Warburton : " Then Captain Smith, an officer 
in Lord Bernard Stuart's * Show troop,' resolved 
to rescue it or die ; there were none to second 
him but Robert Walsh, an Irishman, and one or 
two more, and the stoutest b.igade of cavalry 
could scarcely penetrate that serried line otf 
pikes, through which the musketeers still kept np 
a continuous fire. Smith and his comrades 
snatched some orange scarves, the hated bad|^ 
of Essex, from the dead, and easily mingled m 
the confusion among the enemy ; so they 
approached the Lord G-eneral, whose secretary, 
Mr. Chambers, was waving the standard m 
triumph above his head. Smith rode up, and 
unceremoniously told him that a penman had 
no business to carry such a standard in a field 
like that. So saying, he snatched It from him 
and moved quietly away until he had a clear 
course before him to the hill ; then galloping 
off with his precious prize, he restored it in 
triumph to the King. That evening he was 
knighted under its shadow, the first knight 
banneret made in England for one hundred 
years. He afterwards received a gold medal, 
with the EZing's portrait on one side and the 
banner on the reverse. * He wore it by a ^reen 
watered ribbon across his shoulders until his 
dying day.' " Both he and Lord John Stuart were 
carried off the field to Reading, and from thence, 
on the following day, to Abingdon, ** by the few 



The Eabl of Forth. 



133 



horse that stayed with them and did their duty, 
hut they lived only to the second dressing of 
their wonnds, which were very many npon both of 
them. The death of these two eminent officers 
made the names of many who perished that day 
the less inqnired into and mentioned." They 
both fonnd soldiers' graves at Oxford. The 
number of Royalist gentlemen slain on this 
fatal day is said to have been four hnndred and 
eighty-five, of whom two-fifths were Roman 
Catholics. It is noteworthy that Sir Richard 
Tichbome, the second baronet, probably took 
part in this battle, as did also his brother, Sir 
Benjamin, and his son, Sir Henry. On the 
other side fonght Robert Tichbome. a zealous 
adherent of Cromwell, who was afterwards 
Lord Mayor of London, and who was afterwards 
one of the regicides. He was at the Restora- 
tion arraigned, bnt was never brought to trial. 
Sir Benjamin Tichbome was M.P. for Peters- 
field, and after Cheriton Fight retired to the 
family mansion at West Tisted. Some troopers 
were sent to arrest him, but he escaped by con- 
cealing himself in a hoUow oak, which still 
stands in an adjacent field,, and to this day is 
known as ^^ Sir Benjamin's Oak." Sir Henry 
Tichbome, the son of Sir Richard, who is repre- 
sented in Tilbourg's celebrated picture of the 
Tichbome Dole, was a staunch Cavalier. He 
recovered his sequestered estates at the Restora- 
tion in 1660. 

In ** England's Black Tribunal" we read: — 
** Colonels Sandys, Scot, and Manning, persons 
of great worth and eminency, whose valorous 
minds scorned danger, and hated no man so 
much as a coward, these gallant sons of Mars 
were all slain in the battle between ray Lord 
Hopton and Waller, on Cheriton Down, March 
29th, 1644. Colonel Phillips, slain near Win- 
chester (Gentlemen Yolnnteers.) Mr. Sands, 
slain at Alresford." Lord Powlet, of Somerset- 
shire, and Sir George Wilmot were erroneously 
said to have fallen. Sir John Powlet reached 
Basing with Lord Hopton. Colonel Sandys 
was &ther-in-law to Sir John Mill, then of 
Newton Bury, and representative of Sandys of 
Estwaite Fumess and Sands of the Vine. The 
Ron of Colonel H. Sandys of the Yine, himself a 
Cavalier, was obliged to sell the estates in 1653. 
Sir William Balfour says that Colonels Gray 
and Butler were also killed, but Colonel Butler 
at any rate escaped to Oxford, although he 
received a wound in the leg. Colonel Manning, 



a Roman Catholic, also fell. Of him the " Brief 
Chronicle" says that he was '* father to the 
person who betrayed the King to Cromwell 
while he resided at Colen, in the design of 
Colonel Penruddock, for which he was shot to 
death in the Duke of Newburgh's country." 
Colonel Phillips was probably one of the family 
that resided at Stoke Charity. 

The Earl of Forth, who, it will be remem- 
bered, had come to the assistance of Lord 
Hopton, was confined to his quarters at Aires- 
ford by an attack of gout, probably brought on 
by his notorious intemperance. When word 
was brought to him that the London Brigade 
had been driven from Cheriton Wood with 
great slaughter, and with the loss of a thousand 
prisoners, he called for a pack of cards. At 
length a messenger came in haste to tell him 
that the Royal horse was routed, and that his 
presence was imperatively necessary, upon 
which he went at once to the scene of 
action. He was wounded, but in company with 
Lord Hopton and fourteen other officers 
reached Basing House in safety. Mr. Money 
says that ^* he had seen service in Sweden under 
' Gustavus Adolphus, in Denmark, Russia, 
Livonia, Lithuania, Poland, and Prussia. In 
England alone the number of his wounds had 
equalled that of the battles in which he had 
exposed himself. At Edge-hill, says Lloyd, he 
modelled the fight. He was at Brentford and 
Gloucester, was shot in both the fights at New- 
bury, at Cheriton, and at Banbury. He had 
been shot in the head, in both arms, the mouth, 
leg, and shoulder, and, as if all this had not been 
enough for his scars and his story, the catalogue 
was finished by a fall from his horse that broke 
bis shoulder. He survived to wait upon Charles 
II. in exile, and, returning to his native country, 
was buried in 1651 at Dundee." 

There were on the King's side ^^ divers other 
persons of quality wounded, among whom was 
Sir Edward Stawell, eldest son to Sir John, and 
Sir Henry, now Lord Beard." They were both 
taken prisoners. The former was " a Major- 
General of a brigade, a man of a great estate," 
and is said by Sir William Balfour to have been 
dangerously wounded. Colonel Sir Henry Beard 
was '^ Colonel of a reffiment of horse, and of 
a regiment of foot," and had been in the service 
of the Parliament in Ireland, which country he 
had only recently left. Four days after the 
fight he was brought up to London as a prisoner 



134 



Winchester Subbendkrs. 



by Sir Arthur Haslerig, and was confined in 
Lord Petre*s house in Aldersgate-street. He 
was soon afterwards exchanged for Captain 
Hacker and Mr. Stanley, who liad been captured 
by the Royal army. 

'* Colonel Gary, a Renegado " from the service 
of the Parliament, was a prisoner with a severe 
wound, and Colonel Seymour shared his 
captivity. The prisoners taken during the 
fignt and in the course of the next few days 
were said to be 120 officers and 560 soldiers. 
Much anmiunition was also taken during the 
pursuit. The retreating Cavaliers were reported 
to have carried off several cartloads of dead, in 
addition to others interred at various places. 
There is a large mound in Lamborough Field, 
near Cheriton, which is the last resting-place 
of many of the slain. When it was opened a 
few years since, a layer of black earth alone 
remained of what had once been valiant soldiers. 
In Cheriton Wood also there are some mounds 
on the rising ground, wherein rustic tradition 
says that three generals were buried, and which 
probably cover the remains of the London 
Trained Bands and their opponents who fell^ 
during the struggle for the possession of the* 
wood. These mounds are overgrown with 
brambles, but are easily recognisable, the more 
BO as the neighbouring underwood was cut away 
last year (1880). 

Lord Hopton^s army released fifty of their 
prisoners, one of whom, who was left behind in 
a wounded condition, reported that not more 
than 20 of his comrades were detained after the 
battle was at an end. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kingston, Captains Price, Chidleigh, Jackson, 
Au(fley, and ^ymour. Lieutenant Kite, Ensigns 
Cowper, Mellis, Marsh, and Midley, Comets 
Constable and Ducket, Physician John Morsey, 
and a nameless priest, all fell into the hands of 
Sir William Waller, and " a captain left behind 
at Alresford sorely wounded, doth swear the 
devil is in the Koondheads, they are such 
firemen." Lord Hopton^s comet for his troop 
of guard was a standard gules, bearing for 
device a cannon or ; above, tlus motto, Et sacris 
compescuit ignibus ignes." 

Only one day did Lord Hopton remain at the 
friendly garrison of Basins House, for on Sun- 
day, March 31st, leaving nis wounded behind 
him, he continued his march to Reading, pro- 
ceeding from thence to Oxford. The late Mr. 
W. Cooper, of Cheriton, had in his possession a 



cannon ball weighing about nine pounds, and I 
now have anotner of smaller calibre. Such 
relics of the great fight are of late less frequently 
upturned by the plough than they formerly 
were, but not many years since some of the 
dwellers at now peaceful Cheriton utilised them 
for the game of bowls, and the late T. Lipscomb, 
Esq., of Alresford, exhibited at Winchester in 
1845 a basket-hilted sword, which was found on 
the battle-field. Captain Wickham, of Tichbome 
Park, also has a 12-pounder shot, cast like a 
bullet. 

A week before Cheriton Fight, the King had 
issued a proclamation at Oxford that sll holders 
of office under the Crown should repair to that 
city by April 2Cth at the latest^ on pain of for- 
feiture of office, intending to commence the 
campaign early in the season. But these hopes 
were now blighted. Clarendon says, " This 
battle was fought on the 29th day of March, 
which was a very doleful entering into the 
beginning of the year 1644, and broke all the 
measures and altered the whole scheme of the 
King's counsels. For whereas before, he hoped 
to have entered the field early, and to have 
acted an offensive part, he now discerned he was 
wholly to be upon the defensive, and that was 
like to be a very hard part too !** 

The London Brigade halted at Alresford, but 
some of Waller's men marched fourteen miles 
beyond that town in pursuit of the fugitives. 
Some of the prisoners gave information that 
detachments of the Queen's and Prince Maurice's 
regiments had taken part in the fight, and that 
a Council of War had decided upon the destruc- 
tion by fire of the town and castle of Famham, 
if Lord Hopton had gained the day. Sir 
William Waller himself marched towards Win- 
chester, which he reached on the day after the 
battle. A messenger whom he despatched to 
Major-General Browne, at Alresford, was 
"interviewed" by the " Eye- Witness," and 
informed him that there were not 200 of the 
Cavaliers left together, and that Sir William 
Waller would atUtck the city, from which he 
was only a mile and a-half distant. Lord 
Hopton having retreated to Reading and Oxford, 
there was no longer any hope of defending the 
entrenchments constructed at Winchester with 
so much skill and labour, and Sir William Ogle 
was satisfied with keeping possession of the 
castle itself for the King. Accordingly, 
leaving about one hundred soldiers, most 



Lady Hopton a Prisoner. 



135 



of whom were Iriahmen, to hold that important 
fortress, most of the Cavaliers who had taken 
refoge in the city marched from thence to 
Andover. Sir William Waller, who claimed 
Winchester Castle as his own by right of 
inheritance, expected that his success at Cheri- 
ton would give him immediate possession of it, 
bat on reaching the city he found the gates 
closed against him. Bishop Milner says that 
the inheritance of Winchester Castle cer- 
tainly belonged to Sir Richard Tichbome, 
who had married Waller's sister. Waller's 
second wife was the daughter of the 
Marquis of Wmchester. As soon, however, as 
he had summoned the garrison, the Mayor and 
Corporation came out and presented him with 
the keys of the city, declaring their adherence 
to the cause of the King and Parliament, '* and 
desiring to be preserved from violence, which 
they were accordingly. "They doubtless shared the 
opinion that " the battle near Winchester is the 
greatest wonder that hath happened in our days." 
Colonel Norton was meanwhile scouring the 
country at the head of his troopers, and captured 
without resistance 160 horsemen, who had taken 
refuge in a wood the night after the battle. 
Sir William Balfour chased the retreating 
Royalists as far as Andover, for which town 
Waller himself was one of the members, and 
took post there. Tbe officer in charge of the 
prison at Winchester was so terrified by the news 
of the disaster at Cheriton that he opened the 
prison doors and released the eighty prisoners 
who had been taken at Romsey a few days 
previously. 

Sir William Waller, not thinking it worth 
while to spend time in the reduction of Win- 
chester Caistle. merely halted to refresh his men, 
and then hastened towards Salisbury in pursuit 
of the Royalist cavalry. On his arrival there he 
found that he had again failed to meet with 
Lord Hopton, but he " made all the Cathedral 
men run for it." Sir William Bidfour, who 
was at Wilton on April 4th, and Waller then 
sent out detachments on all sides, and thus 
captured numerous prisoners ^'in woods and 
by -houses every day," sometimes securing a 
whole troop at a time. Sir William Balfour 
whilst at Andover was informed that Lady 
Hopton had reached Newbury on her way to 
join her husband, who having received rein- 
forcements from Oxford, was now engaged in 
rallying his forces, and was at Marlborough on 



April 6th. Sir William Balfour promptly 
despatched a party of horse to Newbury, wh< 
succeeded in surprising Lady Hopton, together 
wjth her escort of 200 men, two coaches, and 
twelve coach horses. "Order was given to 
treat the lady with the respect due to her 
quality, and she was quickly dismissed, and 
conveyed to Oxford, being permitted to take 
with her what plate and jewels properly 
belonged to her or her attendants, but the rest 
was made prize of." 

Sir William Balfour's letter to the Earl of 
Essex, describing Cheriton Fight, was read in 
the House of Commons on Monday, April 1st, 
1644, and James Pitsome, or Pattison, and 
Ralph Norton, the two scouts, who brought the 
intelligence to London, received 10^. each. On 
the following day Sir Arthur Haslerig gave a 
full account of the matter to the House of 
Commons. The Lord Mayor of London, John 
Wollaston, had already directed that Sunday, 
March 31st, was to be observed as a day of 
solemn thanksgiving by " every minister within 
the City of London, liSerties, lines of communi- 
cation, and bills of mortality," and the House 
of Commons now ordered that Tuesday, April 
9th, should be a day of public thanksgiving for 
the victory in all churches and chapels in 
London and Westminster, and within the lines 
of communication. April 14th was to be the 
Day of Thanksgiving in all provincial churches 
and chapels on the south side of the Trent, 
whilst on account of the difficulty of communi- 
cation, April 28th was to be the Thanksgiving 
Day in all parishes north of the Trent. '* The 
printer to bring a convenient number of notices 
to the members of the House to be sent into 
the several counties." It was also ordered that 
on Tuesday, April 9th, being the Day of 
Thanksgiving in the metropolis, every minister 
should publish the resolution of the Parliament 
"to draw all their forces together to pursue 
this victory, and to put it to a day, and to 
fight with the enemy," so as to put an end to 
the war. They were also " to exhort the 
people to contribute to their utmost for the 
sending forth what possible strength can be 
had." A collection was to be made on behidf 
of " poor maimed soldiers." 

The Rev. Obadiah Sedgwick, b.d.. Pastor of 
Coggeshall, in Essex, preached the thanksgiving 
sermon before the House of Commons at St. 
Margaret's Church, Westminster, in the mom- 



136 



Bejoicinos in London. 



ing, chooBiiig as the motto for his disoourae 
I. Sam.y Yii.| 12 : ** Hitherto hath the Lord 
helped us;** and selecting as his text Psahn 
iiL, 8: "Salvation belongeth onto the Lord. 
Thy blessing is upon thy people. Selah I" 

"Master Thomas Case, Preacher at Milk- 
street, London, and one of the Assembly of 
Diyines," occupied the same pulpit in the 
afternoon. The motto chosen hy him was 
Psalm iz., 10 : " And they that know thy 
name will put their trust in thee ; for thou, 
Lord, hast not forsaken them that seek thee !" 
and his text was Daniel xi., 32 : " And such as 
do wickedly against the covenant shall be 
corrupt by flatteries; but the people that do 
know their God shall be strong, and do exploits." 

On the same day the preachers received the 
thanks of the House of Commons at the hands 



of Sir W. Brereton and Sir W. Massam, for 
their sermons, which were ordered to be printed. 
We learn from Bushworth that on the evening 
of this eventful April 9th there was a great 
meeting in the city, " to whom repaired a Com- 
mittee of Lords and Commons." Speeches were 
made by the Earl of Warwick, Sir H. Vane, 
the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Pembroke, 
Colonel Hollis, and Mr. Becorder, who all con- 
curred in urging the speedy raising of men and 
money for the service of the Parliament, in 
order that the advantages gained at Cheriton 
miffht be improved to the utmost. But Colonel 
Ludlow subsequently wrote as follows : — " We 
were not yet so happ^ as to improve our advan- 
tages, by which negligence we got little more 
than the field and the reputation of the victory.** 



Chapter XXI. — ^De. FriXER and Army Chaplains — Traitors at Basing House — The 
Associated Counties — ^Waller*s Success at CiiRiSTcnrRCH — Thk Isle of Wight in 
Danger — ^Waltham House Taken — RECRriTiNG in London — Opposition at Win- 
chester — Affairs at Southampton, Odiham, Basing, and Salisburv — Opkmng of 
the Campaign of 1644. 



The Battle of Cheriton would , of itself^ have 
eoicxuitted Sir William Waller irretrievably to 
the cause of the Parliament, but long before, in 
a proclamation of ** grace, favour, and pardon to 
the inhabitants of his county of Southampton," 
publiahed at Beading on November 28th, 1642, 
the King had spoken thus : '^ Except Sir Thomas 
Jarviae, Sir William Waller, Knights, and 
Richard Norton, Esquire, against all which we 
shall proceed according to the Rules of the 



In this hour of their disaster and defeat, 
Baidng House was of great service to the 
Cavaliers as a rallying point. The ^* Weekly 
Accompt," published on Wednesday, April l()th, 
1644, thus speaks of the retreat from Cheriton : 

*' We shall find that Sir William Waller, with 
as much courage as successe, hath pursued his 
advantages, and forced the Lord Hopton from 
Winchester to Basing, who cannot but lament 
his nnhappinesse ; oar men still pressing on him 
and gaining ground as he fled back, until they 
had routed the army of his men, and sent ,out 
many of his men from the world." 

Sir John Pawlet retired with Lord Hopton to 
Oxford. Many of the wounded were probablv 
left at Basing House to receive surgical aia. 
This is the more likely, as Lord Hopton left in 
the garrison his own Chaplain, who was no other 
than Dr. Thomas Fuller, the author of ** The 
Worthies of England.'' He joined Lord 
Hopton in the capacity of Chaplain to the 
Forces in 1643, preachea every Sunday to the 
troops, and wherever the army went made care- 
ful personal inquiries, to the no small benefit of 
literature. He was present at Cheriton Fight, 
and was, aa we have said, left at Basing House 



when the Royalist forces retreated to Reading 
and Oxford. He animated the garrison to 
repulse the assaults of a portion of Waller *s 
army, and seems to have remained some months 
under the hospitable roof of Lord Winchester, 
writing of ^* the troutful streams'* and '' natural 
commodities" of Hnmpshiro, and confessing to 
some slight interruptions from the noise of the 
cannon. He] thus speaks of Basing House and 
Bramshill : — 

*' As for civil structures. Basing, built by the 
first Marquess of Winchester, was the greatest 
of any subject's house in England, yea, larger 
than most (eagles have not the biggest nests of 
all birds) of the King's Palaces. The motto, 
^^ove Loyaltie' was often written in every 
window thereof, and was well practised in it 
when, for resistance on that account, it was 
lately levelled to the ground. 

**Next Basing, Bramsell, built by the last Lord 
Zouch in a bleak and barren place, was a stately 
structure, especially before part thereof was 
defaced with a casual fire." 

In Russell's memorials of Dr. Fuller we are 
'told : '* Lord Hopton came to Oxford in Dec, 
1643, having already distinguished himself, both 
in and out of the field, as one who could com- 
mand not only others, but himself. Amongst 
his chaplains were Fuller and Richard Watson, 
of Cains College, also an author of several 
curious collections." Fuller's anonymous 
biographer observes of the Lord Hopton : 
''This noble Lord, though as courageous and 
expert a captain, and successful withal as any 
the King had, was never averse to an amicable 
dosnre of the war upon fair and honourable 
terms, and did therefore well approve of the 



138 



Traitors at Basing House. 



Doctor, and his desires and pursuit after peace. 
The good Doctor was likewise infinitely con- 
tented in his attendance on such an excellent 
personage, whose conspicuous and noted loyaltj 
could not but derive the same reputation to his 
retainers^especially one so near his conscience as 
his chaplain, and so wipe off the stain which, 
the mistakes of those men (the zealots, who, 
with Heylyn, were not satisfied with Fuller's 
measure of loyalty) had cast upon him." 

Dr. Fuller afterwards rejoined Lord Hopton 
and when that general was driven into Cornwall 
obtained permission to take refuge at Exeter, 
where he resumed his studies, and preached con- 
stantly to the citizens. 

The army chaplain played no unimportant 
part in the Civil War. 

John Vicars informs us ("Jehovah Jireh," p. 
200) that at Edge-hill "the reverend and 
renowned Master Marshall, Master Ask, Master 
Mourton, Masters Obadiah and John Sedgwick, 
and Master Wilkins, and divers others eminently 
pious and learned pastors rode up and down the 
army through the thickest dangers, and in much 
personal hazard,moBt faithfully and courageously 
exhorting and encouraging the soldiers to fight 
valiantly and not to fly, but now, if ever, to 
stand to it and fight for their religion and lawsl" 
In 1639 chaplains attached to the Lord General's 
train, or as we should now say, to the Staff, 
received 6s. 8d. per diem, but the pay of the 
preacher to the train of Artillery was only 3s. 
per diem. Amongst the officers general of the 
norse we read of a preacher with a daily stipend 
of 4s. On Monday, May 6th, 1644, the House 
of Commons increased the pay of all chaplains 
serving with the armies of the Parliament to 
8s. per diem, but on February 27th, 1669, we 
learn that "the preacher was one of the field and 
staff officers of a regiment of Foot," and was 
paid 6s. 8d. per diem. 

The defeat at Cheriton sorely discouraged 
the little garrison at Basing, some of whom 
grew weary of further resistance. A plot was 
formed within the walls to surrender the 
fortress to Sir William Waller, with whom a 
correspondence was carried on by " the Lord 
Edward Pawlet, brother to the Marquis of Win- 
chester, and then with him as unsuspected as a 
brother ought to be." Everything was arranged, 
and Sir Richard Granville, who nad been after 
Cheriton Fight appointed by Waller to command 
his cavalry, " was sent before with a body of the 



horse, that all things might be well disposed and 
prepared against the time Waller himself should 
come to him. He appointed a rendezvous for the 
horse at Bagshot, and the same day marched 
out of London only with his equipage, which 
was very noble, a coach and six horses, a waggon 
and six horses, many led horses, and many 
servants. With those, when he came to Staines, 
he left the Bagshot-road, and marched directly 
to Reading, where the King's garrison then 
was; and thence, without delay, to Oxford, 
where he was very graciously received by the 
King, and the more because he was not expected. 
He communicated then to the King the whole 
design of the surprise of Basing ; upon which 
the King sent an express immediately to the 
Marquis with all the particular informations ; 
who thereupon seized upon his brother and the 
other conspirators, who confessed all, with 
all the circumstances of the correspondence 
and combination. The Marquis prevailed with 
the King that he might only turn his brother 
out of the garrison, after justice was done upon 
his complices. This very happy and seasonable 
discovery preserved that important place, which 
without it had infallibly been lost within few 
days." So speaks Clarendon. Lord Edward 
paid dearly for his share in the plot, and the 
name of Edward has never since been borne by 
any of his family. The Marquis seems to have 
been stem enough in his punishment of his 
brother, having apparently compelled him to 
act as the executioner of his accomplices and 
of all criminals belonging to the garrison, for in 
the most complete list of the prisoners taken at 
Basinff House which has been preserved, we 
find this terrible entry, ** Edward Pawlet, the 
hangman." The subject is a painful one, and 
nothing but stem duty as an impartial chroni- 
cler induces me to refer to it. 

On Saturday, March 30th, 1644, the day after 
Cheriton Fight, the House of Commons ordered 
that 3000 foot, 1200 horse, and 500 dragoons 
should be raised and maintiuned f or SirWuliam 
Waller in the four associated counties of Kent, 
Surrey, Hants, and Sussex. Hampshire, in 
which the Isle of Wight was on this occasion 
not included, was ordered to pay a weekly 
assessment of 680/. 16s. This payment was to 
begin from the 10th of February, 1644, and to 
continue for four months at leaist. The ordi- 
nance states that a considerable portion of these 
troops had been already raised, **and whereas 



Waller's Success at Christchurch. 



139 



the said counties have bonght many arms and 
ammunition, and must buy many more, and 
most be at great charge in raising, maintaining, 
and recmiting the said forces, making and 
erecting of fortifications, magazines, courts of 
ffuaid, &c.,'* it was ordered that all monies 
leyied in Hants and Sussex on the estates of 
Papists and delinquents, and two- thirds of all 
monies paid to the County Treasurer, were to 
be devoted to the discharge of these liabilities. 
The whole weekly amount to be raised in the 
four counties for the raising and maintenance 
of the Association forces was to be 2638/. Is. 6d. 
Kent was to pay a weekly sum of 930/. 16s.; 
Surrey, with the exception of South wark, 
and the lines of communication, as the defences 
of London were styled, paid 345/. 13s. 6d. per 
week, whilst the contribution of Sussex for the 
period was 6S0/. 16s. The Committee charged 
with the sequestration of the estates of delin- 
quents was urged to be active and diligent in 
the good work of raising funds at the expense 
of the friends of the King. Sir William Waller 
was styled Sergeant-Major-Q-eneral under the 
Earl ofEsscx. t£s weekly assessment was,in point 
of fact, continued for a much longer period than 
the four months during which it was originally 
imposed, and was renewed on :^aturday, June 
15th, 1644. All officers and men belonging to 
the associated forces of the four counties were 
to subscribe the Solemn League and Covenant on 
enlistment. Officers were to make good 
any horses or arms which might be 
embezzled or lost in any» way except in 
actual warfare. No free quarter was to be 
permitted, and the Association regiments were 
not to march beyond the limits of the four 
counties without the consent of Sir William 
Waller and of a Committee. A liberal scale of 
pay was laid down, but with the understanding 
that all officers whose pay amounted to 10s. per 
diem were only to receive half that amount until 
the close of the war, whilst those whose pay 
was 5s. per diem were likewise obliged to look 
upon is. 8d. of that amount as deferred pay. 

Leaving Winchester Castle with its small 
Cavalier garrison unassailed for the present, 
Sir William Waller, accompanied by Sir Wil- 
liam Balfour and his victorious 40 )() horse and 
dragoons, made a rapid southward march from 
Cheriton and Alresford. He was reinforced 
from Poole and by the garrison of Southampton, 
under the command of Colonel Norton, and on 



his arrival at Salisbury '^made all tho 
Cathedral men run for it." Steadily follow- 
ing up the pursuit, Waller and Bal- 
four tell upon , a regiment of Cavalier 
horse and 100 foot, who had attempted to rally 
near Whitchurch, in the neighbourhood of Dor- 
chester, routed them, and chased them as far as 
Weymouth, with the loss of niany killed, some 
of whom were men of note. Three hundred 
prisoners were taken, 70 of whom were officers 
and gentlemen, together with 500 arms. Kent 
was sending to Waller 200 horse and 300 foot. 
Other troops were to follow these, not only from 
Kent but also from the other associated 
counties. Continuing his westward march. Sir 
William WaUer despatched a body of 1000 
horse and dragoons, with orders to relieve the 
towns of Poole and Lyme Regis, which were in 
danger of capture by the Cavaliers, to clear the 
county of any hostile force, and afterwards to 
inarch and occupy Weymouth. These orders 
were successfully executed by this force of 
cavalry, which, according to another account, 
was 2000 strong. It also gained an important 
success at Christchurch. 

Sir John Mills, the Governor, had summoned 
several Royalist Commissioners of Array to 
meet in consultation as to the best means of 
recruiting Lord Hopton*s army. Waller's 
cavalry arrived unexpectedly, and, as he himself 
stated, in his letter to the Parliament written 
from Ringwood on April 5th, 1644, captured 
the whole of the assembled Cavaliers ** without 
striking a stroke." One hundred horses, 400 
infantry, and more than that number of arms 
rewarded the victors. The prisoners were sent 
under escort to the town of Poole. One hun- 
dred of them are said to have been gentlemen 
of position, and ''a valiant Lady Captain," who 
is elsewhere styled " the cornet or captain of 
theovster women petitioners to Parliament,'* 
was detained in custody. 

One writer says that " twenty-two Commis- 
sioners of Array for Hopton, and Royalist 
ffentlemen of Hants and Wilts, as well as 280 
brave horses," were captured. Amongst the 
officers were Colonel Sir John Mills, Sir John 
Stowell, Mr. Coventry, Lieut.-Colonels God- 
dard and Paulet, Sergeant-Major (i.e.. Major) 
Tumey, Captains G<>gill, Mill, and Barrow ; 
Captain-Lieutenant Sheiling ; Lieutenants 
Wulis, Hitchcocke, Jenkins, PhUpott, Harver, 
two Lewins, Cockeram, and Sculkrd ; Comets 



140 



Isle of Wight in Danger. 



Lane, Johnaon, Bally, and Thomeburgh ; 
Qaartermasters Complin, Crofts, Egerley, and 
Legate ; Marshall Richard Michael ; Dr. Thom- 
baiy ; Mr. Todd, Captaine ; Gentlemen in 
ranks, Messrs. Worsleys (two), Thombumes 
(two), Lovell, Jenkins. Fitch, Hencocke, and 
Cockes ; also, ^* Mr. Imber, minister, who was 
plundered and imprisoned." Mr. Todd is, in 
another account, said to have been not a captain, 
but a chaplain. Two centuries ago the respec- 
tiye duties of captains and chaplains were often 
easily amalgamated. 

Christchurch Castle, near the church on the 
N.E., close to the Avon, was probably built by 
Richard de Redvers. Some ruins of the keep, 
and also of a stone building about a hundred 
yards to the eastward still remain. The latter, 
the walls of which are of considerable thick- 
ness, was probably the hall of the Constable or 
Governor, whose yearly fee in 1559 was 8/. 0s.9d. 
The keep stood upon an artificial mound about 
twenty feet in height. Portions of its eastern 
and western walls remain. The walls of the 
castle are in some places twelve feet in thick- 
ness, but the whole structure was probably dis- 
mantled about the year 1656, when Sir Henry 
Wallop, second of the name, had been 
High Constable. The havoc wrought in the 
Priory, of which, as elsewhere, Cromwell bears 
the blame, may perchance have been wrought 
by Waller and Balfour's troopers after this 
victory at Christchurch in 1644. 

The Isle of Wight now gave proofs of its 
devotion to the cause of the Parliament, sending 
abundance of com, butter, cheese, and other 
provisions to Southampton for the supply of 
Waller's army, and refusing to receive any pay- 
ment for them. A welcome reinforcement of 
300 men was likewise sent to swell the Puritan 
ranks. Mr. Lisle, the well-known member for 
Winchester, was, on April 8th, directed by the 
House of Commons *' to bring in a letter of 
thanks to be written to the inhabitants of the 
Isle of Wight for their forwardness in sending 
provisions to Sir William Waller's army." On 
the same day the Lieutenant of the Ordnance 
was directed to forward to Waller " one hundred 
barrels of powder, match, and bullet propor- 
tionable." 

But on April 17th the Earl of Pembroke 
addressed a very strong remonstrance to Par- 
liament, stating that the Isle of Wight was in 
great danger, the town of Wareham, in Dorset- 



shire, having been taken by the King's forces. 
He complained also that Colonel Came, the 
Deputy-Governor, was detained in London, 
awaiting examination as to whether he had not 
discountenanced those who were well affected 
to the Parliament, and countenanced the Malig- 
nants or Royalists, and asked that the Colonel 
might be either acquitted or sentenced, and 
that in any case precautions might be taken 
for the defence of the Island. 

This remonstrance was supported by a numer- 
ously-signed petition from the inhabitants of 
the Island, dated at Newport, on April 20th, 
which declared that Colonel Came was wanted 
at his post at once. The House of Commons 
thereupon took the matter into consideration 
on April 24th. with the result that Colonel 
Came was acquitted of the two charges brought 
against him by majorities of 21 and 20 votes 
respectively. The Isle of Wight petitioners 
further requested that monies might not be 
collected in the Island by strangers, *' but by 
some of our own honest country gentlemen, ' 
that the Island Militia should be reduced to 
j three companies at most, and that '* the present 
I officers, who are much beloved," might retain 
their commands. They asked that the new 
excise duties levied in the Island might be 
expended upon the local forces and garrisons, 
as they were in dread of an invasion on behalf 
of the £ing from Spain and elsewhere. They 
begged for an issue of at least 200 barrels of 
powder, warlike stores, and more especially 
swords, there being none of these weapons in 
store. They were also urgent that the Earl of 
Pembroke, who was the Lord Lieutenant, 
should pay them a visit, *' though it was bnt 
for one week, for the better establishing of 
peace and quietness." 

The Island can scarcely have been in the 
spring of 1644 a desirable sea side residence ! 

On Friday, April 5th, Colonel Jonas Yan 
Dmschke, " colonel over a regiment of horse, 
under Sir William Waller," of whom we have 
heard before, presented a petition informing 
the House ** of his long sickness by reason of 
his great wounds." He had, however, recovered, 
and was '^ desirous to go again to his charge if 
he had part of his arrears." His request was 
granted, and on April 17th it was also ordered 
that a sum of 30/., belonging to a person named 
Brasier, which had been seized bytneCommittee 
for Examinations, as being intended to be con- 



Waltham House Taken. 



141 



▼eyed together with other property to Oxford, 
Bhonld be paid by Sir Arthur Haslerig and Sir 
Philip Siapleton to Captain Fleming, who 
probably belonged to the family at North Stone- 
ham, and who had been wonnded at Gheriton 
Fight. From this grant being paid throogh Sir 
Arthnr Haslerig and Sir Philip Stapleton, 
who were both distingnished cavali7 officers, it 
ia probable that the recipient was Christopher 
Fleming, Esq., afterwards captain and adjutant 

Smeral of horse, who fell during the siege of 
xford in 1644. Another Colonel Fleming was 
appointed Governor of Pembroke Castle in 1647, 
and Sir Oliver Fleming was on November 2nd, 
1643, appointed by the Parliament as their 
Master of the Ceremonies. Mr. Brasier, how- 
ever, stoutly denied the justice of the confisca- 
tion of his 30Z., and he was ordered to be com- 
Sensated if he succeeded in proving his case, 
ir William Waller about this time bought in 
London 300/. worth of confiscated Royalist pro- 
perty, which he afterwards conveyed to Holland, 
and on which, as he in his *' Vindication" takes 
great pains to prove, he paid all lawful tolls 
and excise duty. 

Even before the great day of Cheriton Fight 
the London Brigade under the command of 
Major-Gkneral Browne had been anxious to 
return home, and after the defeat of Lord 
Hopton, the Londoners refused to serve any 
longer for the present. Clarendon says, in his 
account of Cheriton Fight, ^'There could not 
then be any other estimate made of the loss 
Waller sustained, than by the not pursuing the 
visible advantage he had, and by the utter 
refusal of the Auxiliary Begiments of London 
and Kent to march farther, who, within three 
or four days left him, and returned to their 
habitations, with great lamentations of their 
friends who were missing." These Kentish 
Auxiliaries were probably under the command 
of Colonels Head, Dixie, and Sir Miles Livesay. 
The Londoners, before they returned home, 
did good service for the Parliament. They 
marched under the command of Major-General 
Browne, from Southampton, intending to pro- 
ceed to Wareham, in Dorsetshire. But they seem 
to have first proceeded to the eastward, through 
Botley, to the little village of Wickham. 
Intelfigence reached them there that Colonel 
Whitehead, M.P. for Southampton, with a force 
of 200 men, was besieging an equal number of 
Cavaliers, commanded by Colonel Bennet, at 



Bishop's Waltham, in the stately palace belong- 
ing to the Bishop of Winchester, then known 
as Waltham-house, and of which the stately ivy- 
grown ruins now arrest the attention of even 
the most heedless passer-by. Bishop Robert 
Poynet, the successor of Biflhop Gardiner in the 
see of Winchester, surrendered the palace and 
manor to John, first Marquis of Winchester, 
who in his turn was obliged in the reign of 
Queen Mary to restore the property to its 
former episcopal owner. Hearing of the 
proximity of the London Brigade, Colonel 
Whitehead asked for and readily obtained 
assistance from its commander. Major General 
Browne marched from the village, wherein 
William of Wykeham was bom, to destroy the 
stately palace in which, in a good old age, that 
never-to-be-forgotten prelate gently breathed 
his last. On his arrival he placed bis guns in 
position, and local tradition asserts that they 
fired many rounds before the beaeged consented 
to treat for a surrender, which'' they at length 
did when they perceived that every prepara- 
tion had been made for an assault. 

The duration of Colonel Whitehead's opera- 
tions against the garrison is unknown, but the 
London Brigade reached Bishop's Widtham on 
April 6th, and the capitulation was signed on 
April 9th. The conditions agreed to were 
" That the commanders and officers then in the 
house might pass away with their horses, and 
their swords by their sides, and the common 
soldiers only with a rod or staff in their hands." 
The garrison left all their arms and ammunition 
to the victors, who permitted their soldiers to 
treat the whole contents of the palace as com- 
mon plunder. One writer says that one hundred 
of the garrison were detained in captivity. 
'^Mercurius Aulicus" says that the rebels 
obtained only 42 muskets, no pikes, powder- 
barrels, guns, or baggage, and not much besides 
soldiers' clothes, to secure which they stripped 
the garrison to their shirts in a field near 
the palace. 

On the other hand, we have it on record 
that the articles of surrender were so strictly 
observed that a soldier who had taken a poleaxe 
from Colonel Bennet, who commanded the gar- 
rison, received orders from Major-General 
Browne to immediately restore it. Local tradi- 
tion says that Bishop Curie was in the palace 
during the siege, and succeeded in escaping in a 
cart, a layer of manure being placed over him. 



142 



Recruiting in London. 



Prosser says that a folio black-letter Bible, 
printed in 1613, with the arms of King James I. 
on the cover, and having a manuscript inscrip- 
tion that it had " come out of the Place-house," 
was formerly preserved at Bishop's Waltham. 
Much bacon was found by the victors, who 
asserted that the place ^' had been a plundering 
garrison.'' After the division of the spoil, the 
London Brigade marched away, leaving ^^Colonel 
Whitehead to pull down the house if he chose." 

On Thursday, April 11th, we read '' Waltham 
House in ashes. Poor England, the glory of 
the nations, now growing into a wilderness !" 

The Manor of Bishop's Waltham was 
sequestered, and in the year 1646 was sold by the 
Parliament to Robert Reynolds, Esq., for the 
sum of 7999Z. 14s. lO^d. Mr. Moody, in his 
antiquarian sketches of Hampshire (p. 307^ says 
Grose, the antiquarian, who visitea Waltham 
soon after the Restoration, thus describes the 
palace : — '^ Its area was in its figure a right 
angled parallelogram, the four sides nearly 
fronting the four cardinal points, its ea^t and 
west sides measuring 300ft., and its north and 
south sides 180ft. It consisted of two courts, one 
of which, the outer or northern court, was con- 
siderably the laigest. The entrance was near 
the northern end of the west side. Through 
this lodge were the servants' of&ces and lodging 
rooms, with the gate leading to the second or 
inner court. On the west side was a great hall, 
lighted by five noble Gothic windows ; its length 
was 66ft. by 27ft., and its height was 25ft. At the 
south end of this room were niches for seats 
or statues. Near this spot was a double row 
of pilasters, now almost covered with rubbish, 
which seem to have supported some arches. 
Opposite, on the east side of the court, was a 
chapel of the same dimensions as the hall. The 
north aisle had probably a cloister, and over it 
lodging-rooms, or a Ions gaUery. The south 
aisle was seemingly the IxSy of the house, the 
rooms of which are said to have been from 20 to 
22 feet high. On the angles, made bv the con- 
currence of this side with those of the east 
and west, were two square towers, part only 
of one on the south-west angle is remaining.; 
the other is entirely down ; each of its sides 
measures 17 feet. AU the outer walls were six, 
and the inner walls four feet thick. Most of 
them have been pulled down and carried away 
for the sake of the materials. On the west side 
ran a ditch 25 feet wide, between which and the 



wall was a walk. About 40 feet of the ditch 
formed a large pond, which is said formerly to 
have been nearly half a mile long and a furlong 
broad ; and to the east of the house are tw 
Large gardens, walled around with brick, and the 
remains of two lodges." 

Mr. Moody continues : " For two centuries 
these interesting remains have suffered equally 
from the ravages of time and the cupidity of 
man, but they still arrest the eye of the stranger 
and afford contemplation and study to the 
antiquarian. A portion of them, supposed to 
have been the offices, is now used as a bam. 
The great hall, in the second or inner court, the 
front wall of which remains almost entire, was 
65 feet in lengtii, 27 in width, and 25 feet high, 
and was lighted by five large windows of mag- 
nificent proportions, now mantled with ivy. 
Besides the hall, there are the remains of a 
tower, 1 7 feet square,in the southern end of which 
mav be discerned traces of the minstrel gallery, 
and at the south-west comer a curious corbel 
remains, which supported its part of the framed 
timber roof. In tne front of the building there 
is a large sheet of water, artificially formed for 
the necessary supply of fish at the palace in 
Catholic times ; ana into it several small streams 
pour their water, and from it issues the river, 
which, passing through Durlev and Botley, dis- 
charges itself into the Southampton estuary 
near Bursledon." 

Great exertions were made in London to fill 
up the gaps made in Waller's army by disease, 
battle, and the departure of the London and 
Kentish auxiliaries. On Saturday, April the 
6th, the Committee of Both Eangdoms received 
orders " to send away such forces as now are, 
or speedily may be ready, to Sir William Waller, 
as the King is drawing all his forces against Sir 
William WaUer, and is going in person with 
them." Two days afterwards it was decided that 
the Conunittee of Militia of the City of London 
might send out to any destination or recall the 
Trained Band Regiments at pleasure, imposing 
" reasonable fines" upon officers or soldiers who 
mfnsed to march, the Parliament undertaking 
to give the men when on service the pay of 
regular troops. On Saturday, April 13tn/Mr. 
EUis reported that the Committee of Militia 
had sent the two City Regiments to reinforce 
Waller, that the Westminster Regiment was to 
follow, that three other regiments would reach 
the rendezvous at the appointed time, and that 



^■*- 



Opposition at Winchester. 



143 



even then ihere would remain "three more 
regiments to be drawn forth as a reserve.'* 
These London Begriments were each abont 1000 
strong, and had already displayed great courage 
and endurance at the first Battle of Newbury, 
which was fought on September 20th, 1643. 

The county of Kent had sent 400 additional 
horse and a regiment of foot to reinforce Waller, 
and Colonel Harvey, the former assailant of 
Basing House, was, with hia regiment, to receive 
a month's pay and to march in the same direc- 
tion. The train of artillery was likewise to 
receive a month's pay and to march, as were 
also Lord Gray's Begiment of Horse, and the 
Hertfordshire regiment, which was 700 strong. 
The Earl of Manchester's horse had already set 
ont for the rendezvous, so that Essex, Man- 
chester, and Waller were all expected speedily 
to be in a position to act with vigour. A sum 
of 1700/. was voted for powder for the army of 
the Earl of Essex. This force was to consist of 
7500 infantry, besides ofi&cers, forming in all 
seven regiments. The GeQeral's own regiment 
was to 1^ 1500 strong, and the other six 1000 
each. Every regiment was to be composed of 
eight companies and no more. Essex's cavalry 
was to muster 3000 men besides officers, arranged 
in six regiments of 500 each. Six troops made 
up a regiment. The Colonel's troop was to be 
100 strong, and the remaining five were to be 80 
in number. There was to be also " a suitable 
train of artillery." The cost of maintaining 
this army was to be 35,504/. per month, and was 
to be provided by means of Excise duties. 
Essex, whose headquarters were alternately at 
Windsor and St. Albans, was now recruiting 



diligently. 
Sir Wil 



Sir William Waller was about this time dis- 
playing considerable personal activity. On 
March 29th he gained a great victory at 
Cheriton, on April 5th he was at Bingwood, and 
a day or two afterwards at Bomsey. On April 
Bth he was meting out chastisement to the city 
of Winchester, and on the following day we 
hear of him at Andover. On the 11th he was 
at Bishop's Waltbam urgently demanding stores 
from the Committee of the West, and on the 
17th we find him at Famham. 

It will be remembered that after Cheriton 
Fight the safe keeping of Winchester Castle 
had been entritited by Lord Hopton to a slender 
garrison, who were for the most part Irish- 
men. Lord Hopton was reported to have 



reached Oxford, suffering from a bullet 
wound in the back, received either at 
Cheriton or during the subsequent retreat. 
But early in the month of April, 1644, 
information reached the loyal Mayor of Win- 
chester that the King in person was marchins 
towards the city at the head of a large force, and 
that Lord Hopton 's army had been largely 
recruited. The loyal citizens flew to arms, 
attacked, disarmed, and imprisoned the 100 men 
whom Waller had left to observe the movements 
of the Cavaliers, who occupied the Castle. News 
of these proceedings speedily reached Bomsey, 
where Sir William Waller then was, together 
with the intelligence that the Cavalier garrison 
of the Castle *' were received into the town and 
billeted there." The Parliamentarian General, 
who, in the opinion of his own party, had 
hitherto treated Winchester too leniently, at 
once marched thither from Bomsey with a por- 
tion of his army on Monday, April 8th, 1644. 
On his arrival he found the gates closed against 
him. After marching round the city, and being 
denied admission at aU points of ingress, he blew 
open one of the gates, the position of which is 
unfortunately not stated, with a petard, and 
*^ entered by force, which occasioned great 
damage to the inhabitants, by the unruly soldiers, 
who could not be restrained from plundering." 
They also released their comrades who had been 
imprisoned by the citizens, took 1000 arms, as 
well as 100 Cavalier prisoners, both officers and 
men, and refreshed themselves at the expense of 
the city. On the following day Sir William Wal- 
ler had reached Andover, from which place he 
marched by way of Bishop's Waltham (April 
11th) to Famham. 

On Tuesday, April 16th, an ordinance was 
read in the House of Commons, for the associa- 
tion of Wilts, Hants, Berks, and some of the 
western counties. '^ Mercurius Aulicus " two 
days previously stated that at Southampton two 
of the Parliamentary Committee in that town, 
named Mercer (a native of Dunkirk) and Legay 
(a Walloon), having seen some boys playing at 
being Hoptonians and Boundheads, haa ta^en 
measures to have the urchius well whipped, and 
afterwards sent to the workhouse. It is some- 
what remarkable that Messrs. Mercer and Legay, 
who were both active assistants of Governor 
Murford at Southampton, are mentioned as being 
foreigners by birth, and that " the good old 
mayor, a very ancient man," was a native of 



144 



Skirmishes. 



Jersey. Sir Arthur Haslerig was now Govemor 
of Soathampton, and Colon^ Norton was acting 
as Major-General of Horse nnder Sir William 
Waller. On April 26th, 1 644, he was at the head 
of 800 cavalry, whom he had himself raised, bat 
on the 15th of the following month he presented 
a hnmble petition to Parliament, ** desiring pay 
for his soldiers, who have received very little since 
their first entertainment." A sum of 2000/. 
was granted ont of the revenues of the 
Conrt of Wards towards the payment 
of these arrears. On Thursday, April 
25th, money was sent by the Parliament to 
Major Beare, who was at the head of 400 horse 
in the neighbourhood of Southampton. This 
officer, who is elnewhere styled Colonel, and not 
Major, had been lent with the force under his 
oommand by the Earl of Essex to Sir William 
Waller, who, before April 17th, had reached 
Famham, where he was joined by Lady Waller, 
who seems to have sometimes preached to the 
soldiers, if the satirical remarks of the Cavalier 
journals are in any decree founded on fact. 
Some of Waller *s troops were posted at Odiham, 
and others at Alton, with a view to check the 
forays of the garrison of Basing House. 

On April 16th a party of his cavalry attacked 
a Cavalier outpost at Sonning,in the neighbour- 
hood of Beading, taking prisoners two lieuten- 
ant-colonels, three captains, divers other officers, 
twenty-one soldiers, together with their arms, 
and forty horses. In his letter, describing this 
affair, which was dated from Farnham, on 
April 16th, 1644, Waller begs for a supply of 
money and stores. He renews this application 
on April 27th and 29th, and also on May 2nd, 
until at length on May 5th a Committee of 
Parliament assembled to devise means for the 
regular payment of his army, and to order Cols. 
Stroud, Pyne, and Popham to join him at once. 
On April 17th Waller said that the City Begi- 
ments were quartered in and about Farnham, 
and that he expected four troops of Kentish 
horse to effect a junction with him on the 
morrow. On April 20th a muster of his whole 
force near Famham showed that he was at the 
head of 10,000 men. 

On April 20th ten troopers were towards 
evening sent to Odiham, whereupon a partv of 
Oavaliers, stated by a hostile writer to have been 
100 strong, fell back upon their main body, 
which had taken post nearer to Basing House. 



The Boundheads pursued them, capturing "one, 
who was the worst horsed." 

Some of Prince Maurice's troops were said to 
be in the neighbourhood of Salisbury. 

On Monday, April 22nd, Mr. Boats, one of 
the 'Master Shipwrights of Portsmouth, was, 
with certain others, placed on the list of " the 
Commissioners and Master Shipwrights for the 
felling of the timber of Delinquents for the use 
of the Navy," and three days afterwards the 
House of Commons granted " 100/. worth of 
books out of the particular and private study of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury" (Laud) to 
Chaplain Hugh Peters, whom we shall meet 
hereafter at Winchester and Basing House. 

On Wednesday, April 24th, Sir William 
Waller having received intelligence of a large 
convoy of provisions and much cattle destined 
for Basing House, sent out a party of horse, who 
intercepted it, and captured a master gunner, 
three sergeants, three corporals, forty soldiers, 
*' one thousand sheep and other fat cattle," 
and some contribution money intended for the 
pay of the garrison. 

Waller was by no means inclined to leave 
Basing House in peace. The Diary of the 
Siege says : — 

"The ensuing spring (1644) the rebels, ae 
well consulting the importance of the place 
as the injuries suffered by it both in their trade 
and force, resolve, having before assayed it by 
surprise and storm, to try bv starving it, to 
which their armies' six weeks quartering at 
Farnham, Odiham, Grewell, and Basingstoke 
was a preparative, harrowing the country round 
about until their march to Oxford." This plan 
of operations was similar to that pursued in the 
following year. 

About the middle of April the King, believing 
that Waller intended to march into the western 
counties, mustered an army in person at Mkrl- 
borough, consisting of 6000 foot, and more than 
4000 horse, which remained inactive for some 
weeks, vigilantly observing Waller's every 
movement. 

Finding, however, that recruiting in London 
was going on vigorously, and that neither Essex 
nor Waller would be able to march until they 
were strongly reinforced, the Royal army 
advanced to Newbury, where it remained for 
nearly a month, observing the enemy's motiona. 



SUBPBISE AT SaUSBURY. 



145 



and ready to sacconr either Beading or Walling- 
f ord, in case of need. 

On Friday, May 3rd, Sir W. Waller received 
a welcome supply of 3000^, and four days 
afterwards he cut off some stragglers from 
Baaing House, recovering some contribution 
money which the Cavaliers had collected from 
the neighbourhood,and making prisoners of about 
twelve horses and their riders, most of whom 
were officers, one being "Captain Bosewell, 
sometime apothecary in the Olci Bailey." 

Captain Bosewell was speedily conveyed to 
Famham Castle, where he fared but badly. 
"Mercurius Aulicus" says on July 6th, 1 644, '"Tis 
true the rebells are most revengeful against 
Basing, as appears by their usage of Captain 
Bosewell, who (because he belonged to the 
garrison of Basing) was clapt up in prison in 
Famham Castle, ana there lodged m so noysome 
a hole (the rebels made it so^ as 'tis not 
conceivable how a man should oreathe in it 
above two houres." 

On May 9th the Speaker wrote to the Sussex 
Committee, requesting that the county regiment 
of the Association might march to reinforce 
Waller. Military arrangements were not always 
perfect even in " the good old times.*' All 
London had long been preparing for the expedi- 
tions of Essex and Waller, but it was at the last 
moment discovered that " provision was wanted 
for ronndshot,f or demi-culverin,sacre and minion, 
hand granadoes and granadoesfor mortar-pieces." 
The U-eneral of the Ordnance was not unreason- 
ably called upon to state his reasons in writing 
'* why in all this time notice was not given to the 
OfKce of the Ordnance to make this provision." 

On Friday, May 10th, Waller's men had 
another skirmish with foragers from Baaing 
House, with unrecorded result, and on the same 
day Salisbury was the scene of strife. 

Either two troops or four hundred horse (so 
greatly do accounts vary) of Prince Maurice's 
army were known to be at Salisbury, and 120 
horsemen from Southampton, many of whom 
were natives of Salisbury, and, therefore, well 
acquainted with the posts of the various 
sentries, reached the city between two and three 
o'clock in the morning of Friday, Ma^ 10th. 
There were only thirty or forty Cavaliers left 
in Salisbury, the rest having gone on an expedi- 
tion to levy contribution money from the neigh- 
bourhood. A sentry gave the alarm, and killed 
one of the assailants, but the attack was never- 






theless a complete success. A captain was 
roused from his slumbers to find himself a pri- 
soner, together with fifteen of his comrades, 
some of whom were men of considerable posi- 
tion and influence. The rest of the Cavaliers 
beat a hasty retreat from the city. The victors, 
who secured a good deal of valuable booty, 
losing only the one man who was killed by the 
sentry, retired unmolested with their prisoners 
to Southampton. On Tuesday, May 14th, Col. 
Jephson, M.P. for Stockbridge, was appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth under the 
Earl of Essex, and five days previously an ordi- 
nance of the House of Commons had directed 
the Tower Hamlets, Westminster, and South- 
wark regiments, amounting in all to 4200 men, 
to march with arms, guns, ammunition, and 
carriages to join Sir William Waller. Three 
other regiments, *' raised in London and the 
liberties," also numbering 4200 men, were to be 
placed under the orders of the Earl of Essex. 
Whilst on service they were to be paid by the 
Parliament. On Wednesday, May 15th, the 
Parliament ordered these regiments to be ready 
to march at two hours' warning, and, in fact. 
Sir William Waller in the course of the daj 
marched with them to Famham, where his 
army, which until a few days had been posted 
in detachments extending from Farnham to 
Chichester, was now concentrated. Deserters 
from the City Begiments were ordered to be 
arrested and to be forwarded to their respective 
corps for punishment. Careful watch and ward 
was to be maintained in London after the 
departure of the troops. On Monday, May 
13th, a supply of '* knapsacks, shirts, shoes, 
and coats" was ordered by the Parliament to 
be sent to the garrison of Gloucester. So that 
the knapsack can claim a respectable antiquity 
of two centuries at least. It is also about thu 
time called a **snapsack," which, perchance, 
throws eight on tl.e etymology of this useful, 
but, on a long march, ponderous article. 

The BoyaJ army had now been quartered at 
and about Newbury for more than three weeks, 
without having received any accession of strength 
since the King had reviewed it at Marlborough, 
about the middle of April, when it could muster 
6000 foot and more than 4000 horse. Finding 
that the Earl of Essex had marched out of Lon- 
don with his army to Windsor, and that Waller 
had proceeded to the parts between Hartford 
Bridge and Basing, without any purpose of going 



146 



The Campaion Begins. 



farther west, the King's army inarched to Bead- 
ing, and, in three dafs, His Majesty being pre- 
sent, they slighted and demolished all the works 
of that garrison, and then, which was abont the 
middle of May, with the addition of those sol- 
diers, which increased the army 2500 old soldiers 
more, very well officered, the army retired to the 
quarters about Oxford, with an opinion that it 
would be in their power to fight with one of the 
enemy's armies, which they longed exceedingly 
to do. Thus speaks Clarendon. The friendly 
garrison of Reading being thus dismantled, and 
Waller, his old adversary ,cloBe at hand, there was 
indeed need for the Marquis of Winchester at 
Basing House to stand upon his guard. How 
weU and gallantly he did so must, however, be 
told in another chapter. 

The fortifications of Beading were demolished 
by the evening of Tuesday, May 1 4th, and on 
the following day the Boyal army retired to 
Caversham, the King proceeding to Oxford. On 
the following day. May 16th, Lord Hopton had 
under his command at Newbury 5000 horse and 
foot, and other detachments of the King's troops 
were stationed at Witney. Either on this or 
the previous day Sir William Waller had 
reviewed his troops at Famham. His army had 
been largely reinforced from London, Kent, and 
Sussex, and consisted of about 10,000 men. He 
had eight regiments of horse, and eight of foot, 
sixty baggage and ammunition waggons, and 
twenty-four guns of various calibres. He had 
also a considerable number of guns made of 
leather, which had the advantage of lightness, 
and were, strange to say, effective, throwing 
case-shot to a considerable distance. 

The Earl of Essex, whose reputation as a 
general was inferior to that of Waller, his second 
m command, now marched to Windsor with 
10,000 men. These were his former army, which 
had wintered near St. Albans and in Bedford- 
shire, and which had been lately reinforced by 
four regiments of the Trained Biand and London 
auxiliaries, which were 4200 strong. The day 
after the Boyal army evacuated Beading Essex 
sent troops from Windsor to occupy the town, 
and without difficulty persuaded the City of 
London to place a garrison there. Essex and 
Waller henceforth conducted their operations 
with a view to their mutual defence and support, 
though they never actually united their armies. 

The King, at Oxford, was anxiouedy, but with 
indifferent success, striving to ascertain their 



probable plan of operations. His cavalry were 
posted at and about Wantage and Farrmgdon, 
whilst his infantry occupied Abingdon, as to 
the defence or evacuation of which town specific 
instructions were given to Lord Wilmot, wbo 
was in command of the garrison. Sir William 
Waller marched from Famham in the direction 
of Wallingford, on Saturday, May 18th, and 
had an interview with the Earl of Essex on the 
following day at Henley on Thames, from 
whence he returned at the head of a body of 
cavalry to Basing House. He spent several 
days at Basingstoke, having at the same time 
posted a detachment at Andover with a view of 
checking the advance of any relieving army 
from the west, but the relation of his proceed- 
ings must be deferred for a while. 

On May 21st Essex was still at Henley, bat 
four days afterwards he had gained possession 
of Abingdon, which Lord Wilmot had disgrace- 
fully abandoned in a fit of ill-humour. Essex 
had marched from Henley by way of Beading, 
where he arrived on May 23rd, on which day 
Colonel Popham, with his regiment of horse, 
received orders from London to report himself 
to Waller for duty. Sir William, with his 
army, then occupied Wantage, so that the 
whole of Berkshire was now in the possession 
of the Parliament, and the Eling was almost 
besieged in Oxford. 

Lord Hopton was despatched to Bristol, 
where Waller had many friends, and on Mon- 
day, the 3rd of June, the King, with all his 
effective cavalry and 2500 infantry, succeeded 
in escaping from Oxford. 

Sir William Waller, '' who had the lighter 
ordnance and the less carriages," was ordered to 
follow the Boyal army, which he did in a 
most irate mood ; whUst the Earl of Essex, 
'*who had the greater ordnance and the heavier 
carriages," marched westwards to Blandford, 
made himself master of Weymouth, and pro- 
oeeded to Exeter. 

Clarendon says rSk. VIII.), " The Earl of 
Essex, by slow ana easy marches, and without 
any opposition or trouble, entered into Dorset- 
shire, and by his great civility and affability 
towards all men, and the very good discipline 
in his army, wrought very much upon the 
people. Insomuch that his forces rather 

mcreased than decreased It can 

hardly be imagin'd how great a difference 
there was in the humour, disposition, and 



The Earl of Essex. 



147 



manner of the army onder Essex and the 
other nnder Waller in their behayioor and 
hnmanity towards the people ; and, conse- 
quently, in the reception thej found among 
them. The demeanour of those under Waller 
being much more ungentlemanly and barbarous 
than that of the other ; besides that the 
people, in all places, were not without some 
affection, and even reyerence, towards the 
Earl, who, as well upon his own account as 
the memory of his father, had been always 
nniversally popular." 

Another writer says : — '^Essex's popularity 
was equally great with the common soldiers, 
who familiarly called him ^ Old Bobin/ and 
never saw him off duty without throwing up 






their caps and crying out, ' Hey for Bobin I' " 
These details, although not strictly relating 
to the Civil War in Hampshire, are neverthe- 
less necessary in order that we may be enabled 
to understand the subsequent events of the 
year 1644. 

Henceforward the strife assumes a new 
and changed character. The great armies whid^ 
have so long been traversing the country have 
now, for a time at least, passed off the scene, 
and we shall henceforth be able to concentrate 
our undivided attention upon the sallant defence 
of Basing House, by the heroic Marquis of Win- 
chester, and our narrative will really and 
actually be the story of Basing House. 



Chapter XXU. — ^Waller at Basing — Cavaliers Repulsed at Odiham — A Siege 
Imminent — ^Hostile Preparations— Basing Village Occupied^Destjltory Skir- 
mishes—Watch AND Ward — Sir Marmaditke Rawdon — Night Attacks — The Siege 
Continues— Cropredy Bridge— Relief a Necessity— Buff Coats and Mortars- 
Rival Preachers. 



We learn from ^* Mercarins Ciyicus" that on 
Sunday, May 19th, 1644, Sir WiUiam Waller 
was at Henley-on-Thames in consultation with 
the Earl of Essex, and that he returned from 
thence with some troops to Basing House. 
** Whether he hath any intention to set upon the 
house we cannot say. The place is considerable, 
and worthy some pains in the taking, but the 
field service is now principally to be looked 
after." " The Parliament Scout" of the same 
date says, *' It is affirmed with much confidence 
that Sir William Waller is before Basing 
House ; we wish him good success, but we fear 
the contrary." The proceedings of the detach- 
ment sent towards Basing are described as 
follows, in '*A True Relation of the Progress of 
the London Auxiliaries since their joining with 
Sir William Waller until their return home- 
wards " : — 

" On Tuesday, the 21 (of May), we marched 
(from Bramley) to Basing House, where we 
oame about 3 or 4 of the clock in the after- 
noon. They welcomed us with 2 or 3 pieces 
of Ordnance, and hung out 3 or 4 several 
Colours ; the Ordnance did no hurt, only scared 
our under marshal ; the blast blowing aft his 
hat, our horse went round, faced the house ; the 
enemy charged upon them, slew 2 horse and 1 
man of ours, we saw 2 of their men fall on the 
breast work, but no more to our view. There 
we lay until evening, and it not being thought 
convenient to lay siege to the house, we niarched 
round the park to Basingstoke. The enemy 
thinking we had an intention to beleaguer the 
house, burns all the houses, and 2 mills near 
adjacent, because we should have no shelter there. 
We lay at Basingstoake three nights, and had in- 



different good quarter for our money, but the in- 
habitants were fearful they should be ill dealt 
withall after our departure for entertaining us ; 
they pay 40L per week towards the maintenance 
of the house, and that morning before we came 
in they had payed that week's money. On 
Thursday, the 24th, we marched towards 
Abington, and making a halt two miles onward 
in our way, there were brought unto us 20 
prisoners or thereabouts, horse and foot. That 
night we lay at Aldermaston." 

The 20 prisoners were probablv a party belong- 
ing to the garrison, sent out to observe the move- 
ments of the retiring Parliamentarians. Waller 
wrote to the Parliament from Basingstoke on 
May 23rd. There were faint hearts still among 
the Cavaliers, for Waller, as he marched away 
to join the Lord General (Essex), as above 
described, asked for " some power given him to 
receive such into mercy as would come in. It 
will add much to the service of the Parliament, 
and to the diminution of the Eing*s forces, and 
that he had good grounds to make that motion." 
At the end of May Sir William Waller was 
in the neighbourhood of Abingdon. On Satur- 
day, the 1st of June, as we learn from a pam- 
phlet entitled " A Victory obtained by Colonel 
Norton and Colonel Jones," " Colonel Norton's 
Watch of Horse faced Basing House." The 
Diary of the Siege, says, '* At what time Colonel 
Norton drawing some forces from the adjacent 
garrisons, by order of their pretended Parlia- 
ment is to block up the house." 

" Whereupon," continues the pamphlet and 
other accounts, " as it was certified by prisoners 
since taken, Colonel Royden, a decayed mer- 
chant of London, who lived at Clerkenwell and 



Defeat at Odiham. 



149 



went to Basing to recruit, being the Govemonr 
of that garrison with the Lord Marqnis of 
Winchestir, a known Papist, called a Oonncil of 
War in Basing House, by which Council of War 
it was thus agreed : — 

I. That forces should be drawn out and sent 
forth to fall upon Colonel Norton and Colonel 
Jones, their quarters at Odyam. 

n. That they should give no quarter, but put 
all to the sword. 

III. That two men should go along with 
them, one with a dark lanthom, and the other 
with torches to fire the town of Odjam. 

IV. That they should have all the plunder 
of the town for the same. 

Y. That they should have each man five 
shillings before the march. 

By these and other proceedings of the enemy 
we may easily see the danger of their cruel and 
bloody counsels." 

But there was a traitor within the walls of 
Baling. Scarcely had the Council broken up 
before the result of its deliberations was con- 
fided to the enemy. The Diary says : — " (By 
the treachery of a soldier giving intelligence 
two days before) — Thus forewarned, Colonel 
Jones, the Governor of Farnham Castle, drew 
forth 200 men from that garrison on Thursday 
last (May 31st) to Odiam, within four miles of 
Basing House, where, it is said, Colonel Mor- 
ley, the Governor of Arundel Castle, was to 
meet him, and so to have straightened that 
place, which exceedingly annoys the country 
thereabouts, but by reason of other emmergent 
occasions, Colonel Morley came not thither, 
whereupon the enemy thought to have taken 
Colonel Jones in a trap." Unaware that their 
opponents were upon the alert, ** they drew out 
all their horse and most part of their foot 
which was able to march (80 horse and 200 foot), 
about eleven of the clock at night, none being 
left in the house, only those which were upon 
the guard or not able to march by reason of 
sickness. Prisoners say that for their 
better encouragement herein the Marquis of 
Winchester came part of the way with them, and 
at his return back gave the common soldiers five 
shillings a piece." They thought "before morn- 
ing not to have left a man to have brought 
ti(fing8, for the town was unfortified, and many 
ways into the same, and the street very broad." 
^* About two of the clock on Sunday morning, 
a gentleman of Colonel Norton*8 troop, being 



I sentry, hailed them at Walnborough (Wam- 
boroagh) Mill, being about half a mile from 
Odiam, who giving an alarm to the town, the 
Watch of Horse drew out, who faced them, and 
fought with them in the lane above the mill. It 
pleased God to put such courage and resolution 
into the hearts of Colonel Jones and his men, 
that when the alarm was given they resolved 
to bandy with the enemy and to try whether 
they would fight without Basing walls." " They 
(the Watch of Horse) being forced to retreat, 
with the loss of one man only, who died 
valiantly ; afterwards the enemy sst upon the 
foot in their guards, who were all ready to give 
them an answer, and accordingly defended 
themselves very valiantly. Colonel Norton, in 
all this losing no time, had by this got most 

J>art of his horse and drew them into the field, 
eaving the rest for the town, and marching 
close to the enemy very furiously, fell upon 
them with great valour, which caused the 
enemy presently to retreat, so that when 
Colonel Jones fell on the front with his foot, 
the horse came in on the rear, at which the 
enemy's horse fled, and all the foot with their 
arms were taken, and the horse pursued almost 
to Basing House." 

" Upon their retreat were taken as f olloweth :- 

Major Langley, sometime a Mercer in Pater- 
noster-row, was taken prisoner, wounded, but 
being in poor habit, more like a tinker than a 
gentleman, was let go again. 

Captain Bowlet (Rowland),a Scrivener, next 
door to the sign of the *' George" at Holborn 
Conduit, also is taken, and Lieutenant Bowlet, 
his brother, two superstitious cringing malig- 
nants. Lieut. Ivory, sometime a citizen of 
London, Ensign (ancient) Coram, son of one 
Coram, a Papist in Winchester (Boger Coram 
was a gentleman residing at Abbot Barton, and 
was a parishioner of the Church of St. Thomas, 
in Winchester. He held Cranbury, and, dying 
in 1683, was buried in St. James' Cemetery, at 
Winchester), William Bobinson, a Papist, sur- 
geon to the Lord Marquis of Winchester, also 
three Gentlemen of the Arms, three sergeants, 
five drums, and three drummers, seventy-five 
(72) common soldiers, whereof some of them 
are such as have formerly run from the Parlia- 
ment service, and are likely to receive their just 
reward. One quartermaster, five corporals, and 
one sutler to the Army." 

" There were also taken 100 (150) foot anna 



150 



Warlike Preparations. 



beside horse and arms, every man keeping what 
horse he took himself. 

Four found dead upon the place, many 
wounded, some ver^ dangerously. 

We lost on our side only one man (2 men) 
and about 7 or 8 shot, which was all the loss we 
had, one being a Lieutenant of those that were 
hurt of our men. 

The enemy's word was * Honour' ours, * God 
with us.' 

They that are taken prisoners report that 
they were encouraged to come forth of Basing 
House against Colonel Norton's forces, to take 
from them their buff coats and new shillings 
which Colonel Norton had newly paid the men, 
but they were disappointed of their hopes ; we 
showed them half-crowns as well as shillings 
after they were taken prisoners." 

*^ About 4 of the clock in the afternoon. 
Colonel Norton's horse marched asrain up to 
Basing, and four of his trumpeters sounded first 
a challenge, and afterwards 2 or 3 levets 
flourishing before the enemy, but the enemy 
appeared not." (A levitt or levite was a sound 
of mirth. H. Teonge says, in 1676, "Our 
trumpets sounding merry levitts all the way.") 

The Diary speaks briefly thus of Colonel 
Norton: " By the treachery of a soldier giving 
intelligence two days before, defeating a party 
of the Garrison drawn out to Odiam, and takiuff 
divers prisoners, upon the fourth of June faced 
the House with a Regiment of Horse and 
Dragoones, and after some hours stand quartered 
in Basingstoake." Three troops of Colonel 
Norton's horse were present on this occasion. 

Captivity at Basing House must have been 
somewhat unpleasant, for we read, " The same 
night 10 of our men, which they had formerly 
taken prisoners, and used them barbarously, and 
stripped naked to their very shirts from their 
backs, having an hop bag in their prison, with 
the same made means by cutting mto slips to 
lengthen it, to let them down, and made an 
escape, and came to our forces to Odyam, one of 
them beinff a Kentish Corporal, and most of 
the rest taken when Sir William WaUer was 
before Basing, who teU us that there is but 7 
of our men prisoners in Basing left." Colonel 
Jones sent a report of Odihun Fight to the 
House of Commons. This akirmish was fought 
near a spot whereon a gallant deed had been 
done four centuries before. Camden says, 
I* Whose castle (Odiam) in the reign of John 



was gallantly defended for a fortnight by 
thirteen English soldiers against Louis, Sling of 
France, who had closely beleaguered it with his 
whole army, and surrendered at ladt (in the 
year) 1216." 

Colonel Norton sent the prisoners taken at 
Odiham, who were estimated by their captors 
to be half of the whole garrison of Basing 
House, to Southampton, from whence they 
were a few days afterwards sent up to the Par- 
liament in London. The closing days of May 
saw great preparations for an attack in force 
upon the Marquis of Winchester and his strong- 
hold. Colonel Sir Richard Onslow, Colonel 
Jones, the Governor of Farnham Castle, and 
Colonel Norton, with their regiments, were all 
destined for this important service, and were t<» 
be further reinforced by some horse from Kent. 
On June 8th a letter from Guildford says that 
" the country came in very freely and cou- 
rageously. There met many gallant trooper men, 
stout soldiers ; they were never known to go 
out before so heartily and freely, and they 
carried themselves so civilly in the town as ever 
any gentlemen did, and on Sunday morning, at 
flve of the clock. Captain Cufly, an honest godly 
minister of Gilford, who goes out with them 
upon this design, preached unto them, and after 
sermon they marched towards Farnham, and so 
for Basing." The four associated counties of 
Hints, Surrey, Sussex, and Kent had raised 
3000 men, most of whom were now on the 
march towards Basing. The same number 
were to be held in readiness as a reserve in the 
event of the Earl of Essex's ordering the besieg- 
ing force to effect a junction with his own army, 
with which he was about to march to the relief 
of Lyme, in Dorsetshire, which Prince Maarice 
was unsuccessfully besieging. 

Colonel Richard Onslow was to be in chief 
command of the Surrey forces at Basing House, 
and his officers were Lieutenant-Colonel Jordan, 
High Sheriff of Surrey, and his son. Captain 
Jordan, Sergeant-Major (i.e. Major) HUl, of 
Guildford, Captain Cufly, Captain Wesbrook, 
of Godleman (Godalmiug), Captain Perham, 
Captain Warren, who had already commanded 
a forlorn hope during Sir William Waller's 
attack upon Basing, and others. Lieutenant- 
Colonel DunscomlM remained at Guildford to 
raise the 3000 men of the reserve, and Colonel 
Richard Norton commanded the men of Hanta, 
who formed two regiments, one of foot and the 



The Siege Begins. 



161 



other of horse. The Marquis of Winchester 
was leTying contribntions in the neighbourhood, 
and in consequence we read of ** Those 
plunderers who have cessed the country at 
BOOL or 10002. presently to be brought in unto 
them." The "Kingdom's Weekly Intelligencer" 
ezultingly saysi^Hampshire hath shewed a good 
example. They have agreed among themselves 
to maintain forces to keep in those thieves and 

robbers at Basing This service 

wiU be of great advantage, for there is nothing 
to hinder the trade of the clothiers in Wiltshire 
to London except lihat garrison/' which did often- 
times, as we shall see, lay violent hands upon 
goodly bales of broadcloth destined for the 
metropolis. Other Hampshire men were at the 
same time doing their best to harass loyal 
Oxford, under the command of Major-General 
Browne, who laid siege to Greenland House, 
near Henley-on-Thames, the capture of which 
was considered to be of more importance than 
even that of Basing. It was surrendered after 
an heroic defence, together with all the arms 
and ammunition, on June 18th, 1644, the 
garrison marching out with all the honours 
of war. 

The Marquis of Winchester thus describes 
the week ending June 11th: "Colonel Norton 
(his foot not yet come up), keeping his guards 
of horse upon our avenues to stop the fetching 
in provisions." 

On June 15th Colonel Jones, the Governor of 
Fambam Castle, camo up to London, accom 
panied by a gentleman who was the bearer of a 
letter, which duly appeared in the " Weekly 
Account" on June 25th, and from which we 
glean much information concerning the com- 
mencement of the siege. After the disaster at 
Odiham, the garrison, which was thought to be 
either about 140 or 200 in number, pressed 
yeomen's sons and others as soldiers, and sent 
out parties of horse to levy contributions in the 
neighbourhood. Tbe Parliamentarians at 
Basingstoke, hearing that a party of the garrison 
had marched towards Beading, sent out about 
50 horse and 20 musketeers to cut o£^ their 
retreat. Chased to a broken down bridge which 
probably spanned the Ldddon, the Cavaliers 
oaahed through the stream, but left in the 
hands of the enemy nine horses which had stuck 
iut in the mud. Colonel Norton himself was 
on June 15th daily expected to return to Basing, 
having gone with his regiment of horse a week 



previously to Andover, which was said to be 
occupied by the King's forces. 

But his subordinates were nevertheless active, 
for we read : " Colonel Norton hath possessed 
himself of the town of Basing, and seized on 
many cattle and much come, which theMarquis of 
Winchester, a grand Papist, but nevertheless one 
whom His Majesty employs for the good of the 
Protestant religion, had provided to be sent to 
him at the garrison of Basing House, but it will 
now be better employed." The town, or as we 
now call it, the village of Basing, is said to be 
" within half musket shot " of the House, the 
garrison of which was much harassed when in 
search of provisions or forage. Two companies 
of Roundheads had occupied " a great house on 
the east side " of Basing House. Colonel Jones 
was at Odiham with three companies, and Colonel 
Onslow held Basingstoke with four companies 
of his Surrey regiment. 

On June 11th, Colonel Norton received his 
expected reinforcements of infantry. Colonel 
Morley, who possessed great influence and many 
friends in Sussex, appeared at the head of 
" sixe Colours (or Companies) of Blew'* from 
that county, Sir Richard Onslowe's Regiment 
of Surrey Red-coats was five companies strong, 
and Colonel Jones contributed two White com- 
panies from Famham. Colonel Norton's regi- 
ment was also strengthened by the addition of 
three fresh troops of horse. 

The whole force was ** drawne up before the 
House upon the south of Basingstoake." At 
the approach of night the companies of white 
coats, with one troop of horse, marched to Sher- 
field. Sir Richard Onslowe. with his troop of 
horse, to Andwell House, " near the ruins of 
the Priory," whilst "Morleye's Foot and 
Norton's Horse quartered in Basingstoake." 

This state of things lasted for the three 
following days. The Parliamentarian troopers 
faced the house daily, challenging the Cavaliers 
to sally forth, and try the issue of battle. 
Nothing loth, as soon as the enemy showed 
signs of retiring to his quarters, the Royalist 
troopers dashed through the garrison gate, and 
harassed the rear guard to some purpose, with 
but little loss to themselves. 

As a party of Roundhead troopers were 
patrollinff the neighbourhood they received 
information from some countrymen that about 
30 horse from Basing House had gone towards 
the Vine. Pursuit was ordered, and the two 



152 



Watch and Ward. 



parties met upon a heath. The Cavaliers halted, 
and formed up, but eventually, perceiving their 
opponents' preparations to charge, wheeled and 
galoped off, with the Roundheads close in 
their roar. One horseman suddenly rode back 
to the pursuers, sayin? that he was one of their 
own army, who had been captured that morn- 
ing. His statement was at first doubted, 
'^ thinking that knowing himself to be badly 
horsed, and so in danger to be taken he used 
that policy to escape," and he was placed under 
arrest, until recognised as being an officer of the 
Parliament '*whc was carelessly out of his 
quarters." On June 14th it was reported in 
London that the besieged garrison was in great 
want of a mill to grind com, the two mills 
having been burnt on the occasion of Sir Wil- 
liam Waller's visit about three weeks before. 
Salt and other necessaries were also in great 
request within the walls. 

On June 15th there was a sharp skirmish. 
" To see the countenance of the enemy, fifty 
foot are sent towards Basingstoke under covert 
of a mill and hedge," [Was this Eastrop mill, 
or the mill nearer to Basmg?] ** whilst our horse 
forced theirs into the Town." The Round- 
heads are reinforced, and the Cavaliers retreat 
in good order, drawing on their pursuers until 
the infantry can pour a volley into their ranks 
from the mill and hedge. The Parliamentarian 
foot soon come up, and sevei*al vollies are 
exchanged, until the Royalist infantry "are 
commanded in." 

Two days after this skirmish, as two teams 
were fetching provisions for the houE6 from 
Sherfield, the enemy's horse made a sudden 
dash and carried them ofiF, making prizes like- 
wise of three horses grazing in the Park, at no 
great distance from the house. That night 
the two white companies from Famham 
venture to quarter in the village of Basing, 
attacking the garrison, doing good execution, 
and forti^ng the Church. They only admitted 
the loss of one man killed, and another wounded, 
and placed marksmen in the adjacent houses, 
from whence they on the following day picked 
off two of the garrison. 

"Idle Dick Norton," who had returned to 
Basing by June 17th, was evidently very much 
in earnest. A friendly journalist says : " valiant 
Colonel Norton sits cloce upon Basing House, 
and hath possessed himself of the town, they 
of Hampshire have agreed to ynftin^jn a 



regiment of horse and foot for the service of 
the State under that Colonel ; it is pity such 
spirits should want instruments to work with, 
it is pity such good workmen should not have 
good tools." 

Meanwhile the Earl of Essex, on his march to 
relieve Lyme Regis, sent out scouts, who, 
^* having discovered the Queen's regiment, neai 
their quarters, a party of horse was sent out 
towards them, which caused them to fly further 
westward, and so Hants is rid of those 
plunderers." This account is amplified by the 
following statement, which bears date June 
17th: ^' liis Excellency is advanced in his march 
beyond Amesbury, leaving Salisbury on the loft 
hand, and hearing that there were 300 of the 
King's horse in Salisbury, sent two regiments of 
horse thither, under the command of Sir 
William Balfour, but they were gone an hour 
before they arrived. They pursued them seven 
miles, but could not overtake them." 

The Royal army having retreated towards 
the west. Basing was now indeed in danger, 
and, says the Diary of the Siege, " We divide 
our men into two parts, leaving two thirds on 
duty, whilst the other rest, appointing to each 
Captain and his company a particular guard, 
dividing the quarters of the garrison to the Field 
Officers. The works adjoining to the park 
^* were entrusted to the charge of Major Cuf&nd. 
Major Langlev, whom we have seen captured 
at Odiham looking like a tinker, was responsible 
for * the works in the gardens. The dispoee 
(or arrangement) of the guns' was superintended 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Peake, the printseller, 
before referred to, some of whose musketeers 
were to act as a reserve for supply of all places 
as any need required. The troopers were 
supplied with muskets, and no one was exempt 
from duty. *The Lieutenant- Colonels and 
Majors being Captains of the Watch, Colonel 
Rawdon only in this excused, by reason of his 
years." 

Colonel Rawdon, the Governor of Basing 
House, had not long before received a visit from 
his son Marmaduke, whom he had at the com- 
mencement of the troubles in England sent 
with a cargo of valuable merchandise to the 
Canary Islands, and with a letter recommending 
him to the care of his own nephew, Marma- 
duke Rawdon, who was a thriving and prosper- 
ous merchant there, and who caied not to take 
part in the fierce fratricidal strife then 



Sib Makmaduke's Visitor. 



153 



racking in his native land. He, however, 
welcomed his young kinsman most warmly, 
and entertained him in a most hospita- 
ble manner until the end of the year 1643, 
when he sent him back to England, says an 
interesting volume published by the Camden 
Society, with a cargo of wine, *' for both their 
accounts, desiring him when he was in England 
to go and see his father, who was then Gover- 
nor of Basing Castle, and to present him. as a 
token of his love and duty, with a curious gold 
hatband of goldsmith's work and a gold chain, 
and that of 500/. be carried with him, he should 
show it to his father to take it all or part, as 
he should best please. He arrived safely at 
Monnt*s Bay, in Devonshire, I would say, 
Cornwall, and, according to his cousin's request, 
went straight to his father at Basing, having a 
convoy from my Lord Hopton. When he came 
to his father his father asked him how he 
left his nephew. He told him very well, in 
good health, and that he had sent him a small 
present of a gold hatband and a gold chain, 
with order likewise that of 500/. he bud there of 
Barbary gold he might take part of it or all, if 
he had occasion for it. He said, ^ Let me see 
your gold,' so his son poured it out of a great 
silk network purse upon the table, which look- 
ing npon, ho bid his son pick him out half-a- 
flcore of the best ducats of the finest gold, and 
told him, * This I take to make the King's pic- 
ture to wear with the chain of gold your 
cousin hath sent me ; for the rest, put them up 
and carry them with you; it may be my 
nephew and you may have more occasion 
for them than I shall.' Here (at Basing) he 
stayed some few days with his father, and then 
went to Oxford, where Le coined part of his 
gold (King Charles I. had hiA mint at Oxford 
for several years during the Civil War), and 
from thence went to London to meet the ship, 
where he disposed of his wines and gold in com- 
modities proper for the main of Spain." 

But troubles were in store. He was arrested, 
and on June 18th had reached London in cus- 
tody. A contemporary journal says that " he 
makes himself -a stranger in England, and pre- 
tends that he was a merchant or factor in 
foreign parts, yet when he came over he could 
find the next way to Basing House before he 
came to London, and, as hesaith, was going now 
for Spain. So he was committed to custody, 
till farther examination." He seems, however, 



to have been speedily released, and to have 
sailed for Seville, where he sold his merchan- 
dise, and, lading his vessel with oil and other 
things suitable for the Canary Islands, returned 
home about the middle of the year 1644, a con- 
siderable gainer by his expedition, and took no 
further part in the CivU War. 

Thomas Bawdon, the eldest son of Sir Mar- 
mad uke, was a colonel in the Royal army, 
"f ought in both the Fights of Newbury, and 
accepted many dangerous commissions for the 
service of the King. Having thus become a 
marked man, he fled from tho persecution of 
the ruling powers, and took refuge with his 
kinsman and younger brother in the Canaries. 
By them he was cordially received and enter- 
tained for a considerable time with princely 
hospitality. In the * Catalogue of lords, 
knights, and gentlemen who have compounded 
for their estates,' printed in London in 1655, 
are these names — ^ Rawdon, Thomas, of Lon- 
don, merchant, 400/. ; Boyden, Marmaduke, 
D.C.L., per Edmund Hardman and William Green, 
559/. 38. 2d.'" 

On June 18th, a day hereafter to be memo- 
rable for a fight at Waterloo as well as at Basing, 
the blue-coated regiment from Basingstoke 
relieved the white companies who had occupied 
the church, which they converted into a stable, 
breaking open the vaults, and casting the 
coffins of Lord Winchester's ancestors into 
bullets, as was clearly proved a few years since 
by actual observation. 

Just as the new comers had '^ taken over" 
their quarters, and the church clock had struck 
the midnight hour, there was heard the clash 
of steel and a hurried rush, and then 
a jet of flame made the old tower 
stand out in bold relief. The Cavaliers 
had fired one of the neighbouring houses, from 
the windows of which their comrades had been 
shot. Next evening there was a terrible hurly- 
burly. The garrison set fire to all the build- 
ings between Basing House and the church, and 
the blue-coats themselves fired some of those 
beyond. Half Basing was in a blaze, and the 
Roundheads abandoned their works in a panic 
to sheliier in the hedges, others continuing their 
flight to a considerable distance. But now, 
al^ve the din, rang out the church bells, and 
help came from all sides. The Cavaliers 
retreated, and their opponents spent the night 
and the whole of the next day under cover of 



154 



Daily Skirmishes. 



the hedge and palings of the park. Firing 
continued, one nentry was killed and his comrade 
wounded. On June 20th the besiegers took 
heart, and leaving the protection of the park 
palings, returned to their works. 

But Colonel Norton was ill at ease. On 
Thursday, June 19th, he wrote to the House of 
Commons, asking for money, and was granted 
2000Z. from the Revenue of the Court of Wards. 
He likewise asked for and obtained from the 
Committee of the four Associated Counties of 
Hants, Sussex, Surrey, and Kent, to whom his 
letter was referred, a much needed supply of 
saddles, pistols, swords, and muskets. He said 
that he expected reinforcements from South- 
ampton, and at his request an ordinance was 
passed *^ to remove malignant priests and clergy- 
men that do much infest the country there- 
about." Colonel Norton also complained that 
**the gentry nf that county did not second 
his expectations, and that to the great discou- 
ragement of his soldiers they received but little 
favour or assistance from them." Mr. Lisle, M.P. 
for Winchester, was directed to reply to this 
letter, and to give the thanks of the House to 
Sir Richard Onslow, Colonels Norton and 
Morley, and Lieut.-Colonel Jordan, the High 
Sheriff of Surrey, ** for their good service at 
Basing." 

On June 20th a strong guard of Colonel 
Norton's men was posted at the church, but 
Lord Winchester's cavalry was not idle. Some 
of Norton's officers were descried riding along 
the lower road from Basingstoke, which they 
thought perfectly secure. A dozen rausque- 
teers were posted behind the hedge at the 
corner of this road, which was then known as 
"the Lane," and greeted them with a well- 
directed volley. Some of them were wounded, 
and the whole party turned their horses' heads 
and galloped at their best speed towards Basing- 
stoke, the Cavaliers in fierce pursuit meanwhile. 
Well was it for the f ugritives that Colonel Norton 
had posted ** a guard of horse on Cowdreye's 
Downe, who perceiving it, troop to the rescue," 
or none of the fugitives would have escaped 
that day. The Cavaliers drew rein, and wheel- 
ing to the right, gallope«l up to the besiegers' 
works near the Grange, took them by a sudden 
dash, set them on fire, and carried off a prisoner 
to the House. 

Colonel Came, the Deputy-Gk)vemor of the 
Isle of Wight, Colonel Whitehead, M.P. for 



Southampton, Colonel Button, Captain Jervoise 
(the son of Mr. Jervoise, of Herriard), and ''one 
Master Graves, a kinsman of Colonel Graves, 
now rode through the lane to the entrench- 
ments, our men being then at the burial of one 
of our soldiers." The Royalist musketeers 
behind the hedge were still at their post, and 
felt sure of their prize. But one of them fired 
too soon, **and shot Master Grave's horse, 
which gave warning to the rest." Master Graves 
was captured, but the rest of the party escaped, 
and rode off towards the west. Two hours 
afterwards Colonel Norton sent in a trumpeter 
with a flag of truce 'Ho demand his liberty, being 
a traveller," but the Marquis sent back the 
messepger with a proposal for an exchange of 
prisoners. 

On the following day (June 21st) there was 
a skirmish in the Park. Two of Sir Richard 
Onslow's Surrey redcoais were captured, and 
another was killed. Colonel Norton himself 
towards the end of June marched to join Sir 
William Waller. Let **Mercurius Aulicus" 
speak once more ; *' Norton himself is gone to 
Sir William, and left the work to others, think- 
ing it ill manners to attempt that for which his 
general was so handsomely bcuted^ who found 
it as difficult to enter Basing as to get into his 
Worship's own Castle at Winchester I" Basting 
House was a title often given by rejoicing 
Cavaliers to the brave little garrison. The two 
foi-tresses of Basing House and Donnington 
Castle completely commanded the great road 
from London to the western counties, and on 
June 20th there were no less than 2000 horse 
and foot employed in besieging Basing House 
and keeping the roads open for traffic. A convoy 
of 80 waggon loads ot cloth and other mer- 
chandise reached London in safety on Monday, 
June 17th, but on the following Sunday the 
garrison of Donnington Castle, of which stout- 
hearted Sir John Boys was Governor, sallied 
forth, and made prize of two waggon loads of 
merchandise and six heavily laden packhoraes, 
which were going from London to Marlboroagh, 
and carried them into the Castle. In spite of 
protestations that these goods were the property 
of Cavaliers residing in the neighbourhood, they 
were declared to be lawful prize,and were turned 
to good account by the garrison. 

But during the evening of the day on which 
the waggons in question were seized, Colonel 
Norton, on his way from Basing to join Sir 



Besiegers in Earnest. 



loo 



William Waller, at the head of two troops of 
horse and thirty dragoons, made a sudden 
attack npon Donnington Castle, killing a sentry 
and securing eight horses in an adjacent stable. 
Unable to effect anything further, owing to his 
having no infantry with him, he and his party 
continued their march without the loss of a 
man, and reached in safety the army of Sir 
William Waller, with whom Sir Arthur Haslerig, 
at the head of his bluecoats, and Major-General 
Browne, with the London Brigade, were also 
expected to effect a junction. 

The King and Sir William Waller had been 
manoeuvring throughout the month of June. 
His Majesty had been enabled to return to 
Oxford, and from thence to pass into Bucking- 
hamshire and Northamptonshire, and at length 
succeeded in forcing WaUer to fight at Cropredy 
Bridge, which spans the Cherwell. Colonel 
Norton took pa rt in this battle, in wliich Waller 
lost hi:} leather guns, of which mention has been 
already made. The strength of his army was, 
on June 28th, ordered to be 7000 foot, 3000 
horse, with field and other officers, and *^a 
train of artillery proportionable." Carlyle 
says (Letters of Oliver Cromwell, vol. 1, p. 172), 
^^ Wfldler*s last action was an undecisive, rather 
unsuccessful fight, or day of skirmishing, with 
the King, at Cropredy Bridge, on the border of 
Oxford and Northampton shires (29 th June, 
1644), three days before Marston Moor, after 
which both parties separated, the King to follow 
Essex, since there was now no hope in the 
north ; Waller to wander London wards, and 
gradually lose his army by desertion, as the 
habit of him was." Henceforth the stur of his 
glory grew dim, and he was no longer known 
by the proud title of *^ William the Conqueror." 
Colonel Norton, after the fight at Cropredy 
Bridge, returned to Basing. 

On or before June 24th two companies from 
Portsmouth had joined the white-coats from 
Farnham, and now the siege began in grim 
earnest. Colonel Morley*s pikes and muskets 
were quartered in the park, while on his right 
was Colonel Onslow, who took charge of " the 
Lane and the Close towards Basingstoake, 
where, having forced their quarters, they pre- 
sently breake ground, shutting us up on three 
fddes with their foot, and on the other side their 
guards of horse keeping on Cowdreye*s Down 
at night, busying themselves with spade and 
pickaxe to secure their quarters." Colonel 



Norton repaired the dismantled works which 
had been thrown up by Sir William Waller, 
erected fresh batteries, and dug and delved until 
his men might well in their love for Scripture 
parallels, compare themselves to the workmen of 
Nehemiah, who laboured with a tool in one hand 
and a sword in the other. There were still 
faint hearts in Basing House, and ** three of 
ours runne to them." 

On the 26th Boyalist musketeers find full 
occupation. They wore iron pot helmets and 
swoi^s with curiously curve-shaped hilts, many 
of which were forged in Holland, and were of 
the value of 7s .6d. each. Every man s musket cost 
18s.6d.,whil8t the rest for the somewhat un wieldly 
piece was valued at lOd. Bandoliers for powder 
could be purchased for 3s., gunpowder was sold at 
ISd. per lb., match at 1/. lOs. per cwt., and 
bullets (called musket shot) at IBs. per cwt. 

Thus equipped, the musketeers were sent 
forth ''by the point of Basingstoake (a bul- 
warke) to view their lodging in the Lane, and 
to cut downe some Trees, climbing a ruined 
mill, from which they played on us, both which 
are done, and divers of them killed, with losse 
of two of ours." " The lane" is the lower road 
to Basingstoke, and the mill here spoken of stood 
nearly opposite to the conical tower in the 
garden, which is now a dove-cot. In the " True 
Relation of the Progresse of the London 
Auxiliaries" the garrison are said to have burnt 
" two mills neere adjacent." But darkness 
favoured the besiegers. '* At night they run a 
Line (i.e., a trench) towards the mill, where we 
had galled them the day before," and the 
defenders of '' Basingstoake bulwarke" have to 
keep themselves under cover for the future. 
But with true English tenacity of purpose 
Colonel Norton still holds his own, trusting to 
the help of a powerful ally within the walls, 
to whom men give the dread name of — ^famine ! 
No foraging parties are able to scour the country ; 
the hay in the meadows is stacked not for the 
benefit of Royalist, but of Roundhead chargers ; 
the stores in the cellars and vaults are sadly 
diminished, and the sentinels of the garrison 
fear that none of the com which harvest- 
men will soon be busily reaping just beyond 
Colonel Norton's lines will find its way to the 
Basing House bams and granaries. A message 
must be sent to Oxford at all hazards, and on 
the night of June 27th "a Party of horse. 
Firing upon their SentineUs upon Cowdreye*B 



156 



Buff Coats and Mortars. 



Dowae, much amase th^ir guards whilst others 
of them are sent by to Oxford," to ask that a 
relieving force may be despatched to Basing. 

Clarendon thus graphically describes *• a party 
of horse'* (Book VI.) : " Among the horse the 
ofi&cers had theic full desire if they were able to 
procure old backs and breasts and pots (iron 
sknll caps), with pistols and carabines for their 
two or three first ranks, and swords for the rest ; 
themselves (and some soldiers by their example) 
having gotten, besides their pistols and swords, a 
short pole-axe." 

Lacy the player says, '* The honest country 
gentleman raises the troop at his own charge ; 
then he gets a Low-Country Lieutenant (one 
who had served in the Low Countries) to fight 
his troop safely ; then he sends for his son from 
school to be his comet ; and then he puts off his 
child's coat to put on a buff coat : and this is 
the constitution of our army." (Note to Scott's 
" Rokeby," Canto iv.) 

" In the reign of King James I," says Grose 
in his "Military Antiquities," "the buff coat or 
jerkin, which was originally worn under the 
cuirass, now became frequently a substitute for 
it, it having been found that a good buff leather 
coat would of. itself resist the stroke of a sword ; 
this, however, only occasionally took place 
among the light-armed cavalry and infantry, 
complete suits of armour being still used among 
the heavy horse." 

These buff coats were nsuallv lined with silk 
or linen, secured before with buttons or by a 
lace, and were often richly decorated with gold 
or silver embroidery. Th3 owner of one of 
these coats, just after the Restoration, says, " I 
would not have taken 10/. for it." Cavalry 
corslets, consisting of back, breast, gorget, and 
head-piece, were valued at 22s. each. Some of 
Colonel Norton's men were probably armed only 
with Danish clubs, 1000 of these primitive 
weapons having been issued from store to Sir 
W. Waller's army in December, 1643. 

"Mercurius Aulicus" and other Cavalier 
journals were beginning to make merry at the 
expense of Colonel Norton's fruitless siege of 
Basing House, and the Parliament was deter- 
mined to take the Hampshire fortress at all 
costs. 

The "Weekly Account" has the following para- 
graph : — " Two mortar pieces went this day 
(June 29th) also to Basing, and divers grana- 
does, which we hope will prove good instru- 



ments in gaining Basing House, for we are 
certified that the besiegers have intrenched 
themselves, and hope to render a good account 
of that service." 

The brass mortar pieces ranged in calibre 
from 18| to Ai inches, those of iron being from 
12^ to 41 inches in calibre. In 1620 it is ordered 
that " The twentie pieces of great ordinance 
before mentioned, two mortar pieces for fire- 
works must be all mounted upon field carriages 
with fonre wheels, and lymmers (limbers) ready 
compleate, and to be furnished and attended 
with spare carriages and wheeles, blocke car- 
riages, copper ladles, furnished with spunges 
and rammers, and with all other habilaments 
and utensells of warre, and with many other 
small provisions which are soe necessary for the 
trayne of artillery, that without them they can- 
not march nor be used." (" Scott's British 
Army," Vol. I., p. 391.) 

In the year 1639 an establishment of a train 
of 30 pieces of artillery consisted of one Master 
of the Ordnance, one Lieutenant of the 
Ordnance, one Comptroller, four Gentlemen 
of the Ordnance, one MasterGunner, 30 Gunners, 
and 40 Matrosses. These last (then first men- 
tioned) seem to have been of lower rank than 
the Gunners. In 1618 we read of " One General 
of Artillery, 25 Conductors of Artillery, one 
Petardier, one Captain of Miners, 25 Miners, 
one Captain of Pioneers, one Surgeon, and one 
Surgeon's Mate ;" and in 1620 mention is made 
of " Three Master Gunner's Mates and three 
Constables, or Quarter Gunners." (" Duncan's 
Hist, of R. ArtUlery," Vol. I.) 

These "mortar pieces" thus forwarded to 
Basing were intended to fire shell " gemadoes." 
Some of these were 801bs. in weight, as we 
learn from the Diary of the Siege, the accuracy 
of which is attested by numerous fragments 
recently discovered. They were also styled 
Granada shells. 

" The first shells were cast in 1543 (in which 
year iron guns were made by three foreigners 
at Buckstead in Sussex), for mortars of 11 inch 
calibre, described as 'certain hollow shot of 
cast iron, to be stuffed with fireworks, whereof 
the bigger sort had screws of iron to receive a 
match, and carry fire to break in small pieces 
the same hollow shot, whereof the smallest piece 
hitting a man would kill or spoil him.' " (Dun- 
can's Hist, of Royal Artillery, vol. I.) 

Hand grenades have also been found during 



Artillery Practice. 



1-7 



the progreas of the excavations. These are 
small iron shells, about three iaches in diameter, 
filled with powder, fitted with a time fuze, and 
either thrown by hand, or projected from a 
hand>gan or '^musketoon^' fired from a rest. 
These missiles are said to have been first used 
in the year 1594. The grenadier was orignally 
armed with these deadly missiles, hence his name. 

On June 29th, hereafter to be famous for the 
Restoration of " The Merrie Monarch," whilst 
the ponderous mortars were slowly making their 
way towards Basing, Colonel Morley, who was 
now in command of the besiegers, had brought 
a sconce or detached fort in the park ^* to some 
perfection," and by noon the watchers on the 
walls can see that '* cannon baskets" (i.e., 
gabions, or' hollow cylinders of basket-work, 
varying in size from a diameter of 20 inches to 
six feet, with a height of from two f eei* nine 
inches to six feet) have been ranged in order, 
indicating that a culverin has been placed in 
position. The culverin weighed nearly 36c wt., 
had a bore of 5^ inches in diameter, threw an 
181b. shot, and required a charge of 181bs. of 
powder. They are not mistaken, and during 
the afternoon six 181b. shot came crashing into 
the House and works. " Next day being Sunday 
(their Cause allowes not now for Sabbath), 
doubling their diligence throughout the 
Leaguer (or siege works), the besiegers are 
busy all day in completing the Redoubt at 
Morley*s Quarters in the Park, and on the 
Towne (Basing) side towards a Mill, drawing a 
Line from the Church." This latter operation 
seems to have been designed to prevent the gar- 
rison from communicating with Pyat's Hill and 
Sherfield. Nor was Colonel Onslowe idle in the 
lower road from Basingstoke, his red-coats 
^* raising a platf orme in the Lane with so much 
speed that the next morning a Demy Culverin 
playes from it." The Demi Culverin weighed 
about 27cwt., with a bore of 4^ inches in 
diameter, and threw a 91b. shot with a charge 
of 91b8. of powder. 

There was not much sleep on the following 
night. A messenger from loyal Oxford makes 
his way through the besiegers' lines under cover 
of the darkness. He is the bearer of glad 
tiding? ** informing us of His Majestie's suc- 
cess against Waller at Cropready" (only two 
days before). ** We Ecchoe it to our neighbours 
with Yolleys both of small and great, they 
answering with their Guns, battering onr 



Kitchen and Gatehouse, till a shot from our 
platforme spoyling the Carriage silenced their 
Demi Culverin " (in the lane.) 

It will be remembered that some of the guns 
were mounted on the House en barbette. The 
Gatehouse stood at the entrance of the circular 
citadel, and this nocturnal artillery duel seems 
to have been principally fought on the northern 
side of the garrison. 

In Sir Sibbald Scott's British Army (vol. I. p. 
464) there is an amusing description of artillerv 
practice in 1642. " A man upon his tower, with 
a flag in his hand, cryed them airaa whilst they 
discharged their cannon, saying " Wide, my 
lord, on the right hand ; now wide two yards on 
the left ; two yards over, my lord, &c." Some 
few events of importance took place during this 
month of June, 1644, in other parts of the 
country, which claim brief notice at our hands. 

On the last day of May the Speaker issued 
his warrant ''■ for pressing a bark at Portsmouth 
to go upon special service " to l4ype Regis, then 
besieged by Prince Maurice. This naval rein- 
forcement probably contributed to the subse- 
quent raising of the siege. 

On Tuesday, June 5th, ever zealous Captain 
Swanley received the thanks of the House, and 
a gold chain, of the value of 200/., " for good 
service at the Isle of Wight, Pembroke, and 
Caermarthenshire," Captain Smith, ** his Vice- 
Admiral," being at the same time presented 
with a gold chain worth 100/. Both these 
officers also received medals, a fact which is 
specially noted, these honourable badges of dis- 
tinction being then far less common than they 
are at pr€;^ent. 

The Ekrl of Warwick, Lord Admiral of the 
Parliamentarian fleet, having captured 2000 
stand of arms at sea, 200 of them were sent 
forthwith to the Isle of Wight, as 10,000 had 
been ordered to be distributed ^* a])out Hants 
and those parts." 

On June 3rd it was ordered by the House of 
Commons, that Sir Thomas Jervoise, Knight, 
Robert Wallop, Richard Whitehead, Esq., should 
be directed to take steps within one month, for 
the sequestration of the estates of Papists and 
delinquents of a less value than 12,0002., within 
the cities of London and Westminster, and to 
apply the proceeds to the liquidation of the 
8000/. due as arrears to the garrisons of Ports- 
month, and of Hurst, Southsea, and Calshot 
Castles. On Saturday, June 22nd, an ordinance 



158 



Rival Preach ebs. 



was brought forward for the appointment of 
John Lisle, Esq., M.P. for Winchester ,a8 Master 
of the Hospital of St. Gross, in the place of 
William Lewis, who had shown himself a stannch 
adherent of the King. Two days previously 
Captain Baxter, Mr. Matthews, of Newport, Mr. 
WUliam Maynard, and Sir Gregory Norton, were 
added to the Parliamentarian Committee for the 
Isle of Wight, five members of which were to 
form a quorum. The weekly assessment of the 
Island was not to exceed 502., and Mr. Lisle was 
directed to write to the Committee requesting 
them ^^ to give countenance and encouragement 
to the godly* ministers sent into that island." 
On Saturday, June 22nd, it was known in 
London that the Rev. Aaron Crosfield had been 
brought before the Committee of the Isle of 
Wight, for saying that ^^ he that would not join 
with Prince Kupert against the Parliament was 
a traitor and a rebel." Parson Cros- 
field had been shut out of his own 
church by some of his parishioners " who desired 
to hear an honest godly man sent to them by 
the Parliament, but this Crosfield was cross 
indeed." and, sending for his surplice, he 
preached to a small congregation in the church 
porch, whilst the "honest godly man" addressed 
a numerous audience in the school house. Lady 
Norton, the wife of Sir Gregory Norton, " had 



repetition of sermons in her house," which so 
greatly enraged the adherents of the Rev. 
Aaron Crosfield, that they were ready to 
demolish the knight's mansion. Sir Gregory 
Norton, Mr. Edwards, and Mr. Lisle were firm 
friends to the cause of the Parliament in the 
island, "countenancing good ministers there, 
such as Bellars, &c.," and also sending 300 
bushels of corn to supply the wants of some 
scantily supplied troops. 

On Thursday, June 27th, Hugh Peters, whom 
we shall meet again, as a chaplain at the sack 
of Basing House, and who had already received 
a grant of books to the value of lOOZ. from 
Archbishop Laud's " particular private study," 
was presented by Parliament with the volumes 
still remaining there, which were valued at 401. 
more. It would be interesting to know the 
nature of the 1402. worth of books which filled 
the shelves of Laud's " particular private stnd^ !" 

On Sunday, June 30th, a party of Cavaliers 
in the neighbourhood of Andover took posses- 
sion of sixteen waggons laden with cloth on 
their way from wStshire to London. The 
same detachment on another occasion seized 40 
pack-horses which were going to the west from 
London, and only released them on payment of 
401. Thus ended the month of June, 1644. 



Chapter XXIII. — Forays in Hants — Winchester Castle — The **The Golden Sun" — 
Affairs at Basing — The Siege Continues — Summons to Surrender — Bombard- 
ment — ^Messages to Oxford— Attack and Defence — Salisbury CathedraIj — A 
Xight Attack — Defence of Isle of Wight — Stubborn Basing — Expected Sur- 
render — Successful Sorties — Hopes of Relief — Cornet Bryan Captured — 
Hostilities Continue — ^Essex Surrenders. 



On Monday, Jnly 1st, 1644, the House of 
Commons ordered "500 mnsqnets to be lent with 
their equipage to the Basing House forces, and 
200 musquets with their equipage, borrowed of 
the gentlemen of the Isle of Wight, to be 
returned to them." A man-of-war equipped by 
certain London merchants had lately brought 
into Cowes a ship having on board 3000 stand 
of arms and much ammunition, aU of which 
were supposed to be '* going to Exeter." The 
aforesaid 700 muskets were now ordered 'Ho be 
taken out of the prize ship at Cowes,". and if 
the ship should not prove to be lawful prize, the 
merchants who claimed to be the owners of her 
cargo were to receive compensation '* out of the 
S^ovia wools brought from Weymouth." 

The Cavalier garrison of Winchester Castle 
still held out, and ^'Mercurius Aulicus " says on 
July 2nd, -'Since Alresford Fight (March 29th), 
the rebels have often faced Winchester Castle,but 
have still been repulsed, and never went off 
without their errand." But on the following 
day a journal of opposite politics asserts that 
the Cavaliers were plundering the neighbour- 
hood of Winchester, had cut the throat of a 
miller, had outraged women, and were carrying 
about a petticoat upon the point of a sword, 
exclaiming, *' This is the Parliament's colours I" 
On Wednesday, July 10th, Lord Hopton was 
said to be raiding in Hampie^ire at the head of 
1000 horse. Colonels Popham and Ludlow, the 
latter of whom is described as ** that faithful 
patriot, Colonel Ludlow, High Sheriff of Wilt- 
shire," being unable to keep him in check as 
Colonel Norton had done, more especially as the 
mass of the people were but ill-affected towards 



the Parliament. On the same day the Com- 
mittee for Hampshire, three of whom consti- 
tuted a quorum, were ordered by Parliament to 
be diligent in raising both men and money, so 
that a force of 600 infantry, 100 horse, and 100 
dragoons might be ready to march on July 20th, 
for service near Oxford, and at the discretion 
of Parliament. This contingent formed part 
of the 10,000 foot, 1700 horse, and 13o() 
dragoons then being raised in several counties 
for the service of the Parliament. 

During this month the House of Commons 
ordered the sum of 250Z. to be paid of Lord 
CapeFs woods " to the widow of Colonel Mel- 
drum," slain in their service (at Cheriton), and 
601. to another like widow." Great must have 
been the havoc wrought by the order in the 
pleasant woodlands at Abbot's Worthy. 
Although Colonel Norton was actively besieging 
Basing House, Sir Richard Norton, of Bother- 
field, who had been created a baronet on May 
23rd, 1622, was a staunch Cavalier, and 
one of the Commissioners of Array for 
Hampshire. He was now ordered to appear 
before a Committee of Parliament, and on July 
15th, 1644, a letter, written by the Committee 
at Basingstoke four davs previously, was read in 
the House. It stated that Sir Richard had 
been sent up to London under arrest, where- 
upon he was "committed to Lord Petre's 
house during the pleasure of the House." This 
loyal and persecuted baronet paid a fine of 
10002. for his estate on March 6th, 1645, and 
died in 1652. 

On Thursday, July 18th, a hostile newspaper 
tells us that Sir William Ogle, the Governor of 



160 



The Golden Sun." 



Winchester CaHtle, *'a great plunderer," had 
Bome fourteen days previously sent out a force 
consisting of 60 horse, 60 musketeers, and 40 
pikemeu. The cavalry entered the town of 
Andover. the infantry having meanwhile halted 
at a distance of some three miles. A convoy 
was intercepted, and sixteen waggons, laden 
with cloth, cheese, oil, &c., GO (or 94) oxen, and 
36 horses, coming from the western counties, 
were captured. With this plunder, which was 
valued at more than 6000/., the Cavaliers retired 
unmolested to Winchester. Sir William Ogle 
had taken from ^'the Master of Winchester 
College fifteen oxen and three hogsheads of 
beer, upon suspicion that he was a Roundhead." 
The College authorities sent a complaint to 
Oxford, whereupon Sir William Ogle compen- 
sated them with fifteen oxen which he had 
taken in a foray, thus *' robbing Peter to pay 

On July 22nd '^Mercurius Aulicus" says 
" Winchester Castle is made fit by Sir William 
Ogle for entertaining Sir William the Conqueror 
(Waller), and the enemy often face Winchester 
Castle, and are still repulsed." Mercurius 
Britannicus also admits *^ by the same token 
they about Winchester Castle have not yet 
recovered it." The ever active Colonel Norton 
was on July 20th reported to be attacking 
Donnington Castle, near Newbury, and five 
days afterwards to be watching with bis cavalry 
to hinder the garrison of Winchester Castle 
from plundering. On Wednesday, July 24th, 
we hear that the garrison of Portsmouth had 
been largely reinforced, and was in future to be 
maintained at a cost of 500/. per month from 
the excise duties levied throughout Hampshire, 
with the exception of the town of Southampton, 
and the Isle of Wight. 

A ship belonging to the King of Denmark, 
named the Golden Sun, and under the command 
of Captain Nicolas Ruter, had been detained at 
Portsmouth on suspicion of having been 
chartered by the Cavaliers. On Saturday, Oct. 
5th, 1644, it was ordered that '' Lieut. -Colonel 
Roe do deliver from store to the Committee 
of the West 500 Danish Forks, Clubs, or Round- 
heads taken on board the Danish ship." On 
December 4th, the ahip was reported to be 
leaking, and the House of Commons authorised 
the caretakers to break open the hatches and to 
remove the cargo to a place of safety, to be 
appointed by the Committee of the Navy. The 



ship and cargo were, after long delay, eventually 
released by order of Parliament. After the 
battle of Cropredy Bridge, which was fought 
on June 29th, Sir William Waller lost half his 
army by desertion, and " had been roaming 
about Oxford with his rapidly decreasing forces 
in a very unoffensive manner." Writing from 
Famham he asks for supplies, and '* expresseth 
his forwardness to assist the Lord General 
(Essex), and calls the God of heaven to witness 
it is not his fault, and wisheth the blood and 
infamy may rest on the heads of them that lay 
obstructions in the way, averring that if money 
cannot be had he will march without it. That 
he desires nothing more under God than to be 
able to march, and that no fault shall be found 
in him." 

But let us return to BasiuGr House. On 
Wednesday, July 3rd, the garrison was said to 
be well supplied, especially with corn and bacon, 
although malt and beer were somewhat less 
plentiful. The besiegers had captured ten 
foragers from the House, and from the " "Weekly 
Account" of the same date we learn that the 
siege works were already within pistol-shot, or, 
accoiHiing to the " Diary of the Siege," " within 
half mnsket-shot." The enemy kept up a con- 
tinuous fire, and two or three of the garrison 
were killed or wounded daily whilst on duty 
within the House. *' They shoot the Marquisse 
himself through his cloathes. The carriage of 
their piece being now repaired, they now renew 
their battery on the House, unto the detriment 
and topping of our towers and chimnies." 

On Tnuraday, July 4th, there was *^ stinking 
beef thrown over Basing Walls," owing to a 
deficiency of salt. The "Weekly Account" 
contains a letter written about this time in the 
besiegers' lines : — " Sir, — I doubt not but you 
would gladly heere how things stand with us, 
for this House hath not onely been a great annoy- 
ance to all the country round about it, but hath 
been a meanes to stop up the trading out of the 
West to London by robbing and pillaging the 
carriers and clotheers that came from them. It 
standing near unto the direct road, and there- 
fore, both for the subduing of those that are in 
it in arms against the Parliament (which are 
Papists and Arch-Maliffuants^, and for the pre- 
vention of the f oresaia miscnief s hereafter, we 
have closely besieged the same, and are intrenched 
within Pistol shot of the House, bo that none 
can enter in or out. Since our throwing up a 



Summons to Surkendek. 



161 



trench againBt them the Enemy are very stilly 
which before were laviflh in their Powder, 
though to little purpose. Captain Warn came 
lately from Plimmouth unto us, and we hope 
they cannot long hold out. 

From before Basing, July 5th, 1G44." 

Force having hitherto failed, the besiegers try 
the effect of stratagem, and on the morning of 
the 8th of July '' they assay to draw us forth 
by making an alarme to themselves (leaving 
their piece neglected without a guard), but," 
says the Diary, ^^faile." In the evening a 
Cavalier prisoner makes a bold dash for free- 
dom, and escapes to the house under fire of a 
hundred muskets. This " so chafed them that 
they continue firing untill midnight, and shot 
two of our men." Next morning Colonel 
Onslowe's Surrey redcoats are reinforced by 
four companies of their comrades. The new 
comers advance somewhat heedlessly. At once 
there is a flash and a sharp report, followed by 
two otbers in quick succession as they ** have 
three shot placed amongst them from our 
minion, making them change their march to 
troop at further distance." A minion was a 
gun weighing nearly lOcwt., with a 3^in. bore, 
throwing a ^\h. shot with a 4^1b. charge of 
powder. 

On July 11th a company from Southampton, 
seven score strong, marched up from Southamp- 
ton to join Colonel Morley, by way of Hack- 
wood, **unto Hollowaye*s Mill" (the site of 
which is not easily to be fixed with ceriainty). 
Having been thus strongly reinforced. Colonel 
Morley thought fit to summon the Marquis to 
surrender the stoutly defended fortress. Colonel 
Norton being absent, he would, if successful, 
obtain much credit by gaining possession of the 
house. 

The besieged were keeping a fast on July 12th, 
when he '* sends by a drum this harsh demand, 
written with his left hand, for which he was 
afterwards marked in the shoulder, which 
q>oiled his Clearkship ever since : " — 

** My IiOBD,-To avoid the effusion of Christian 
blood, I have thought fit to send your Lordship 
this summons to demand Basing House to be 
delivered to me for the use of (the) King and 
Parliament ; if this be refused the ensuing 
inconvenience will rest upon you (yourself e). 
I desire your speedy answer, and Rest, My Lora. 

Your humble servant, 

Hebbbbt Moblsy." 



The messenger had not long to wait. *' The 
Marquisse upon small deliberation returned Mr. 
Morley this answere." (*^ And had this sodain 
answer "). To this my Lord Marquis sent a 
speedy answer, which not long after he sealed 
with a bullet, which seemed to relate to these 
his Lordship's words sent to Master Morley : — 

" Sir, — It is a crooked Demand, and shall 
receive its answer suitable. I keep this House 
in the Right of my Soveraigne, and will do it 
in despight of your Forces. Your Letter I will 
preserve (reserve) in testimony of your Rebellion. 

WlNCHESTEK." 

*' This is returned by a drum, with directions. 
* Hast, hast, hast, post hast ' upon the letter. 
Morley speaks his choller from his guuns, which 
now and some dales following played on our 
Waterhouse." 

Things were getting serious in Basing House. 

The *' True Ini'ormer" states on July 15th that 
the besiegei*s numbered some 3000 horse and foot, 
who '*■ have planted two pieces of battery against 
it, which hath beat down divers of the chimneys 
and made some breaches in the bouse, They are 
in some distress for want of salt and wood, with- 
out which they cannot long subsist, so that they 
are in great expectations that the house will be 
surrendered, or otherwise they are resolved to 
batter and storm it." 

The " Scottish Dove" of July 12th is jubilant : 
^* Greenland House is taken, and it will not be 
long before Basing House be in the same case 
to beg for a Parliamentary passe." 

Greenland House was surrendered after a 
brave resistance of six months. Clarendon says 
(Bk. YIII.) : <* Greenland House could not pos- 
sibly be longer defended, the whole structure 
being beaten down by the cannon." With 
playful sarcasm it is recorded on July 12th : — 
*'Colonell Onslowe's men courteously permitting 
eight of our foot to fetch six beasts grazing 
before their workes. At night Coronet (Comet) 
Bryan and some troopers passing a messenger by 
Cowdreye's Downe (to Oxford) bring in two 
prisoners." This capture was of great service 
to the besieged, for it was announced in 
London on July 15th that an assault would 
have been made upon Basing House had not 
^Hwo men through negligence taken prisoners," 
given information to the garrison. A letter 
written at Basing on July 15th alluding to the 
construction of mines, says that Colonel Norton 
was then quartered in Basingstoke, and that 



162 



Mbbsages to Oxford. 



Colonel Jones, the Governor of Famham Castle, 
occupied Basing Chnrch, whilst Colonels Onslow, 
Morlej, and Whitehead were entrenched ronnd 
the House. The besiegers were 3000 in number. 
Some of the chimneys of the honse had been 
battered down, and a few pmall breaches had 
been made. The garrison was very qniet, and 
a prisoner reported a scarcity of meat, and 
that there was ** only puddly and bad water to 
drink." 

On Jaly 18th a flaring bonfire in the park and ■ 
two volleys along the whole line proclaimed a \ 
welcome to the Parliamentary Committee sent 
to Basingstoke to urge forward matters at 
stubborn Basing. 

Clarendon says that the weather at the end 
of June was very warm, and heat now began to 
increase the distress of the defenders. The 
" Court Mercuric " of July 20th has the follow- 
ing : — " The Seidge at Basing House still con- 
tinues, as wee are credibly informed (however the 
Malignants may pretend the contrary), the 
besiegers have planted some pieces of battery 
against it, and made divers breaches through 
the house, and are resolved in case they refuse 
to surrender it speedily to storme it, the 
besiedged say that they have plenty of meat, 
but so tainted by reason of the weather and for 
want of salt and seasoning, that it is very 
infectious, and many of them have dyed lately 
through the extremity of the disease it has bred 
among them." The water supply seems at all 
times to have been abundant, though not always 
of good quality. 

Foreign engineers had done their best to 
strengthen Basing, for in *' A Looking Glass 
for the Popish Garrisons " we read : — " Could 
those tall walls, bulwarkes, and forts that were 
oast up by the subtiU art of the forraign 
engineers be scaled without a fall ? " Having, 
however, been thrown up in haste they were ** in 
many places slender, and nowhere finished." 

On July 20th a party of musketeers sally out, 
and do some execution in the lane before they 
are ordered to retire, and at the same time a 
captain of Colonel Morley's regiment is killed 
by a shot from the works. Two hours after- 
wards a drum is sent into the garrison with 
letters for the exchange of prisoners, but reaUy 
to inform the Cavaliers that Colonel Norton 
had returned in safety from the defeat of Sir 
William Waller at Cropredy Bridge, and to gain 
time to draw one if not two mortar pieces 



secretly to the trenches, from which as soon as 
the drum had returned, a shell of 801b. is fired 
daring the evening into the house, " concluding 
their devotion and the day with thundering 
from their culverins, two (shot) passed through 
the quarters where our sick men lay, but with- 
out hurt." 

At Donnington Castle, the friend and ally of 
Basing House, there were fired *^ a 500 and odd 
bullete, most of them 361b., some six, some 12." 

Mr. Boutell says (Arms and Armour p. 231 ) : 
" Until about the middle of the 17th century 
mortars were invariably discharged by double 
firing. The process of loading, while this system 
of firing prevailed, was very slow and tedious. 
After the powder had been placed in the 
chamber of the mortar it was closed in by a 
wooden board or shutter made to fit the bore of 
the piece; then this board was covered with 
turf, and, over the turf, again, earth was placed ; 
and, finally, on the earth the shell with its live 
or lighted fusee was made to rest in such a 
manner that it was only partially enclosed 
within the mortar. All this required time. 
The gunner lighted the fusee of the shell with 
one hand, while with the other hand he fired the 
mortar from which it would be discharged." 

The morning of the 22nd, says the " Diary of 
the Siege," saw the enemy's lines much advanced, 
and a sconce or redoubt finished, which was 
intended to prevent their battery in the Park 
from being attacked on the flank. The MarquiB 
himself is wounded by a bullet, and two men 
are killed by chance shot. Another account says, 
" The hurt within is not much, the Marquis 
hurt, two men killed by chain shot." A small 
gun called a cabonet had its carriage broken by 
a shot from one of the besiegers' culverins. The 
cabonet firedprojectiles of not more than 21bs. 
in weight. Tne following night being dark and 
stormy, tried and trusty Edward Jefi^y, whose 
name is still continued in Basingstoke, is des- 
patched to Oxford. But the same night that 
tavoured the muffled-up trooper with his load of 
despatches dose to his heart, favoured also the 
stealthy flight of 8 Roundhead prisoners, who 
got back to their leaguer with reports that made 
*' our allowance of great shot to be next day 
doubled, and at niffht more granadoes." 

Honest Edward Jeffrey was, no doubt, in 
disguise, for we are told that the BoyaUsts were 
constantly passing through the country for 
Parliament men, with orange tawny scarfs and 



Salisbury Cathedral. 



163 



ribands. He carried news of successful resist- 
ances, which was, of course, speedily exaggerated, 
for to the Royal army near Crediton in Deyon- 
shire came *'Newes this day (Satterday, 27th 
July, 1644) that Basing House had slayne many 
of the besiegers, and had raised the siege which 
had layne l^fore to it long.'* 

Wednesday, July 24th, must have been a 
very wet day, and on the following day the 
low grounds were flooded, and ^*- the trenches 
on the towne (Basing) side in the Meads flote 
with the quantity of rain that fell, thereby 
forcing them to lye more open to our towers, 
from whence our Markes men spoyled divers.*' 

Nor did the enemy fare better elsewhere. On 
the other side towards the Basingstoke Bulwark, 
the garrison had constructed ^' a Blind," or a 
atructnre of timber, covered with earth and 
loopholed, from which sped forth a deadly 
leaden hail. 

Under cover of the darkness a strong Puritan 
working party is sent into the trenches near the 
lane, but '* two pieces charged with case (shot) so 
luckily are placed upon them that they were 
heard complain their suffering." 

Eiarly next morning, the musketeers are again 
at their loop-holes in ** the Blind," and pick off 
an officer and several men. A cow is seen graz- 
ing, and the grunt of poor piggy is heard near 
the blind and the Basingstoke Bulwark. A 
trooper gallops forth in search of milk and bacon, 

&Qd piSSy ^^^ ^^® ^^^ ^^® ^^^ away captive, 
under cover of volleys from both sides, Colonel 
Norton*s men getting the worst of it. All the 
evening long is heard the cannon's roar, and six 
shells in addition hurtle through the air. One 
fsUs in the granary and spoils some com, and two 
others fail to explode. Shell practice and half 
rations combined are too much for weak nerves, 
and ^*at night two souldiers run to them." 

The morning of July 27th shows a traverse 
or mound of earth, about the height of a man, 
across the meadow from the burnt mill (nearly 
opposite the present dove-cot) commanding the 
way to the blind, which had proved so disastrous 
to the enemy on the previous day. Nor had 
Colonel Money been idle. He had made his 
quarter more secure by enclosing the nearer side 
of an old orchard. 

Stone shot can do good service sometimes. 
During the night six stones of the same size as 
the 36ib. shells are hurled from one of the mor- 
tars. '*Each day continuing like allowance, 



these and the granades for awhile seemed trouble- 
some, but afterwards become by custom so 
familiar to the souldier, that they were called as 
they counted them, Babies (i.e. Baubles), their 
mischiefes only lighting on the house, and that 
the lesse, our courts being large and many." 

" Mercurius Aulicus" tells us that Sunday 
July 28th, was an eventful day. Lieutenant 
Cuff and, of the Marquis* regiment, and Cornet 
Bryan, of Lieutenant-Colonel Peake's troop, 
sallied forth at the head of forty horse, charged 
the rebels in their works, killing between twenty 
and thirty of them, and capturing ten prisoners. 
They also ^^ took an Orange Colour of Horse, 
and one Trumpet, and pursued the rebels to 
Basingstoke's towne *s end, slashing and doing 
execution all the way." On the 30th of July a 
jet of flame from Basing Church tells that a 
culverin has been planted there, for the purpose 
of breaching a tower from which Cavalier marks- 
men had caused much annoyance to the enemy 
in that direction. Firing continued from the 
other guns already in position. So ^^ ends the 
yeare of the place's being garrisoned, and the 
second month of the Leaguer" (i.e. siege.) The 
Cathedral clergy at Salisbury now shared in the 
troubles of the Civil War. On August 3rd, 
Lieut.-General Middleton wrote to the House 
of Commons, saying that certain plate, hangings, 
copes, cushions, and a pulpit cloth had been 
*^ seized on by the common soldiers in Salisbury 
Church," and five days afterwards the articles 
in question were *' all brought in to the view of 
the House." It was thereupon ordered that the 
plate and pulpit cloth should be restored to tiie 
Cathedral, the superstitious representations 
upon them having been first defaced. The copes, 
hangings, and cushions, having first been 
similarly defaced, were to be sent back to Sir 
William Waller to be sold, and the proceeds 
were then to be shared '' among the soldiers that 
took them, and brought them up I" 

Amongst the earliest Laws and Ordinances of 
War established for the army under the Earl of 
Essex in 1643, it was ordered "all such who 
shall violate places of public worship to undergo 
severe censure." But if the proceeds of such 
violation were thus shared amongst the 
plunderers, few would hesitate to incur the 
censure. 

On August 4th it was reported from South- 
ampton that 100 infantry from that town, 
together with four troops of horse under Capt. 



164 



A Night Attack. 



Braztone, brother to the Mayor of Winchester, 
and Captains Fielder, Santbrook, and Thomas 
Bettworth, jun. (Bettesworth, whose home was 
in the Cathedral Close), were facing Winchester, 
as the gates both of the city and castle had been, 
at the instigation of the clergy, shut against the 
forces of the Parliament. 

Captain Thomas Boesworth (Bettesworth) 
with some fourteen horse had ridden forth from 
the headquarters, which had been established 
within two miles of Winchester, in order to 
transact business with some other officers. 
Returning *^ about midnight he found his watch 
of horse not set," which made him suspect the 
presence of a hostile force. None such, how- 
ever, appeared, and Captain Bettesworth and 
his men advanced up to the city wall without 
attracting observation, and by the help of a 
heap of rubbish effected an entrance through an 
unguarded breach. Two men were left in 
charge of the horses of the party, and the rest 
hurried through the silent streets hoping to 
secure the sleeping Mayor, together with some 
of the Royalist clergy. They were, however, dis- 
covered, and at once there rang out the cry of 
"Arm! Arml" forcing them to beat a hasty 
retreat. They, however, succeeded in carrying 
off four Cavalier prisoners, who were forthwith 
sent under escort to Southampton. 

A letter written in the Isle of Wight on 
August 8th, states that "persecuted godly 
ministers" were taking refuge there, and gaining 
over numerous adherents for the Parliament. 
Sir Gregory Norton was a staunch partisan of 
the same cause. Many of the inhabitants 
objected to the raising of a large force for the 
defence of the island, which was already pro- 
tected by 100 men and 30 guns. The Parlia- 
ment allowed 3000/. per annum for purpose of 
defence, and had also given the local Committee 
authority to raise a larger amount if necessary. 
The Earl of Pembroke had been settling various 
matters in the island, and was said to be " much 
affected with honest godly preachers ; he hears 
their sermons frequently, and is in converse 
with them ordinarily, and hath much improved 
his own and the public's good." On Wednes- 
day, August 2l8t, the " Committee for placing 
well affected ministers in Hants," was ordered 
to assemble at three o'clock in the afternoon at 
the Exchequer, and also at whatever other times 
they might think fit, six members forming a 
quorum. The Earl of Pembroke found ^t 



' "all the companies they had there except 
' Bondman's were disbanded, and three of them 
gone out of the island, whereof Sir Gregory 
Norton's "^^as one," but he nevertheless per- 
suaded the Commissioners and gentlemen ot 
the island " to send 500 able and expert soldiers" 
to the army of the Earl of Essex, who was then 
in Cornw:ill. On Monday the Lieutenant of 
the ordnance was ordered to send " a ton of 
bullet, with proportion of match, to the Isle of 
Wight." The Committae of the West were 
also to send thither five hundred swords and 
thre3 hundred bandoliers, which were to be paid 
for from the fine of one-twentieth part of his 
estate assessed upon Mr. Palmer, then a prisoner 
in the Fleet. 

On August 1st, a Kentish regiment under the 
command of Sir Michael Livesay, was quartered 
at Chobham, in Surrey, in readiness to aid the 
besiegers of Basing House. Sir William Waller 
was himself in London, but his army, consisting 
of 3500 horse, and 1500 foot, was at Abingdon, 
Newbridge, and other places near Oxford, with the 
garrison of which city there were continued skir- 
mishes. The siege of Basing House was mean- 
while in active progress, and on July Slst it is 
evident that the enemy mean to come to close 
quarters. One of the defences of the house is 
known as " Basing Bulwarke," and within half 
musket shot of this by the woodside, " towards 
Basing towne a little wood" another platform 
is commenced. " Towards evening praying, the 
shot (it having been their fast) they spared all 
day." At night they ran a trench from the 
church to their work at the woodside. Four of 
the garrison deserted, and exaggerated the 
damage done by stones and grenades, whereupon 
they " send us store, one whereof firing our hay, 
falling into the barne, had done much hurt, had 
not our diligence soon quenched it." 

Hitherto the soldiers had been on guard for 
4S hours at a time, but this being found too 
harassing, the garrison was divided into two 
parts, who relieved each other every 24 hours. 
Gentlemen and troopers also did their part, and 
the Marquis highly commends them for 
having throughout the siege performed the 
duties of both cavalry and infantry (with the 
exception of standing sentry). They took part 
in all sallies, sometimes on horseback ana at 
other times on foot, armed with muskets or 
brown bills. For seven weeks did they main- 
tain their horses with g^raas and sedge, which 



Stubborn Basing. 



165 



they cnt at night, at the risk of their lives, 
close to the enemy's works. 

A letter sent from Basingstoke to London on 
Thursday, August 1st, stated that the besieged 
had suffered considerable loss from the shells 
which had been hurled into the garrison. Nine 
prisoners had escaped from the house, which 
they said was still well provisioned, but was 
held only by "250 men very weary of the 
fort. They are very still in the house, and 
answer neither by drum, trumpet, nor cannon." 

There was good reason for this ominous 
quietness, for on Saturday, August .3rd, the 
terrible malady of small-pox was reported to 
be raging in the garrison, so that many officers 
were endeavouring to escape, either through 
fear of infection or on account of private 
quarrels. Some writers have concluded from 
an expression in the "Diary of the Siege' ' that 
the garrison were suffering from the effects of 
their own licentiousness, but a hostile writer 
distinctly states that small-pox was the malady 
which was working havoc within the waUs. It 
was said that the King had counselled a sur- 
render, but that Lord Winchester had made 
reply "that, under His Majesty's favour, the 
place was his, and that he was resolved to keep 
it as long as he could." The besiegers about 
this time received thirty more shells and some 
additional mortarpieces. 

On August 4th, an unsuccessful attack was 
made upon the house, but one shell damaged the 
building, as did also another "beating down 
part of the mill wall." There was now a rumour 
in the besiegers' line, that provisions were 
diminishing, and that a surrender might be 
expected ere long. Colonel Norton preferred 
starving out the garrison, to taking the place by 
storm. The cavaliers had hitherto been careful 
of their men, expecting that the besiegers would 
be strongly reinforced, but seeing that their num- 
ber did not increase, bolder counsels were 
adopted. " Our " men were few in number, 
much spent with labour, discouraged by divers 
wants, and the prevalence of disease. The rebels 
could be annoyed, and their works retarded, 
whilst prisoners could be compelled to give useful 
information. An able writer in " AU the Year 
Bound" (April 4th, 1874), says:- "Almost at that 
moment an opportunity set fire to the powder. 
A partv of Puritan foot can be seen from the 
tower lying loosely like stray sheep in Waller's 
Work, on the green slope of Oowdry Down. 



There the knaves are, the lazy loons, sprinkled 
about like so much black pepper on a green cloth » 
Out dash twenty cavalier horse (commanded 
by Lieutenant Cuff and, a relative doubt- 
less of Major Cuffand) while Comet 
Bryan, with 20 more wild fellows, slips in 
between the other rogues and the hedge. Their 
guard of horse stand in somewhat too loose 
order. Hark, forward! Hey there! spur all 
together ; away run the louts flying like mad 
dogs to Basingstoke ; every moment one is 
sabred or shot down, or torn off his horse, with 
a shake and a curse and a slash and a stab ; and 
here comes Cornet Bryan, with eyes only for 
one fair face blushing at him from the battle- 
ments, with a trumpet in one hand and their 
colours red and wet over his dusty shoulder. 
Seven horses and three sour trooper prisoners 
follow at his heels. £leven of their foot were 
left stretched out dead, and four bound and 
dragged in prisoners — a pretty good haul for 
one throw of the net, our men returning under 
command of their cannon without the loss of a 
man." At the commencement of this skirmish 
the besiegers thought that the long-expected 
relief had arrived, and began to fly in confusion 
from their works in the Park, but speedily 
discovering their mistake, they returned, and 
kept up a hot fire of shot and shell. Meanwhile 
the prisoners who had been captured by Comet 
Bryan stated that the deserter from the garrison 
had given information to the enemy that Baaing 
Bulwark was especially weak (as was indeed the 
case), and that the next attack would be made 
in that quarter. All hands to work ! and Basinff 
Bulwark and other weak points are strengthened 
with hastily-constructed defences. The assail- 
ants said that this sortie was made "to the 
Grange Field about evening sermon time," and 
admitted the capture of an ensign and a 
trumpeter. On August 5th, which " Mercurius 
Aulicus" notes as being the anniversary of the 
celebrated Gowrie Conspiracy, Lords Saye and 
Maitland reached the Hampshire Committee at 
Baisingstoke with instructions from the Parlia- 
ment. Colonel Norton was not to be caught 
napping a second time, and it was now easy to 
see that the guard at Waller's Work on Cowdrey 
Down had been doubled, and pikes, evidently 
intended to repel a cavalry charge, could be seen 
glinting in the sun-light. The besiegers' cavalrv 
were also much more on the alert. In the Park 
the siege works were now very close to the 



166 



Successful Sorties. 



defenders' batteries, especially near the wood on 
the side ot the village. Cannonading went on 
incessantly, great shot, stones, and three kinds 
of shell being literally rained upon the Hoose. 
The assailants were now close enough to throw 
in hand-grenades as weU. 

Such is the daily programme antU August 
10th, when Colonel Whithead brings up his 
regiment, five companies strong, through Basing- 
stoke to Cowdrey Down, and occupies the Delve, 
a still existing chalk pit, which is now known 
as Oliver Cromwell's Delve. This regiment had 
scarcely been a month raised before it thus 
marched to Basing, but it fought bravely never- 
theless. Special mention is made of Comet 
Doven, who " being a mighty proper man flew 
out so desperately" that he took two helmets. 
He is also said to have distinguished himself in 
some unrecorded manner at Bomsey Abbey 
Church. 

To g^ve welcome and amusement to the new 
comers, and to show what their guns can do to 
*' proud, stubborn, and malignant Basing," a 
heavy fire is concentrated on " a round tower 
in the old castle," which at length falls with a 
heavy crash. In the etching ascribed to Hollar 
we see " The Tower that is Halfe Battered 
Downe." As the siege guns were placed in the 
Park, this statement throws some light on the 
disputed question of the position of the old and 
new houses. (See Chap. I.) 

But the Marquis paid them back next morn- 
ing in their own coin. Major CufPand, in com- 
mand of six files of musketeers and 20 troopers, 
armed with brown bills, sallied forth into the 
Park and attacked their outward lines, killing 
some of them, burning their "blinds" and baskets, 
and bringing off a mortar with store of arms 
and tools, with a loss of only two men wounded. 
During " the amazement " caused by this bold 
sortie. Lieutenant Snow (who, from his name, 
seems to have been Hampshire born) with 20 
musketeers and 12 men armed with bills, 
attacked the works in the lane (or lower road) 
and did considerable execution, breaking their 
demi-culverin, setting fire to their guard-house 
and baskets, and capturing, besides arms and 
tools, a welcome supplv of ammunition, which 
proved most serviceable. The enemy were so 
chafed by their misfortunes that Captain Oram 
(who commanded the guard that dav) was tried 
by a court-martial for neglect ana cowardice, 
and cashiered, narrowly escaping with life. The 



"Diary of the Siege** is poor Captain Oram*s best 
witness, " For neglect and cowardice (nmning 
as others then and after did), holding corres- 
pondence with the place (where no man knew 
him), and sending in ammunition (which was 
never received) with the hazard of life is 
cashiered their service. A sentence much like 
that against the Earle of Strafford made with 
caution not to be brought to president (prece- 
dent) for after times, least it too nearly might 
concern themselves." 

Captain Oram's family lived in the lower part 
of the city of Winchester, and a token issued in 
1664 by William Oram, who dwelt near the 
Eastgate, and was the founder of the Winchester 
Free School, is still in existence. 

On Saturday, August 10th, Colonel Francis 
Thompson, who had lost his leg at Cheriton 
Fight, presented a petition, which was referred 
from the Upper to the Lower House,to the effect 
that he was "very infirm through the many 
wounds he has received, and was in great want 
for supply of monies which are due unto him 
for his pay." Nine days afterwards Sir William 
Waller was ordered to march westward forth- 
with from Famham with his horse and dragoons. 
He was empowered to seize horses for his 
expedition in the five western Associated 
Counties, upon the security of the public faith, 
and his infantry were when mounted to " have 
the pay, officers and soldiers, as dragooneers." 
Waller writes from Famham on August 28th, 
and also on September 1st, saying that he is 
willing to march, on receipt of 500/., and of 
horses for his mounted infantry. 

Forage was scarce in Basing House, and, dar- 
ing the night of August 11th, the encouraged 
Cavaliers constructed an earthwork near the 
Grange, near the foot of Cowdrey's Down, in 
order to secure the meadows for the troopers, 
who were obliged whenever the nights were 
dark to sally forth to cut grass and sedge for 
their horses. 

During the next few days the besiegers con- 
tinued to fire their oulverins, but were chiefly 
busied in the preparation of gabions, brushwood, 
and turf, with a view to futiure operations,and in 
filling gabions with grass, so that they might 
the less readily be set on fire. 

During this partial lull, let us see what 
measures were hevng taken for the relief of 
" Loyalty House." Clarendon says (Bk. viii), 
of Basing: — " It was so closely bc^rt before the 



Hopes of Belief. 



167 



Kiiig*8 march into the West, and waa looked 
apon as a place of such importance, that when 
the fiang sent notice to Oxford of his resolution 
to march into the West (he set out on Monday, 
Jnl^ Ist), t je Council humbly desired His 
Majesty that he would make Basing his way, 
and thereby relieve it, which His Majesty found 
would have retarded his march too much, and 
might have invited Waller to follow him, and 
therefore declined it. From that time, the 
Marquis, by frequent expresses, importuned the 
Lords of the Council to provide in some manner 
for his relief , and not to suffer his Person, and a 
place from whence the Bebels received so much 
prejudice, to fall into their bands. The Lady 
Marchioness, bis wife, was then in Oxford (in 
Murray's handbook for Hampshire, she is 
credited with the authorship of the Diary of the 
Siege), and solicited very diligently the timely 
preservation of her husband ; which made every 
body desire to gratify her, being a Lady of 
great honour and alliance, as sister to the Earl 
of Essex, and to the Lady Marchioness of 
Hertford ; who was likewise in the town, and 
engaged her husband to take this business to 
heart, and all the Boman Catholics, who were 
nxmieroufl in the town, looked upon themselves 
as concerned to contribute all they could to the 
good work, and so offered fco list themselves and 
their servants in the Service." 

" The Council, both on publiok and private 
motives, was very heartily disposed to eftect it ; 
and bad several conferences together, and with 
the officers ; in all of which the Govemour too 
reasonably opposed the design as full of more 
difficulties, and liable to greater damages than 
any soldier who understood command would 
expose himself and the King's Service to ; and 
protested that he would not suffer any of the 
small garrison that was under his charge to be 
hazarded in the attempt." (The Governor of 
Oxford was Sir Arthur Aston, who was after- 
wards killed at the storming of Drogheda.) " It 
was very true, Basing was near 40 miles from 
Oxford, and in the way between them, the 
enemy had a strong garrison of Horse and Foot 
at Abingdon, and as strong at Beading, whose 
horse every day visited all tiiie highways near, 
besides a body of Horse and Dragoons quartered 
at Newbnr^r ; so that it appeared to most men 
hardly possible to send a party to Basing, and 
imDossiole for that party to return to Oxford, 
if they should be able to get to Basing.** 



Stout "Lo3ralty House** was therefore left 
for the present to shift for itself, which it was 
very well able to do. Messengers still con- 
trived to make their way to the King, for about 
this time ** a party of horse broke out by night 
and rode away for Wallingford or Oxford.'* At 
the dead of night on August 12th, Colonel 
Norton's drums beat to arms and the Cavaliers 
expect an assault, but do not cease their labour 
at their new works on the side towards the vil- 
lage. Between three and four o'clock in the 
mommg a trumpet sounds clear and shrill from 
out the Delve or chalk pit on Cowdrey's Down, 
and at once 50 musketeers made a fierce attack 
upon Lord Winchester's working parties, but 
are speedily repulsed. Simultaneously 60 other 
musketeers,unaer cover of the little wood which 
proved such an annoyance to the besieged, suc- 
ceed in reaching the moat close to the royalist 
batteries, but are received with well-diiected 
voUeys b^ the guard stationed at the park bul- 
wark which flanked the ditch, whereupon thej 
retire in haste, some of them flinging away their 
arms in their flight. Three guns loaded with 
case shot open fire upon the fugitives, whose 
retreat is covered by a heav^ cannonade from 
their own works. Thinking it necessary to con- 
nect the large fort in the park with the works 
in and about the lower road or lane. Colonel 
Norton's engineers commence a trench for that 
purpose. The cannon are silent all the next day, 
but after dark there is another false alarm. 

Towards the evening of Wednesday, August 
14th, Lieut. Cuffand and that wild horseman 
Cornet Brjran pull on their big buff boots, toss 
off a sufficient dose of sack, and ride forth eadi 
at the head of twenty horse and forty muske- 
teers to Cowdrey's Down, where they drive the 
foot from Waller's Work, rout the guard of 
horse, and chase them as far as Basingstoke. 
Beinf orced, the Boundheads roll back the tide of 
victory. Brave Comet Brvan and a trooper are 
knocked down and hemmed in, three others being 
wounded meanwhile, and Enngn Amory, a Lon- 
don vintner, kOled. The sortie is, nevertheless, 
successful. The loss of the enemy is heavy, and 
there are captured, Lieut. Cooper, a corporal of 
horse, and seven others, who say that four 
days previously. Colonel Morley had been 
wounded by a bullet in the shoulder, 
whilst inspecting the works in the park. 
The accounts pumished in London of this affair 
stated that about fifty horsemen rode out of the 



168 



COKXtT BrYAX CAKTURtD- 



faoose on the Basingsioke side, intending to 
break through Colonel Morley's qnarten in the 
park, bat they marched np to Colonel Onslowe's 
quarters in the lower road and close tovarda 
Basingstoke, became '^ apon the borders of these 
two (Colonels* quarters they intended to break 
through." The enemy were, however, on the 
alert, and gave them a warm reception, killing 
seven of thenu capturing five, and cutting off 
the retreat to the house of either ten or seven- 
teen others, who fled, **among which one is 
supposed to be a very eminent commander," 
either Lord Winchester, Sir Marmaduke 
Rawdon, or some person of distinction, but 
who was, in reality, brave Comet Bryan. The 
rest of the party were beaten into the house 
with loss, and some of them were wounded. 
The captive Cavaliers on being questioned said 
that *^ the garrison holds out, because the king^s 
party will show them no favour if they surrender, 
and were they out, they know not how to live or 
where, most of them being broken citizens and 
notorious Papists." 

The capture of Cornet Bryan was duly 
reported to the House of Commons on August 
21st, by Colonel Jones, who reached London on 
that day. He also stated that Famham Castle 
was in a good state of defence, being threatened 
bv no enemy, and that as the besiegers of Basing 
Efouse had three infantry regiments before it, 
be had withdrawn his two White Companies 
from Baning to Famham. The besiegers had 
made a large breach on the east side of the 
house near the park. Two days, August 15th 
and 16th, were spent in negotiations for an 
exchange of prisoners. One wounded Cavalier 
was exchanged for three of the enemy in like 
condition. The garrison *^ offering Lieutenant 
Cooper and the Corporal (both stout men, 
wounded, and taken fighting) for our Coronet 
(Cornet Bryan), but would not be accepted, so 
much they valued him!" Tou would have 
been a V.C. now-a-days, Comet Bryan ! 

The parley being at an end, hostilities recom- 
menced, three shells being thrown in during the 
night, one of which did not explode. 

From Sir Edward Walker, Secretary of His 
Majesty^s Council of War, we learn that prepara- 
tions were now actively making for the relief of 
the gallant little garrison. In " His Majesty's 
Happy Progress and Success from the 30th of 
March to the 23rd of November, 1644," we read : 
— " August 14th. Now in this time of expectation 



we had leisure to enquire after the actions of 
those rebels we had left behind us, and in what 
conditions His Majesty^s Garrisons stood, 
whereof Baaing we left besieged, and Banbury 
and Donnington Castles were since surrounded 
by the Rebels." 
On the night of August 16th, a deserter from 
I the garrison gives information of an intended 
I sortie in the direction of Waller's Work and 
the Delve on Cowdrey Downe, to protect which 
latter point a battery has been for some days in 
process of construction. Thus forewarned, they 
strengthen Waller's Work with gabions. The 
sortie is, however, at first most successful The 
300 men of Colonel Whitehead's retciment, who 
were quartered in the Delve, fly from it for 
their lives, carrying their colours with them. 
The Royalist troopers are over keen in pursuit, 
and the enemy are speedily reinforced. It is 
now indeed time to draw rein, for, see, the mus- 
keteers from Holloway's Mill are lining the 
hedges of the meadows in force. Only the 
coming up of the infontty from the house 
saves those bold riders from destruction. During 
the evening a culverin is placed in the newly- 
raised battery at the Delve, which, together 
with the culverin near the church, keeps up a 
fire upon the house. During the night three 
more of the garrison desert. 

The 19th of August is a full noisy day. A 
demi-cannon, throwing a 301b. shot, with a 
charge of 281bB. of powder, is got up to the 
battery near the wood, and the enemy fire 48 
shot. On the two following days they expended 
eight score more rounds, the least shot dis- 
charged weighing 181bs., besides shells. Two 
men are killed and two others ^* mischieved." 
Lord Winchester's best iron gun is " broken," 
and a breach made in one of the square towers, 
besides damage to the battery in front of it. 
This last injury officers and soldiers alike take 
spade in hand to repair, with the result of 
making it able to resist 601b. shot, whereas 
before field pieces had left evident traces upon it. 
A hostile letter from Basing, which was pub- 
lished in the "Weekly Account" on Friday, Aug. 
23rd, speaks of the capture of Comet Br^an, of 
the great breach which had been made in the 
house, and of considerable damage done to Lord 
Winchester's private apartments by cannon 
shot. The writer continues, " and that a -bullet 
came through in his own bedchamber, himself 
I being at that very instant time in bed;* which 



Hostilities Continue. 



169 



had like to have pat him into the very same 
deportment as his. father the old Marqnis was in 

for he was so struck with fear 

that he leaped out of his hed, and ran into 
another room without his breeches, crying ont 
that he wondered how the Roundheads could 
find him out, for he thought he had been safe 
in his bed I" During the weekending August 
27th, ten Roundhead prisoners "in the New 
prison at Basing" had made a rope ladder, and 
endeavoured to escape, but were caught in the 
act, and only one got clear off. This seems to 
show that the garrison prison was situated in 
the New House. 

The fire slackens on Thursday, August 22nd, 
and they " permit the night enjoy its proper 
silence, disturbed only by such whose basenesse 
prompted them with hope to gaine by craft 
what by their force they could not, shooting 
Notes fixed to arrowes with proffers of prefer- 
ment to the souldier perswading mutinies, and 
labouring divisions 'twixt the regiments, leaving 
no stone unturned, but aU in vaine, except the 
gaining some faint-hearted knaves." 

We may judge of the character of these 
missives 6om what occurred at the siege of 
Gloucester, as related in John Yicar^s Parlia- 
mentary Chronicle (p. 405), "Sunday, Sept. 
3rd, 1643 :— 

In which said dayes af ternoone a paper was 

shot upon an arrow into the towne, wherein 

were these words : — 

" These are to let you nndentand that your God 
Waller hath forsaken yon, and hath retired himself to 
the Tower of London. Essex is beaten like a dog. 
Yield to the King*s meroie in time, otherwise if we 
enter perforce no quarter for snoh obstinate traiterly 
rogues. From a Wel-Wishbb." 

To which presently upon another arrow was 
returned this answer : — 
"Waller's no god of ours, base rogues yee lye ; 

Our God survives from all eternity. 
Though Essex beaten be, as you do say, 

Rome's yoke we purpose never to obey. 
But for our oabages which ye have eaten, 

Be sure, ere long, ye shall be soundly beaten. 
Quarter wee*l aske ve none ; if we fall downe 
King Charles will lose true subjects with tiie 
towne." 
So sayes your best friend, if you make tunely use of 
him Nicholas oudgell you well.** 

*' Roundheads," " carrett beards," and '^ Essex 
calves" were some of the pleasant names applied 
by the Cavalier to his opponents in this 
fratricidal war. 



The 23rd and 24th of August are signalised 
in Basing House by the unwelcome arrival of 
cross bar shot, logs of wood bound with iron 
hoops, and shells, ^* whereof two miss firing. 
Two more run to them." 

The heavv battery near the wood with its 
30-pounder having greatly torn the tower, the 
besiegers on the 25th August commence a 
battery within pistol shot on the side of Basing 
village, in order to complete its demolition. Two 
men of the garrison are killed, and a third 
maimed by artillery fire in other quarters. '* In 
the park they shew a Sow made for their 
musquetiers, thrusting before them for to play 
behind." The Sow was "made with boards 
lined with wool to dead the shot." There is a 
sketch of this very curious machine in Grose's 
Military Antiquities. At Corfe Castle, in the 
preceding year, boards, hair, and wool for making 
a sow against the Castle cost 21. 3s. 4d. The 
machine had three truckle wheels, and its failure 
at Corfe Castle is thus described : — 

'* The first that moved forward was the sow, 
but not being musket proof she cast nine out of 
eleven of her farrow ; for the musketeers from 
the castle were so good marksmen at their legs, 
the only part of aU their bodies left without 
defence, that nine ran away as well as their 
broken and battered legs would give them leave, 
and of the two which knew neither how to run 
away nor well to stay for fear, one was slain." 
Two desertions from Basing House on this, 
and four more on the following night I This 
will never do. One would-be deserter has been 
caught in the act, and is at once hanged, where- 
upon "for along time not one man that stirred, 
though our necessities grew fast upon us, now 
drinking water, and for some weeks making our 
bread with pease and oats, our stock of wheat 
being spent." Hard times, truly I 

The besiegers now extend their lines almost 
completely round the house, forming the line 
of circumvallation which, according to Hugh 
Peters, was more than a mile in circumference. 
A hostile redoubt is also constructed opposite to 
the Basingstoke Bulwark. Its site is perhaps 
marked by a still existing mound. The garrison 
are reluctantly compelled to abandon the work 
on Cowdrey I>own, which secured to them the 
command of the meadows, as it is too much 
exposed, and they have not sufficient men to 
hold it. The enemy's culverin in the battery 
at the Delve having been broken, another is 



170 



Essex Subbemdebs. 



sabstitated, which opens fire on Angost 28th. 
The ijnext night five hones grazing in the 
meadows are carried off to Norton's lines, and 
twenty-fonr honrs afterwards two troopers 
catting grass are also captured. 

The ever-active foe now divert the oonrse of 
the river Loddon, hoping thus to be able to get 
poBseaaion of the Grange, bat the constmction 
of a dam, which increases the depth of water, 
frustrates their hopes. 

So ends the month of Angnst, 1644, the 
events of which are thus sommarised by 
another author : — 

" For a fortnight the besiegers fell a-batter- 
ing. Having torn the Tower, thev fall upon 
the House side next the Town, msJdng a work 
within pistol-shot, and, because of short com- 
mons within, some of cowardice get out to the 
enemy. Whilst necessities increased, no bever- 
age but water, no bread but of pease and oats, 
otiier com all spent." 

Two of the besiegers' cannon had been ren- 
dered useless during the recent bombardment, 
either through being overloaded or from too 
rapid firing, but other heavv guns had recently 
been sent from Portsmouth, and others were 
expected to arrive from thence ere long. 

The Earl of Essex agreed, at the instigation of 
Lord Roberts (or Bobartes), a man of impetu- 
ous disposition and full of contradictions, to 
invade loyal Cornwall, whither he was quickly 
followed by the King in person, and q)eedily 



I reduced to extremities. The Parliament were 
extremely anxious that Waller, who on August 
29th was at Famham with no large force, should 
at once march to the relief of Essex. This he 
professed his readiness to do, on being joined 
by some Kentish regiments numbering 1500 
horse and foot, by Colonel Stapley, who was on 
the march from Chichester with 500 old soldiers, 
and by 500 additional troops from the Isle of 
Wight. Various reinforcements had, on 
September 10th, raised the strength of his 
army to 4000 men. But on August 31st, " the 
slow-going, inarticulate, indignant, somewhat 
elephantine man," as Caij^le styles the Earl of 
Essex, was forced by the King to surrender at 
Fowey, in ComwalL 

After the surrender it was agreed that Essex's 
infantry (his cavalry had escaped without the 
loss of a man) should be secured from plunder, 
by the protection of a convoy to either Poole or 
Southampton. 

CUrendon (Bk. YIQ.) continues:— << Of the 
6000, for so many marched out of Foy, there 
did not a third part come as £ir as Southamp- 
ton, where the Eling's convoy left them; to 
which Skippon gave a large testimony under 
his hand 'that they had carried themselves 
with great civility towards them, and fully com- 
plied with their obligation.* " 

We shall meet with Essex and his army again 
ere long. 



Chapter XXIV.— Recruiting — Basing Again Suhmonei>— Renewed Bombardment- 
Proposed Relief— Sorties in Force— Lady Waller— A Puritan Army— Relief 
at Last — Colonel Gage — The Relieving Force — The March to Basing — Loyalty 
House Saved— Retreat to Oxford. 



On Sunday, September Ist, Sir William 
Waller had received a reinforcement of 1200 
or more infantry at Farnham, and on the same 
day the Honse of Commons voted a weekly 
assessment, to continue for twelve months, by 
which 125L per week was to be raised in Hamp- 
shire, in which county Winchester, Southamp- 
ton, and the Me of Wight were by name 
included. On September 1st, Ukewise it was 
ordered that 6000 foot arms, 6000 coats, 
breeches, shirts, stockings, shoes, and caps 
should be sent to Portsmouth for distribution 
to ^e infantry of Essex's army, " and 500 pairs 
of pistols for recruiting the Lord General's 
horse.'* Many of these arms and stores, together 
with much powder and ammunition, were sent 
to Portsmouth on Sunday and Monday, Sep- 
tember 8th and 9th, Essex having appointed 
that fortress as a place of rendezvous for his 
army. He himself was at Portsmouth on Sep- 
tember 14th. The following Chronogram was 
circulated amongst Cavaliers after the defeat of 
Essex in ComwaU : — 
« VIVat Rex CoMes EsseXIV's DlssIpatVr." 

For the large Roman capital letters substi- 
tute the equivalent Arabic numerals, add them 
up, and the result ffives the correct date, 1644. 

The Earl of Pen3>roke received the thanks of 
the House of Commons on September 2nd, for 
raising soldiers in the Isle of Wight. The Par- 
liEunentarian Committee for the Island were 
ordered to send these men by sea to Lymington, 
Ohristchurch, or Weymouth, so as to meet at 
any convenient rendezvous Sir William Waller, 
who on September 6th wrote from Farnham, 
saying that he was starting westward with all 
diugence. 



On September 7th Waller was supplied with 
118 barrels of powder, at a cost of 490/. 7s. 6dM 
and he on the same day granted a commission to 
Colonel Popham, Major Ludlow, and others to 
raise a regiment of horse from the western 
counties, in which Ludlow was to command a 
troop. Essex had shamefully left his army in 
Cornwall to its fate, but on September 7th, 
within a week of his disgraceful night, he was 
informed by the Speakers of the two Houses, 
" that his fidelity and merit in the public ser- 
vice is not lessened ; and they are resolved not 
to be wanting in their best endeavours for the 
repairing of this loss." 

Prince Rupert was expected to march into 
the southern counties, and orders were accord- 
ingly issued on September 7th to Sir William 
WaUer and the Earl of Manchester to advance 
with all speed towards Dorchester, so as to check 
the advance of the £j.ng's army. The Earl of 
Manchester reached Huntingdon with his army 
on Sept. 8th, and l^as directed to march west- 
ward towards Abingdon with all possible expedi- 
tion, and to send advertisement of his progress 
as he advanced. The town of Wareham, in 
Dorsetshire, had been held for the King by some 
500 Irishmen, who about this time surrendered 
theii trust to the Parliament, and on September 
7th Colonel Jephson was ordered to billet these 
500 soldiers at Hayling Island. They were to 
receive the sum of 1200/. and 300 old mudcets, 
which were then in the public magazine, under 
the charge of Lieut.-C<Monel Roe. Ships were 
also to be employed or chartered at a cost of 
2001. to convey these men back to Ireland. Sir 
William Waller was at Blandf ord on September 
20th, and on the previous day Etnex writes tem 



172 



Basing again Summoned. 



Portsmouth concerning the defence of the town 
against the advancing army of the King. A 
portion of Essex^s army was on September 
21st at Southampton, daily receiving much 
needed supplies, and four days afterwards he 
wrote to the Parliament saying that he had re- 
ceived 30 cartloads of clothing for his infantry. 
On Sept. 24th it was decided that the old estab- 
lishment of Hurst Castle, which was costing 601. 
per month, should be defrayed by the Com- 
mittee of the Hevenue, but that all extra 
expenses were to be charged upon the Hundred 
of Christchurch. 

Two days afterwards Colonel Butler, who had 
been put under arrest together with Colonel 
Weare, they having experienced some reverses 
in the retreat from Lostwithiel, and being 
suspected of a design to betray the army of 
Essex to the King, was sent up in custody from 
Portsmouth to London, and committed to the 
Tower, where he was '^ to have none come near 
him, or attend upon him, but such as he will 
be answerable for.*' 

Authority was given to Sir William Waller, 
on September 27tii, to impress 500 horses for 
his cavalry, and 600 for his train of artillery. 
£9000 was also voted for artillery for the Earl 
of Essex. Of this sum 3000/. was to be paid at 
once, 3000/. at the end of three months, and the 
remainder at the expiration of six months. Essex 
was also empowered to impress horses in Berks, 
Hants, Wilts, Dorset, Oxford, Somerset, and 
Devon. Not more than two were to be taken 
from any one team, and they were to be paid 
for by the Committee of the County. The 
Markmaster was to mark them, and he and his 
assistants were to be both cashiered and 
punished if they spared the horses of any one 
except Members or Assistants to Parliament. 

On September 28th many of the Earl of 
Manchester's horse, under the command of 
Colonel Oliver Cromwell, were between Andover 
and Salisbury, in readiness to effect a junction 
with Sir William WaUer, if the King should 
march in that direction, as were also 500 horse 
which Essex had sent to Marlborough. 

The last day of September saw 500 saddles 
and furniture voted for the army of the Earl 
of Essex, and also a sum of 240/. for the supply 
of the chests of sixteen surgeons, who were to 
oe attached to this force. 15/. was allowed for 
each surgeon's chest, the money was paid to the 
Master and Wardens of the Barber Snrgeon's 



Company, and the Master and Wardens of the 
Apothecaries' Company were directed to examine 
the chests and drugs. 

Mrs. Jane Fane, the daughter of Colonel 
Anthony Fane, who fell during Waller's attack 
on Farnham Castle in 1642, presented a petition 
saying that she had been granted, but had never 
received, a sum of 1500/. out of the profits of 
the Court of Wards. This money was now 
ordered to be paid. William Kingsmill, Esq., 
late Sheriff of Hants, was with others directed 
to collect the arrears of the weekly assessment 
of 125/. Sir William Waller was at Shaftes- 
bury, and the Earl of Essex at Portsmouth. 

Colonel Norton, at Basing, was hopeful that 
famine and bombardment had at length broken 
the spirit of the little garrison, and accordingly, 
on Monday, 2nd Sept., after keeping up a hot 
fire all the morning, he sent, together with pro- 
posals for an excliange of prisoners, the follow- 
ing summons : — 

^^ My Lord, — These are in the name and by 
the authority of the Parliament of England, the 
highest Court of Justice in this kingdome, to 
demand the House and G-arrison of Basing to be 
delivered to me, to be disposed of according to 
Order of Parliament. And hereof I expect your 
answer by this Drum, within one hower after 
the receipt hereof. In the mean time I rest, 

Your's to serve you, 

Rich. Norton. 

From the quarters before Basing, 
the 2 of Sept., in the aftemoone," — 
(** f orenoone" says "Mer. Aulicus.") 

It does not take long to write an answer, and 
" the noble Marquis sufficiently understood the 
language of these three last yeares, and there- 
fore instantly returning the Rebel this answer" :— 

"Sir, — ^Whereas (your demands pretend 
authority of Parliament) you demand the House 
and Garrison of Basing by a pretended authority 
of Parliament, I (make this) answer, that with- 
out the King there can be no Parliament, but 
by His Majesties Commission I keep this (the) 
place, and without his absolute command shau 
not deliver it to any pretenders whatsoeyer. 
I am, your's to serve you, 

Basing, 2 Sept." Winchester. 

No sooner has Colonel Norton read this reply 
than his new battery on the Basing side of the 
house fires within six hours 120 shot of 18 and 
60 lbs. weight, smaUshot likewise coming thiok 
and fast, with the result of foundering one of 



Proposed Rf;liek. 



173 



the great brick towers, probably that of which 
the foundations are still distinctly visible on the 
slope above the canal, and which seems to have 
been situated at one of the corners of the house, 
and wall as killing three men, and wounding a 
woman. The dibris of the tower completely 
blocked up one end of an adjacent curtain (a 
line of wall connecting two bastions), neces- 
sitating the construction of a traverse or mound 
of earth, from seven to ten feet in height, to 
prevent the other end of the curtain from being 
enfiladed by shot, which would speedily have 
dismounted the guns and proved altogether 
ruinous. A traverse being a defensible parapet, 
is a formidable obstacle to a storming party. Its 
thickness varies according to the fire to which 
it is exposed. All hands are busy in strengthen- 
ing the neighbouring bulwark, which had been 
damaged by the heavy cannonade. Next day only 
20 great shot are fired, and the enemy's guns 
having been damaged by too rapid firing, are 
drawn off toFarnham, and new ones substituted, 
which had been sent from Portsmouth. During 
the night the line of circumvallation is brought 
nearer to the Grange from the side of Basing- 
stoke, thus almost completely encircling the 
garrison. No more sorties can now be made to 
Cowdry's Down, and the earthwork there which 
the Cavaliers have not occupied for some dajrs, 
on account of its exposed position and their 
own paucity of numbers, is " slighted" or 
destroyed. 

The Marquis has all this time been sending 
messengers to Oxford with new importunities 
and a positive declaration " that he could not 
defend it above ten days, and must then submit 
to the worst conditions the rebels were like to 
grant to hifi person and to his religion ;" and 
new instances from his Lady prevailed with the 
Lords to enter upon a new consultation, in 
which the Govemour (Sir Arthur Aston^ per- 
sisted in his old resolution " that he would not 
suffer any of the small garrison that was under 
his charge to be hazarded in the attempt * as 
seeing no cause to change it !' " 

" In this debate Colonel Gage (of whom more 
hereafter) declared *that though he thought 
the service full of hazard, especially for the 
return, yet if the Lords would, by listing their 
own servants, perswade the gentlemen in the 
town to do the like, and engage their own 
persons, whereby a good troop or two of horse 
might be raiseid (upon which the principal 



dependence must be), he would willingly, if 
there were nobody else thought fitter for it, 
undertake the conduct of them himself, and 
hoped he should give a good account of it; 
which being offer'd with great chearefulness by 
a person of whose prudence, as well as courage, 
they had a full confidence, they all resolved to 
do the utmost that was in their power to make 
it effectual." (Clarendon, Bk. VIII.) 

The garrison at Basing is told to expect relief 
on Wednesday, the 4th of September. The 
anxiously expected day finds every man on the 
alert, but noon strikes, and no signs of relief 
appear. To raise the spirits of the disappointed 
soldiers, Lieuts. Snow and Byfield, and Ensign 
Out ram are ordered to command a sortie in 
force. Lieut. Byfield seems to have been related 
to the Rev. Adoniram Bjrfield, rector of Colling- 
boume Ducis, and one of the few persons who 
have been by name stigmatised by Butler in 
Hudibras. Adoniram Byfield was a Parliamen- 
tarian, chaplain to Colonel Cholmondeley's 
regiment, and the father of Dr. Byfield the 
celebrated " Sal Volatile Doctor," who in his 
epitaph is said to be " Diu volatilis,tandem fixus" 
— ** Long volatile, fixed at last !" 

The three officers above named are each in com- 
mand of twelve troopers armed with brown bills, 
and eighteen musketeers, and without delay are 
sent to attack Colonel Onslowe's quarters in the 
park, in three several places. They succeed 
beyond expectation, capturing the enemy's 
redoubts, and a demi-culverin or 9-pounder. 
This gun they draw nearer to the house, but are 
obliged to retreat, with a loss of three men killed 
and one wounded, some guns having opened fire 
upon th m with case shot. They bring in three 
prisoners, in order to obtain useful information, 
but make no effort to secure more, " our gaole 
being full." There is plenty of cannonading on 
both sides, and a successful sortie is made to the 
Delve on Cowdry's Down. Sir William Waller 
at the head of two troops of horse, has reached 
Basingstoke two hours before the commence- 
ment of the skirmish, and ** came forth to see 
the sport, and with his horse facing the House, 
too near on Cowdrey's Down, they had their 
Captaine killed with round shot from our works." 
The enemy acknowlege a loss this day of 60 
privates, two gunners, and two lieutenants killed, 
and twelve dangerously wounded. One of the 
lieutenants belonging to Sir William, and 
brought by curiosity to see the Leaguer, is there 



174 



Lady Waller. 



slain. Three others of the garrison are slightly 
wounded by earth and stones thrown np by an 
181b. shot. At night an attempt is made to bring 
in the culverin captured in the park, but it proves 
too heavy a task. The enemy's guards are 
doubled, and twelve royalist musketeers keep a 
strict watch over the gun. 

" Mercurius Aulicus," on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 4th, says that Sir William Waller 
arrived " with his pretty portable army and his 
wonderful lady." Lady Waller had considerable 
reputation as a preacher, and the journalist adds 
that the sortie was successful, through the sol- 
diers running " out of the trench to see, or 
rather to hear her," their comrades keeping but 
careless watch meanwhile. The captured gun 
is said to have been one of the largest of those 
in position against the House, and was brought 
within pistol shot of the defences, when it was 
unfortunately overturned. The Cavaliers at 
Oxford hoped that during the following week 
Basing would be relieved, and that they would 
hear that " Colonels Onslow, Norton, White- 
head, Jones, and horrible Herbert Morley, are 
all grinning mad !" Burton's War's in England 
says (p. 93.)— ;•" And now comes Sir William 
Waller again, and with some troops faces the 
House, on whom the besieged played from their 
works." 

On September 5th, however, it was reported 
in London that a Puritan prisoner who had 
escaped from the House had brought word to 
the besiegers that various officers of the garrison 
had sewn up money and plate in their clothes, 
hoping to be able to escape, which they often 
attempted to do, but to no purpose, all sorties 
being repulsed with loss, so that a speedy surren- 
der was expected " upon reasonable composition." 

The Parliamentarians, in their account of 
the night attempt to carry ofE the overturned 
gun to the House, said that their watch was 
asleep, admitted a loss of eight men killed and 
twelve others taken prisoners, and added that 
the besieged made a second sortie, in the hope 
of securing a dray laden with beer, but were 
repulsed with the loss of some prisoners. 

During this and the following day (Septem- 
ber 5th) the assailants fire fifty shot from their 
new battery near the wood, in the direction of 
the village, battering down a stack of chim- 
neys, and making a wide breach in the New 
House. Towards evening Sir William Waller's 
army comes in sight, marching westward. Two 



companies of infantry go by way of Hack- 
wood, and are followed next evening by two 
other companies, two waggons, and twelve 
troops of horse. On the next day (September 
7th) the fire from the enemy 's batteries ceases 
at noon, and the garrison have leisure to watch 
two strong regiments of twenty companies 
marching in the same direction as the cavalry. 
Two companies of white-coats turn in to Basing- 
stoke, together with ten guns of various sizes, 
which are guarded by a yellow company. For 
the last four nights all the men have been kept 
at their posts, as they are also to-night, as an 
attack is by no means improbable. But the 
only disturoance is that of tongues, some of 
Colonel Norton's men asserting that Sir 
William Waller will storm the place next 
morning, and disputing with the new comers as 
to the distribution of the expected plunder. But 
Waller is anxious to move westward, and has 
learnt already by bitter experience the strength 
of Basing, so that he is by no means eager to 
try conclusions with it again. So he marches 
away and ^^ We againe with our old guests are 
left to try it out, grown now so mute upon this 
parting as in 48 houres we heare but of two 
Culverin (181b.) shot, next day recovering heart, 
they tell us 22, and resting some daies past now 
find their worke again." But the long looked 
for relief was now near at hand. Although the 
King had been fighting the Earl of Essex in the 
west, he was by no means unmindful of the 
necessities of Lord Winchester, for on Wednes- 
day, September llth^ Sir Edw. Walker, 
Secretary of His Majesty's Council of War, 
thus writes : " Having many difficulties to pass 
before he (the King) made his winter quarters, 
likewise remembering that Basing and Banbury 
were then closely besieged, &c." 

Preparations had for some time, as we have 
already seen,been making at Oxford to despatch 
a party to the relief of the Hampshire fortress, 
and the garrison had been led to expect aid on 
September 4th, but a week's delay was unavoida- 
ble, and eventually proved the safety of the 
expedition. For had Sir Wm. Waller been still 
hovering with his forces about Famham, as he 
had been the week before, it would have been 
"in probability a hazard, whether they had 
releived us, or preserved themselves." 

Bat all things being now prepared, action was 
at once taken. Several somewhat varying^ 
accounts of this gallant enterprise are found in 



Colonel Gage. 



176 



"Clarendon" (Bk. VHI.), Colonel Gage's 
"Official Report," the "Life of Sir Henry 
Gage," published at Oxford in 1645, the " Diary 
of the Siege," " Woodward's History of Hamp- 
shire," "Mercurius Anlicus," *' Whitelooke's 
Memorials," &c. 

In the last chapter we have seen Colonel Gage 
offering himself as the leader of the relieving 
expedition. Let us now learn what manner of 
man he was. He had been in command of the 
English regiment in Flanders, and at the com- 
mencement of the war had unsuccessfully tried 
to procure for the King from the Spanish 
Government of Flanders 6000 infantry and 400 
cavalry. He afterwards obtained leave to make 
offer of his services to the King, and had not 
long reached Oxford, where he was appointed 
to the command of one portion of the town, 
and to assist the very unpopular governor. Sir 
Arthur Ashton. Colonel Gage " was in truth 
a very extraordinary Man, of a large and very 
graceful Person, of an Honourable extraction, 
his Grandfather (Sir John Gage^ having been 
Knight of the Garter ; besides his great experi- 
ence and abilities as a Soldier, which were very 
eminent, he had very great parts of breeding, 
being a very good scholar in the polite parts of 
Learning, a great Master in the Spanish and 
Italian Tongues, besides the French and Dutch, 
which he spoke in great perfection; having 
scarce been in England in 20 years before. He 
was likewise very conversant in Courts ; having 
for many years been much esteemed in that of 
the Arch-Duke and Duchess, Albert and Isabella, 
at Brussels ; which was a very great and 
regular Court at that time ; so that he deserved 
to be looked upon as a very wise and accom- 
plidied Person. Of this Gentleman, the Lords 
of the Council had a singular esteem, and con- 
sulted frequently with him, whilst they looked 
to be besieged ; and thought Oxford to be the 
more secure for his being in it, which rendered 
him so ung^teful (unpopular) to the Governor, 
Sir Arthur, that he crossed him in anything he 
proposed, and hated him perfectly, as they were 
of Natures and Manners as different as men 
can be." 

Colonel Gage and Sir Arthur Aston were 
both Roman Catholics. Such a gallant deliverer 
had Loyalty House. 

Clarendon says, moreover(Bk. YIII ), " There 
was about this time, by the surrender of Green- 
land House (which could not possibly be longer 



defended, the whole structure having been 
beaten down by the cannon) the regiment of 
Colonel Hawkins marched into Oxford, amount- 
ing to near 300, to which as many joined as 
made it up 400 men." Colonel Gage says 
" with somewhat more than 400 musquetiers of 
Her Majesty's and Colonel Hawkin's regiment, 
and 250 horse of my Lord Treasurer's Regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Webb of Six* 
Arthur Aston's regiment (or " the Govemour's 
Troops") commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Buncle." According to "Mercurius Aulius" 
Major Windebank, who in the following year 
was shot for surrendering Bletchington House 
to Cromwell (April 13th, 1645), commanded the 
foot. The cavalry, or " Horse Gentlemen 
Yolunteers," are thus described by Clarendon : 
" The Lords mounted their servants upon their 
own horses, and they with the Volunteers, who 
frankly listed themselves, amounted to a body 
of 250 very good horse, all put under the com- 
mand of Colonel William Webb, an excellent 
officer, bred up in Flanders in some emulation 
with Colonel Gage, and who, upon the Catholic 
interest, was at this time contented to serve 
under him." Colonel Gage was therefore in 
supreme command. Colonel Webb acting as 
Brigadier, whilst Lieut.-Colonel Buncle com- 
manded the 250 horse of my Lord Treasurer's 
regiment. There was also another body of 
horse under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Sir 
William Campion, who was Governor of Boar- 
stall House, a stronghold on the western verge 
of Buckinghamshire, two miles from Brill, and 
half way between Oxford and Aylesbury, which 
Colonel Gage had not long before retaken and 
garrisoned for the King. Sir William Campion 
in this time of need ventured to bring his 
cavalry force to the relief of Basing. Twelve 
barrels of powder and 12001b. weight of match 
were taken for the supply of the besieged 
garrison. Sir S. D. Scott says (British Army, 
vol. II. p. 311), "Match was made of cotton or 
hemp, spun slack, and boiled in a strong solution 
of saltpetre, or in the lees of wine. It was 
generallv hung in reserve at the girdle, or tied 
to the bandoleers; it was sometimes coiled 
round the arm or hat." By the 15th of Charles 
II., cap. 4, every musketeer was bound to attend 
every muster with "half a pound of powder, 
half a pound of bullets, and three yards of 
match." 
With this " regiment of bold blades," a small 



176 



The March to Basing. 



party for bo great an action,Colonel Gage marched 
out of Oxford about ten o'clock on the night of 
Monday, the 9 th of September, with orders to 
relieve Basing House (long besieged by the 
Rebels), and to put in such provision of victuals 
as the country there affords." As the object 
of the expedition was the relief of Basing 
House, it was important that the enemy should 
not receive notice of the approach of the 
Cavaliers. They therefore " passed through the 
country for Parliament men, with orange 
tawney scarfs, and ribbands on our hats." 
Col. Hawkins' regiment wore white uniforms. 

The march lasted all night, and early on 
Tuesday morning the force reached Cholsey 
Wood, near Wallingford, where it was joined 
by Captain Walters with about 50 horse of his 
troop, and as many foot of that garrison, which 
was the last in Berkshire to hold out for the King, 
only surrendering to Fairfax in 1 646. 

The wearied soldiers here rested for three 
hours, and says Colonel Gage : ** I despatched an 
express to Sir William Ogle, Governor of 
Winchester Castle, who had promised Mr. 
Secretary Nicholas 100 horse and 300 foot of 
that garrison to help to raise the siege of Basing 
whensoever the Lords should have any such 
design. I sent by this express a letter oi credit 
of Mr. Secretary's to Sir William Ogle, desiring 
him with his men to fall into Basing park, in 
the rear of the Rebels' quarters there, betwixt 
4 and 5 of the clock in the morning, being 
Wednesday, the 11th of September" (a 
presumption upon this aid was the principal 
motive for the undertaking, says Clarendon), 
whilst I, with the troops of Oxford, fell on upon 
the other side (by the Grange), and my Lord 
Marquess from within the House plyed them 
with sallies." 

Li the " Life of Colonel Gage" the reinforce- 
ment from Wallingford is said to have num- 
bered 80 horse and the same number of foot. 

"Having despatched this express, and refreshed 
my men, I marched forward with as much speed 
as the foot soldiers could manage (through by 
lanes) to Aldermaston ^a village oat of any 
great road, seven miles distant from Reading,) 
where I intended to repose and refresh again. 
Thither I sent Captain Walters before with his 
Troop, and the Quartermasters of each Regi- 
ment to have provisions in a readiness against 
the soldiers arrived, intending only to refresh 
and rest two or three hours. But Captain 



Walters finding some Parliament scouts in that 
town, forgot his orange tawny colours, and fell 
foul with the enemy, taking six or seven of 
them prisoners, by which he unmasked and dis- 
covered us to be Royalists." 

'' Mercurius" says that the Roundheads had 
come from Reading, and admitted that their 
, object in visiting Aldermaston was to burn the 
prayer book and surplice. One of them was 
killed, and six were captured, together with 
their horses and pistols. The Royalist infantry 
were already so much fatigued that Colonel 
Gage set the example, which was followed by 
the oflScers and troopers, of dismounting and 
marching on foot for three miles, placing the 
foot soldiers in the saddle meanwhile. 

Notice was quickly sent to Basing of the 
approaching danger, which accident made their 
stay shorter at that village than was intended, 
and than the weariness of the soldiers required. 
Whilst Colonel Gage was on his march from 
Wallingford to Aldermaston, the besiegers of 
Basing House were, strange to say, quiet all 
day, but fired ten shots from their cannon 
during the evening. After dark they received 
warning of the rapid advance of Colonel Gage, 
and prepared to give him a warm reception. 
But trusty and tried Edward Jeffery, who had 
carried so many messages to Oxford, was alao 
on the alert, and made his way into the garrison 
with news of the doings at Aldermaston. 
Quickly were beacon fires made ready upon 
the roof of the lofty gatehouse looking north- 
ward, in sign of welcome and of readiness 
to aid. There was, unfortunately, a thick fo? 
rising from the meadows, and scarcely could 
those welcoming lights be seen, even on Cowdry 
Down. Leaving willing hands to tend the mid- 
night fires, let us return to Colonel Gage, whose 
main body reached Aldermaston about eight 
o'clock on Tuesday night, and hadted for three 
hours. " Aulicus " sa3rs that the halt was 
between nine p.m. and one a.m. The ^most 
exhausted soldiers " then set forwards again, and 
marched aU night, arriving within a mile of 
Basing, betwixt four and five of the clock on 
Wednesday morning." The diary of the sieffe 
says, " By seven next morne, the noble Colonul 
Gage with horse and foot paist through so many 
hazards, had obtained Chinham Downe (Chin- 
ham lies between Basing and Sherbom St. 
John), where Colonell Norton with his strength, 
having intelligence, did stand in readiness. ' ' To 



Ludlow at Winchester. 



177 



qaote Colonel Gage once more, ^' Our foot being 
extreamly surbated and weary, though I had 
endeayoored to ease them what I could in the 
whole journey, either by setting them up behind 
the horsemen,or making the horsemen alight and 
the foot ride,or by encouraging them with hopes 
of great pillage,or with promises of money when 
they ret nrned to Oxford, " " Aulicus' ' says that 
the infantry were not only rested, but also 
much gratified by Colonel Gage's consideration 
in mounting them behind the troopers, and were 
now^ again ready to fight vigorously, whereas 
when they first came within two miles of the 
enemy they were falling out and lying down on 
the road through sheer exhaustion. Burton 
8ay8("War8 in England," p. 93), that Col. Norton 
being in readiness on Chinham Down, '^Gage 
makes his approach, appearing first on an hUl 
nsar the highway which leads to Andover." 
To quote Colonel Gage once more, " I was no 
sooner arrived there (at Chinham Down), but 
Lieutenant Swainely met me, sent by Sir 
William Ogle from Winchester, to teU me that 
he durst not send his troops to assist me, in 
regard some of the enemy's horse lay betwixt 
Winchester and Basing, so that I was forced to 
enter into new councils, and call the officers 
together to take new resolutions." It was 
indeed time to take counsel, for both horse and 
foot were already almost worn out with fatigue, 
whilst Norton's men were fresh and unwearied, 
with the advantages of a strong and previously 
selected position, and of '^ a fog so thick as 
made the day still night, helping the shrouding 
of his (Norton's) ambuscades, and clouding 
passes unto such who neither knew nor could 
discern a way, more than their valour and the 
Bword did cut," whilst Gage had now no hope 
of aid from Winchester. The force which 
kept Lord Ogle and his garrison in check at 
Winchester was probably the cavalry, com- 
manded by Major Ludlow, which was principally 
raised in the western counties. Ludlow had a 
few days previously been attacked upon War- 
minster Heath, from whence he made a 
skilful retreat to Salisbury. With 30 horse he 
entered the city, *^ where divers persons, ill 
affected to the Parliament, made a great 
shout at our coming into the town, rejoicing at 
our defeat." Ludlow continued his retreat 
over Mutton Bridge, where he succeeded in 
checking pursuit by showing a bold front upon 
causeway only three feet in breadth, and 



through White Parish to Southampton. Only 
two days after his arrival at the latter place, he, 
at the request of Colonel Norton, marched with 
his wearied horsemen to face Winchester Castle. 
Sir William Ogle, the Governor, anxious if 
possible to assist Colonel Gage's expedition for 
the relief of Basing House, sent out some men, 
amongst whom Ludlow recognised his old 
acquaintance and schoolfellow, Mr. William 
Neale. *^I called to him," says Ludlow, '^tell- 
ing him that I was sorry to see him there," and 
offering to exchange shots with him. Neale 
retreated, at the same time shouting ^* Come on," 
and another Cavalier greeted Ludlow with a 
brace of bullets, one of which wounded his 
horse in the belly so severely that it died that 
night,. whilst the other struck the rider within 
half an inch of the bottom of his breastplate. 
Not long afterwards Ludlow retired with his 
command into Wiltshire, having effectually 
hindered Sir WUliam Ogle from co-operating in 
the relief of Basing House. Colonel Gage 
continues, ^* And because we were disappointed 
of so considerable a party as that of Winchester, 
and foreseeing the enemy might draw to a head, 
having notice of our coining, we resolved not 
to dismember our forces and fall on in several 
places, as we would have done if either the 
Winchester forces had arrived, or we would 
have surprised and taken the enemy at unawares, 
but to fall on jointly at one place. In order. to 
which I commanded the men to be ranged 
into battalions, and riding up to every 
squadron, gave them what good words 
and encouragement I was able, though 
I confess it needed not (most of them 
being so well resolved of themselves) and 
delivered them the word Q St. George '^, com- 
manding every man to tie a white tape, ribband, 
or handkerchief upon their right arm above the 
elbow, which was the sign and word I had 
formerly sent to my Lord Marquis (lest by his 
sallying and our falling on we might for want 
of a distinctive sign faU foul upon each other). 
We marched on. Colonel Webb leading the right 
wing, Lieut.-Colonel Buncle the left wing of 
the Horse, and myself the Foot. (The '* Life 
of Colonel Gage" says that he dismounted, and 
led the infantry on foot with his sword drawn) 
till at the upper end of a larffe champion field 
(Chinham Down), upon a little rising or ascent 
of a hill, near certain hedges lined by the 
enemy's mnsqueteers, we di^vered a body of 



178 



Belief at Last. 



five oomefs (or troops) of horse (very fall) 
standing in very good order to reoeiye as. Bat 
before we oonld come ap to them we were 
sainted from the hedges with a smart volley of 
mnsqnet shot, more terrible than damageable, 
for Col. Webb, notwithstanding, with the right 
wing of mj XiOrd Treasurer's Horse, charged 
the enemy (Col. Gage^s biographer says that 
their strength was six troops, not five) so 
ffallantly that in a movement they all tamed 
head and ran away. Lieut. -Col. Buncle with 
our left wing falling in likewise after them, and 
following tbe chase with the right till the 
Bebels' horse were gotten into a place of safety. 
In this parsoit what men or horse of the 
enemies' were lost, I cannot learn certainly ; 
bat certain I am we took a colour or comet of 
theirs, which I understand was Col. Morley's, the 
motto of which was Non ab Aequo sed in 
Aequo (^ Victory is not by Bight, but in 
Bight'), a motto not so proper to theirs, as our 
cause, the equity of which gave us the victory 
with the true and genuine signification of the 
motto." The diary of the siege says that 
Norton was forced to retreat, " the fogge 
befriending him, serving as covert for his stSer 
flight through Basingstoke." Clarendon speaks 
thus : '* After a shorter resistance than was 
expected, from the known courage of Norton, 
though many of his men fell, the enemies horse 
gave ground, and at last plainly run to a safe 
place, beyond which they could not be pursued." 
" Aulicus" says that the wind was also 
unfavourable to the operations of Colonel Gage, 
who as soon as he approached the enemy ordered 
his drums and trumpets to sound, thinking to 
take the besiegers by surprise. They were, 
however, on the alert, within musket shot, and 
their drums and trumpets at once made reply. 
The cavalry fight lasted not long,but was fiercely 
contested. The rebel horse fled ere long, and 
two troops of the Lord Treasurer's regiment 
then chased five troops of Nortcm's horse with- 
out even firing a pistol. The rebel foot 
fought better, more especially Colonel Morley's 
regiment, but the musketeers of the Queen's 
Life Guard, and of Colonel Hawkins' legi- 
metft beat them from hedge to hedffe, until, 
abandoned by their mounted comrades, they 
retreated, aided by the fog " and a lane of 
which they had possessed themselves." 

Burton, on the other hand, says that when 
Colonel Gage's force was first descried, " Nor- 



ton charges with courage, and breaks through 
the other's horse, who, having a rescue of mus- 
keteers, with more than ordinary valour forced 
Norton to retreat as far as me church and 
through Basingstoke, the same time the 
besieged, sallying out at several places, brought 
in many prisoners." Whitelocke says that 
Colonel Gage had ** about 150(} of the King's 
foot out of several garrisons mounted for 
dragoons." He adds that when the fight began 
Norton charged and broke them, ^*but they 
with great courage wheeled about, and charged 
Norton's whole body, who retired unto Colonel 
Morley's quarters," in the park. 

At all events the Cavaliers remained masters 
of the field, and Colonel Gage now advanced 
with his infantry, sounding his trumpets, to 
give notice to the garrison of his approach. 
The fog began to clear away, and the besieged 
soon found that friends were close at hand. 
Says Clarendon, " The foot disputed the busi- 
ness much better, and, being beaten from hedge 
to hedge, retired into their quarters and works, 
which they did not abandon in less than two 
hours." The garrison also sent forth some 
musketeers, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Johnson (the botanist) by way of The Graujge, 
who beat the enemy from their works, pursuing 
them to Cowdry Down, and from thence " unto. 
The Delve, clearing that quarter, with so small 
defence as is incredible. The passe (bv The 
Grauffe) thus cleared, meeting our welcome 
friends, our joyes are echoed, whilst the sad 
prisoners are led in to see the House they la^ so 
long about, their number 64 common soldiers, 
two sergeants, one lieutenant, whereof the 
wounded were next day sent forth unto the 
care of their own chirurgeons, and," grimly 
adds the Diary, " two that ran from us had 
execution I" 

Army physicians and surgeons received 66. 8d., 
apothecaries 3s. 4d., barber surgeons 2s., and 
under barber surgeons 6d. per diem. '*8ach 
surgeons must weare their baldricke, whereby 
they may be knowen in the tvme of slaughter ; 
it is their charter in the field." For gunshot 
wounds it was recommended " to cauterise thorn 
with the oil of elders, mixed with a little 
treacle." 

"Aulicus" says that in the first enoonnter 
and sortie fully 120 rebels were killed, and more 
than 100 captured, 17 of whom were dangerously 
wounded. The latter ** were dressed in the 



Loyalty House Saved. 



179 



house, and sent oat to the leaguer" (i.e., siege 
works). A writer on the other side says : 
*' Norton had a slight hurt in the hand, and lost 
bnt one man, but the Honse was relieved." A 
loss of nine Cavaliers slain, two of whom were 
officers, is admitted by '^ Anlicns." Captain 
Stnrges was killed, whom Colonel Gage calls **a 
gallant young man of the Queen's Life Guard,'* 
and whom " Aulicus" describes as ** a gallant 
daring young man, who, with Colonel Gage, 
both at the taking of Boarstall House, at 
Abingdon, and here also shewed exemplary 
courage." 

*' Toung Mr. Stonor (of Stonor Park), Cornet 
of the Troop of Wauingford, who gallantly 
kept his colours, though he lost his life," also 
died like a gaUant soldier. The seven others 
who fell were common soldiers. Four Cavaliers 
were taken prisoners, ^'whereof one was Master 
Stanhope, Gentleman of the Horse to the Lord 
Marquis of Hartford, who, engaging himself to 
gain a standard of the rebels, for want of 
seconds was hemmed in, after he had run a 
Captain Lieutenant of their 's through the body." 

Colonel Gage at once placed in Basing House, 
the twelve barrels of powder, which Burton says 
formed manv a horse-load, and the 12cwt. of 
match brought from Oxford," paid my Lord 
Marquess the respects due to a person of his 
merit and quality," and Colonel Hawkins told 
off 100 of his white coated musketeers to 
strengthen the little garrison. "That lovers 
met that day, and blui2ied, and kissed, and old 
grey-bearded friends embraced each other, and 
aye marry pledged each other too ; that good 
Catholic comrades exchanged prayers at Basing 
altar, that brave fathers kissed the wives 
and children they had left shut up in brave old 
' Loyalty,' needs no telliuff. But not alone in 
kissing and quaffing did Gage and his troops 
spend those two merry days." 

A speedy return was made to Cowdry Down, 
and the cavalry from Oxford retreated to Chin- 
ham, under fire of Norton's guns. From thence, 
leaving a force to observe the enemy's works, 
marching to Basingstoke, they took possession of 
it with small resistance (for the Parliament 
Committees who lodged in that town, having 
notice of our coming, quitted the town the night 
before, and drew most of their forces into one 
head, which we broke.) "From thence all that day 
I continued sending to Basinff House as mudti 
wheat, malt, salt, oats, bacon, oheese, and butter 



as I could get horses and carts to transport. 
There I found a little magazine of 14 (whole) 
barrels of powder, with some (100) musquets, 
which I likewise sent into Basing House, and 
thence I sent also 40 or 50 head of cattle, with 
100 sheep." "Aulicus" says that it was the 
market day at Basingstoke, and that Col. Gage 
" brought in 100 cattle, whereof divers were 
excellent fat oxen, as many or more sheep, and 
40 and odd hogs. 

" Whilst these things were doing at Basing 
stoke my Lord was not wanting in himself in 
Basing House, but from thence with the 100 
white coats I left him commanded by Captain 
Hull, and 100 musquetiers under command of 
Major Cuffand, he sallied out into Basiug Town, 
from whence he chased and utterly b^at the 
enemy." The siege works were captured, and 
the church, which had been fortified, was carried 
by assault. 

In Basing Church were captured and sent 
into the houses young Captain Jarvise ( Jarvas) 
and Captain John Jephson, whom Gage calls 
" sons of the two most active rebels of that 
country," and whom Clarendon speaks of as 
being ^* the two eldest sons of two of the greatest 
rebels of that country, and both heirs to good 
fortunes." These two officers are said to have 
been "both kinsmen to Colonel Norton." 
Satirical " Aulicus " is very hard upon Captain 
Jarvise, styling him " Captain Jarvas, son to Sir 
Thomas (who is so famous in Hampshire that 
when any man speaks an untruth big enough to 
be noted, they call it Jarvasing.") 

Captain Jarvise had previously distinguished 
himself at the siege of Corf e Castle. Captain 
Jephson afterwards changed sides, and was 
governor for the King at Bandon-bridge in 
Ireland. One lieutenant, two sergeants, and 
about 30 (33) soldiers were captured in Basing 
Church, the rest by several ways escaping, but 
46 rebels were killed either in the church or in 
the village of Basing. 

During the 18 weeke' siege the Puritans 
claimed to have expended 1500 barrels of powder 
against Basing House. They stripped the lead 
from the roof of Basing Church, "and gave it 
out that the Cavaliers in Basing House had 
attempted it before." So says " Aulicus,'* add- 
ing, " Some conceive the chief receivers took 
two parts in powder and one-third in money, 
which is the usual method of their reckonin^^. 
For the rebeb* soldiers are cozened by their 



180 



Offensive Operations. 



officers ; the members cheat tbem both ; the 
devil cozens all three ; and the Scots tog hard 
to deal with all four !" 

Daring the struggle in the morning, the guns 
mounted upon Sir Richard Onslowe's batteries 
on the Basingstoke side of the House had been 
removed to the works in the park, and, taking 
advantage of this circumstance, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Peake led out some musketeers, who 
captured the works, destroyed the redoubts, and 
fired the tents and huts near HoUoway's MiU, 
** the enemy so hastening from these works as 
scarcely 3 could be made stay the killing. Thus 
might we see at once three of their quarters (in 
Basing, at Holloway*s Mill, and on the side of 
Basingstoke) blaze." The rest of the enemy 
were obliged to retire into the strong fort which 
they had constructed in the park. Lieut.- 
Colonel Peake and his musketeers also brought 
in "a goodly demi-cannon (30 pr.) from Sir 
Bichard Onslowe's works." 

By the time all this was done, says Colonel 
Gage, '^ the day began well near to be spent, and 
the enemy having received some fresh supplies 
of horse, appeared much more numerous and 
gay than in the morning, and made §i show of a 
desire to fight with us again, advancing for that 
purpose over a large champion almost within 
musquet shot of our horse, which stood ranged 
in a field without Basingstoke, betwixt large 
hedges lined b^ me with musqueteers. There 
we stood facing each other, till at last I per- 
ceived our squadrons of horse to grow thin, 
many men stealing privately out of their ranks, 
and both our horse and men extremely tired 
and fasting, I gave orders to the horse to retire 
by degrees and pass through the town 
(Basing) towards Basing House, whilst I, 
with the foot, made good the avenues 
or passages on this side the town, where 
the enemy appeared. And when I understood 
the horse were all passed through the town, and 
put again into their squadrons on the other side 
towards Basing House, I myself, with most of 
the foot, retired likewise through the town 
to our horse, leaving Captain Poore with 60 or 
70 musqueteers to make good that avenue, and 
being come to our horse, I sent orders to Capt. 
Poore (of an old Wiltshire familv), to retreat 
likewise with most of his men, leaving only a 
sergeant at the avenue with 20 musqueteers, to 
dispute tUl we were all entered into Basing 
House. From thence I sent afterwards for the 



sergeant and his men, who all came oft safe, the 
enemy not once attempting to enter into the 
town, but retiring to their quarters not long 
after they had perceived our horse retire." 

Continues the Colonel, '*I durst not lodge 
that night in the town, as well because I saw 
the enemy grow strong, and our men and horse 
extreme weary and fasting, as because there 
were many avenues which must have been main- 
tained ; and I feared our men would quit their 
guards and betake themselves to the houses, 
drinking and committing disorders in the night. 
But the next day early I sent Lieutenant-Col. 
Buncle thither (to Basing and Basingstoke) 
again with all the horse and foot, as well to 
refresh the soldiers as to be sending continually 
all that day provisions into the House." 

The garrison also made a sally into the park, 
and brought off a culverin, " a faire brass gun," 
which the enemy in their flight had abandoned 
near the wood between the House and the 
village, the enemy makin? no resistance. 
Emboldened bv this,' the Cavaliers attacked the 
fort in the park, but were recalled, as most of 
the infantry were busied elsewhere. A sergeant 
and five men were mortally wounded in this 
affair, and the surgeons of the garrison had their 
hands full, many of the troops from Oxford 
having been wounded on the previous day. 
Towards evening intelligence was received of 
the enemy's mustering in force near Silchester, 
and advancing towards Kingsclere. 

** Meanwhile," says Colonel Gage, *^ I spent 
the day in contriving our retreat to Oxford, and, 
sending out several spies to observe the motions 
of another enemy drawing to a head from 
Abingdon, Newbury, and Beading to hinder our 
retreat homeward. 

" And I found by the unanimous relation of 
all mv several spies that they of Abingdon 
(500 horse and dragoons under Major-General 
Browne) were lodged at Aldermaston, they of 
Newbury (300 strong) at Thatoham, they of 
Reading (and all the horses which the country 
could rake together) at Padsworth, places upon 
the river Kennet, over which I was to pass in 
my retreat ; and that Norton with his horse and 
foot was to follow me in the rear whensoever I 
began to march, which he conceived I could not 
do but he should have notice of it. I resolved, 
therefore, in my own breast, without acquaint- 
ing any man, to make my retreat that very 
night, having during the short time I had been 



Betreat to Oxford. 



181 



at Basing House, partly oat of Basingstoke, 
partly oat of Baaing Town, pat at least a 
month's provisions into the Hoase (the coan- 
try people are said to have driven away their 
cattle, and to have hidden provisions on hearing 
of Gage's approach), and drawn in two pieces of 
artillery of the enemy^s (the one a demi-cannon, 
which lay engaged iSetwizt the House and the 
enemy's trenches, neither of them daring 
adventare to draw them off)." An iron cannon 
was at least 9^ft. long, weighing about three 
tons. The calverin and demi-cnlverin were 
each ten feet long. One averaged 43cwt., the 
other 35cwt. 

" But the more to amase the enemy and give 
him cause to think that I thought of nothing 
less than of so sudden a retreat, I sent out 
oerbain warrants that afternoon, which I knew 
would fall into the enemy's hands, to the towns 
of Sherborne and Sherfield, to bring speedily a 
certain quantity of corn into Basing House, 
upon pain (if they refused) of sending them 
1000 horse and dragoons to set their towns on 
fire before next day at noon." 

*' Having thus disposed of all things, and 
being unable to serve my Lord Marquess much 
more than I had done by any longer stay there 
(though by staying any longer I might have 
endangered the loss of the Oxford troops), 
somewhat before night I sent orders to Lieut.- 
Colonel Buncle to retire with the men from 
Basingstoke and march to Basing House, as the 
night before, but not to permit his men to enter 
into the House until further orders. Whither, 
when the men were arrived, I told my Lord 
Marquess of my resolution to depart that night, 
and of the necessity of it, and begging of him 
two or three good guides, which he readily gave, 
(was Edward Jeffrey one of them ?), I took 
leave of his Lordship and began to march away 
without sound of drum or trumpet, about 11 
o'clock on Thursday night, and gave order to 
all my scouts, in case they met with any Parlia- 
ment scouts in the night, they should likewise 
give themselves out to be Parliament troops 
marching from before Basing House to the 
Biver Kennet, to lie in wait for the Oxford 
forces that were to come that way. And thus 
we passed the Kennet undiscovered, by a ford 
near Burghfield Bridge (the bridge itself having 
been broken by the enemy), our horse taking up 



the musketeers en croup ; and afterwards the 
Thames, by another ford at Pangboume, within 
six miles of Beading, about eight or nine 
o'clock on Friday morning, (the bridges at 
Henley and Beading had been also broken down), 
and from thence marched into the town of 
Wallingf ord, where we rested and refreshed our 
wearied men and horse that night, and the next 
day (Saturday, Sep. 14th) arrived safe at Oxford, 
having in this expedition lost Captain Sturges, 
a gallant young man of the Queen's Life 
Guards, young Mr. Stonor (of Stonor Park), 
comet of the troop of Wallingford, a servant 
of Sir W. Hide's, with some others, to the 
number of eleven in all, and 40 or 50 hurt, but 
not dangerously." On Thursday, September 
12th, a Colonel, a Lieutenant-Colonel, and two 
Lieutenants of Foot of Gage's force seem to 
have been captured, but again rescued by their 
comrades. Another account says that Gage 
lost a Colonel, a Major, 100 killed, and many 
prisoners. Some of his scouts were captured 
during his masterly retreat. Colonel Gage con- 
tinues : ^' What loss the enemy had we cannot 
yet learn, (his biographer estimates the Puritan 
loss at six score slain, and from 100 to 150 taken 
prisoners), but we took about 100 prisoners of 
them. And thus, my Lord, to comply with the 
order I received, I have troubled your Lordship 
with a tedious relation, for which I humbly beg 
your pardon, and the honour to be esteemed, 
My Lord, your Lordship's 

Most humble Servant, 

Henry Gage. 
Oxford, this 16th of September, 1644." 
All Oxford turned out to greet the returning 
deliverers of Loyalty House, and many were 
the eyes that looked eagerly for noble Colonel 
Gage. But they looked in vain. Wishing not 
for the applause of the multitude, and satisfied 
with having done his duty, he turned his horse's 
head into a back street, and rode quietly away 
unnoticed to his quarters. Wherever we meet 
with Colonel Gage we always find cause to 
admire him, and in concluding this account of 
the relief of Basing House we fully endorse 
these words, penned full two centuries since : — 
" I say you must needs grant the whole action 
to have been, for wise conduct, gallant and 
skilfal manage, the most souldier-like pieoe 
these Warres have ever yet afforded I" 



Chapter XXV. — Fiqht in Basing Village — ^Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson — Renewed 
Blockade — Attack on the Church — G-atherino Armies — The King's Advance — 
Andover Fight — Rendezvous at Basing — Welcome Supplies — Gage's Second Relief 
The Siege Raised. 



In order to still farther conceal his retreat 
Colonel Gage had given orders that the next 
morning a letter shonld he sent to Colonel 
Norton, offering to ezchanf^e Captain Jephson 
for Captain Love, which was accordingly done. 
The exchange was effected by noon, and the 
enemy then discovered too late that the 
relieving force was beyond their reach. Captain 
Love's family resided at Basing (Woodward's 
"History of Hampshire"). As we here see, he 
was a Royalist, bnt his relative Nicholas Love 
was a member of the Committee of Parliament 
for Hampshire. Verily, houses were divided in 
those days ! 

Numerous Hampshire recruits were now 
joining the forces of the Parliament, but Col. 
Ludlow, having first duly notified his intention 
to Colonel NoHon, withdrew his command from 
Winchester to Salisbury. On reaching the 
latter city he called for a list of the principal 
adherents of the King residing there, whom he 
ordered to pay the sum of 500^. The citizens 
made many excuses, but Ludlow secured 2002. 
and quarters for his men, after which he himself 
went to London to recruit and procure arms. 

On Friday, September 14th, Colonel Norton 
did not venture to re-occapy the village of 
Basing, but kept his men shut up in their 
strong fort in the park. All the carts belong- 
ing to the garrison were busily employed in 
carrying com and provisions from the village to 
Basing House, under the protection of 100 
musketeers, commanded by Captain Fletcher. 
Towards evening, when, as ^' Aulicus" confesses, 
the Cavaliers " were drinking in the town, and 
in no good order," Colonel Norton in person 
headed an unexpected attack. Making a cir- 
cuit, he fell upon Captain Fletcher's party in 
the church-yard "before the horse centinelki 



could give timely notice to the officers to draw 
all the soldiers into a body," and drove the 
Cavaliers from the church. Reinforcements 
speedily arrived from the house under the com- 
mand of the field officers, and " one hour*s very 
shaip fight followed," at the end of which time 
the besiegers were driven from the church and 
retreated " to their onely work in Basing Park," 
with a loss of either 16 or 32 men kiUed on the 
spot and in the pursuit, very many wounded, 
and eleven prisoners. 

Captain John Jephson, who had been 
exchanged on the previous day for Captain 
Love, ** led on the rebels' van, where Captain 
Love made haste to meet him, but Jephson, 
though wounded, retreated too fast towards 
Colonel Norton, who valiantly brought up their 
rear, and came, good gentleman, almost to the 
churchyard, where, being minded of his grave, 
he was the first man that ran away." (" Mer. 
AuL," Sept 14th). Clarendon, however, speaks 
of " the known courage of Norton." Some 
arms were picked up by the victors, who lost 
one ensign and two (4) common soldiers killed, 
six (7) wounded, four mortally, and eight 
prisoners. " Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson, 
Doctor of Physique (the best herbalist in 
England), was here shot in the shoulder, 
whereby contracting a fever he died a fort- 
night after, his worth challenging funeral! 
tears, being no less eminent in the garrison 
for his valour and conduct as a soldier than 
famous through the kingdom for his excellency 
as an herbarist and physician." He was, there 
is reason to believe, in the meridian of life. 
Woodward says, '* Thomas Johnson, of Hull, a 
London apothecary, May 9, 1643, made an 
honorary M.D. of Oxford. His itinerary 
through Bristol, Southampton, the Isle of 



Renewed Blockade. 



183 



Wight, and Guildford, was published under 
the title of ' Mercurius Botanicus.' At Basing 
he served as Lieutenant-Colonel to Sir Marma- 
dnke Bawdon, the Governor/* 

In the 1662 edition of the '' Worthies of Eng- 
land," p. 204, we are told : — ** Thomas Johnson 
was bom in this county of Yorkshire, not far 
from Hull, bred an apothecary in London, where 
he attained to be the best herbalist of his age 
in England, making additions to the edition of 
Gerard. A man of such modesty that knowing 
BO much he would own the knowledge of 
nothing. The University of Oxford bestowed 
on him the honorary degree of doctor in physic, 
and his loyalty engaged him on the King's side 
ia our late civil warre. When in Basing House 
a dangerous piece of service was to be done, 
thiB doctor, who publickly pretended not to 
valour, undertook and performed it. Yet 
afterwards he lost his life in the siege of the 
same House,and was, to my knowledge, generally 
lamented of those who were of an opposite 
judgment. But let us bestow this epitaph 
upon him : — 

^ Hie Johnaone jaoet, sed si mors oederet her bis, 
Arte fiigata toa cederet ilia snis.' 
' Here Johnson lies, could phvsioke fence death*8 dart, 
Sure death had been deolined by his art," 

(Fuller.) 
" Jaoet" would seem to be an error for ^ jaoes." 

During the whole of the following week the 
garrison maintained their hold upon Basing, 
fetched in provisions, and destroyed hostile 
batteries and fortifications, without the least 
resistance. 

On Friday, September 19th, it was ordered 
** that the horse which are now under the com- 
mand of Colonel Norton shall advance into 
some other places of the kingdom for the service 
of the State, as it shall please the Committee of 
Both Kingdoms to give directions.*' 

The gallant defence of ''Loyalty" or "Basting' ' 
House was widely known, and Sir Edward 
Walker writes as follows from Exeter on Sept. 
20th : — " And now it will be fit to observe tne 
pliant behaviour of His Majesty's garrisons of 
Banbury, Basing, &c." 

Things now went on much as before, except 
that no bombardment took place, and the siege 
assumed rather the character of a blockade. 

By September 23rd some weeks' provisions 
had been brought in. The enemy on this day 
attacked the guard at Basing, which, being few 
in number, was obliged to retire. The enemy 



having re-occupied the church, once more con- 
fined the garrison withm the house, and 
exchanged two gentlemen belonging to Colonel 
Gage's force who had been captured near 
Beading for three of their own comrades. 

Next day (September 24th) a score of fat 
hogs are seen on Cowdry Down, and are fetched 
in by the infantry, a party of cavalry which 
had been sent out by way of the Grange pro- 
tecting the foot meanwhile. The enemy's 
picqnets were driven in, and fell back on the 
guard posted near Basingstoke. Five troops of 
cavalry quickly issued from the town, and the 
Cavaliers retired in good order until a body of 
Boyalist musketeers, who had previously lined 
a hedge, checked the pursuit by a well-directed 
volley. Much ado about a few pigs. 

On the following day there was a similar 
skirmish, and the garrison succeeded Id destroy- 
ing the hostile battery at the Delve on Cowdry 
Down, and took possession of the planks and 
timber. The same day a Committee of the 
House of Commons was appointed to settle a 
controversy which had arisen, Sir John May- 
nard and Colonel Jones, Governor of Famham 
Castle, being vehemiently accused, by the Parlia- 
mentarian Committee for Surrey. Colonel 
Jones seems to have been generally successful 
in quarrelhng with some one. Sir Richard 
Onslowe was thanked for raising men for the 
defence of Surrey and to besiege Basing House, 
and the county of Surrey was ordered to con- 
tinue to maintain his forces. Two hostile 
accounts state that on Thursday, September 
26th, the besiegers " took an outwork with a 
captain and twenty-eight (30) soldiers who 
defended it," but no mention is made of this 
disaster in the '^ Diary of the Siege," from which 
we learn that on Friday, September 27th, the 
Boyalist horse were once more on Cowdry 
Down engaging the attention of the enemy, 
whilst others carried off six of the Puritan 
infantry close to the works m ** the park lane 
towards Basingstoke," together with a water 
leveller employed to draw off the waters of the 
Loddon. Colonel Morley himself narrowly 
escaped capture. The Roundhead foot tried tno 
cut off the retreat of the Cavalier horse, but 
were driven back by some musketeers previously 
placed in ambush. An hour afterwards Colonel 
Norton sent in a message by a drum, asking that 
a day might be fixed for the exchange of 
prisoners, which was accordingly done. The 



184 



Attack on the Cuubch. 



diary continues: ^^The stage of Cowdrey 
fornished again with actors, a coronet (cornet), 
and three more of their's are killed, and one of 
oars. At night, the morrow being a fair at 
Basingstoke, six foot with pistol and brown 
bill are sent to try the market, and four miles 
off at a Committee-honse finding to serve their 
tarn, from thence bring in 23 head of cattle by 
the Delve, which pass onr daily skirmishing 
kept free." 

On the last day of September the garrison 
received information that the enemy's working 
parties, who were engaged in fortifying the 
church, sometimes kept but a careless guard, 
whereupon Major Cuff and, with a hundred mus- 
keteers, was sent to take possession of the 
church. The storming party captured a battery 
close by, but had no means wherewith to force 
an entrance. The enemy rallied in force, and 
Major Cuffand was beaten back, with the loss 
of a sergeant and six men wounded, most of 
them mortally. The defenders had an ensign 
and some others slain. 

The first days of October saw the Earl of 
Manchester still lingering at Reading, whilst Sir 
William Waller's army was at Salisbury, Dor- 
chester, Shaftesbury, and We3rmouth, with a 
view of checking the march towards Oxford of 
the King, who, on October 2nd, had reached 
Sherborne on his return from Cornwall. The 
infantry, under the Earl of Essex, were quar- 
tered in Portsea Isle, at Southampton, and in 
the Isle of Wight. Six thousand arms and 
thirty waggon loads of doth had reached 
Portsmouth, and the Earl was asking for further 
supplies of necessaries, to be sent him with all 
Bpeed. He himself was constantly journeying 
to and fro between Southampton and Ports- 
mouth, as necessity required, and was exceed- 
ingly anxious to force the King's army to fight. 
Colonel Butler was committed to the Tower on 
October 1st, and on the same day it was reported 
that the breaches already made in Basing 
House were becoming larger, that the besieged 
had plenty of ammunition, but that provisions 
were by no means abundant. 

The 2nd of October saw Captain Rosewell, 
who had been released from his loathsome 
prison at Famham, and Captain Bigby sent to 
treat for an exchange of prisoners, hostages 
having been given for their safe return. The 
same night M. Greaves, the brother of Colonel 
Qrdaves, whose capture we have already 



described, and Captain Jarvis were released, and 
the next day two lieutenants and divers more 
in exchange for Captain Bowlett (the scrivener 
who lived next door to the sign of the George 
at Holbom Conduit, a near neighbour of Lieut.- 
Colonel Peake, a superstitious, cringing malig- 
nant), a lieutenant, and two of the three 
sergeants lost at Odiham. The lieutenant was 
Lieutenant Ivory, *' sometime a citizen of 
London." Some days afterwards Cornet 
Bryan received glad welcome back again, 
together with three gentlemen of Colonel 
Gage's force who had been captured, and with 
Comet Bryan had been released to Oxford. 

Pass two days more, and the cavalry on 
both sides exchanged pistol shots on Cowdry 
Down, the enemy having the advantage of 
numbers, and the garrison that of a hedge 
lined with musketeers. The odds were on the 
side of the Cavaliers, *^and three or four of 
theirs were daily carried off, we all the while 
(this and the eight days following) losing one 
horse and two foot soldiers. At night (Oct. 
4) send forth our chapmen well famished, 
and good market folks ; in five hours' time 
return again with 25 beasts, under the noses of 
their sentinels, some musketeers of ours lying 
abroad for their protection." 

On October 4th the foes of Basing reported 
the garrison to be losing heart on account of 
the delay in the King's advance out of the 
West to their relief, and " Mercurius Aulicns" 
tells us that on the next day the Derby Hooae 
Committee had sent orders to the Committee 
at Basing to give continual alarms, as the 
garrison was in great want of match. Mr. 
Money says, **The Derby House Committee 
consisted for the English Parliament of seven 
selected Peers and fourteen selected Commoners. 
Essex, Manchester, Waller, and Cromwell were 
of the English part of this Committee. Derby 
House, Cannon-row, Westminster, being the 
meeting place of the Committee, it received 
the name of the * Derby House Committee.' ** 

The Earl of Manchester wrote from Reading 
on October 3rd, saying that he had sent four 
troops of horse to Basmg at the earnest reqaest 
of the Committee for Hampshire, and from the 
4th until the 9th of the month he was without 
sacoete, endeavouring to compel the etirrender 
of stoutly defended Donnin^fton Castle, near 
Newbury. Failing in this object, he returned 
to Beadmg. 



/ 



/ 



Gathering Armies. 



185 



On October 4th Lieut.-General Cromwell 
obtained for his regiment 300 pairs of pistols 
with holsters, 140 heads, 140 backs, and 140 
breasts, at a cost of 680Z. lOs. ; and on the same 
day the Earl of Essex was ordered to receive 
" from, the Tower Wharf two brass demi-cnl- 
verins, four brass sacres, and two 61b. bnliet 
drakes." In contrast to this, it was ordered on 
October 5th that " Lient.-Colonel Boe do 
deliver to the Committee of the West 500 
Danish forks, clubs, or roundheads taken on 
board the Danish ship," of whose detention at 
Portsmouth previous mention has been made. 
On the same day a month's advance of pay was 
made to the Waggon>Master-General for 200 
honses and 64 drivers for the train of artil- 
lery. Each horse was to cost Is. 3d. per diem, 
each man Is. 6d., and the total cost was to be 
17 L 6s. per diem. 

On October 4th Mr. Lisle, M P. for Win- 
chester, was ordered to bring in an ordinance 
for the felling of 20001. worth of wood belonging 
to various Royalist delinquents in Hants and 
Sussex. No timber trees were to be felled, 
except at a reasonable time. The Governor of 
Portsmouth was directed to raise the strength 
of his garrison by recruiting to 1000 infantry, 
arranged in seven companies. The Earl of 
Essex, having received 6000 stand of arms, was 
ordered to deliver to the Garrison of Ports- 
month 300 snaphance muskets, 200 muskets, 100 
pikes, 500 bandoliers, 60O swords, 12 drums, 12 
halberts, and some partizans, the Parliament 
undertaking to make good these weapons 
to him, if necessary. The Committees for 
Sussex and Hants were ordered to raiee and pay 
a troop of 100 well armed horse, who were to 
garrison Portsmouth and to defend these two 
counties. 

The Earl of Manchester's army was mean- 
while waiting for orders at Beading. Major- 
Qeneral Laurence Crawford, who held a com- 
mand nnder the Earl of Manchester, and who 
charged Cromwell with cowardice, had made a 
garvey of Basing House, and was expressing his 
hope of speedily reducing it, if he were but 
lemfoTced by a thousand men. There was no 
good feeling between Cromwell and Crawford, 
for *^ tiie regiments of Colonels Pickering and 
Montague are mentioned in chief among those 
that on CromweU's instigation absolutelt 
refused orders fit>m Major-General Crai¥f ord.^* 
On October 8t3i, the Kin^ was Only five miles 



distant from Shaftesbury, marching eastward 
with 12,000 horse and foot, according to his 
opponents, or with 5500 foot and 4000 horse, 
according to Clarendon, causing Waller to fall 
back from Shaftesbury to Salisbury. Colonel 
Dalbier, the future besieger of Basing House, 
was at Blandf ord with his command. The Earl 
of Manchester was daily expected to march from 
Beading to effect a junction with Sir William 
Waller. Lieut.-General Cromwell was near 
Marlborough with Manchester's cavalry. These 
troopers were on the left of the Parliamentarian 
army at Marston Moor. ** They were raised out 
of the associated counties of Bedford, 
Cambridge, Suffolk, Buckingham, &c., com- 
monly called the Eastern Associates, and both 
for arms, men, and horses the completest 
regiments in England. They were more com- 
pletely at the command of Colonel Cromwell, 
then Lieutenant-General, an indefatigable com- 
mander, and of great courage and conduct." 

In a " Staiement by an Opponent of Crom- 
well" we read : — 

" Colonel Fleetwood's regiment, with his 
Major Harrison, what a cluster of preaching 
officers and troopers there is. Other regiments, 
* most of them Independents, whom they call 
godly, precious men, indeed, to say the truth, 
almost all our horse be made of that faction.' 
Colonels Montague, Bussell, Pickering, and 
Bainsborough's regiments, all of them professed 
Independants, entire." 

The 4000 infantry commanded by Essex, at 
Portsmouth, were already mostly re-clothed and 
armed, but in the army of the King, who was 
at Blandf ord on October 11th, ana who was 
said by Waller to contemplate marching through 
Winchester or Newbury, to Oxford, there was 
much sickness, and desertions were numerous, 
especially amongst the Cornishmen, who did not 
care to fight at so great a distance from their 
homes. 

On October 9th the Committee at Basing 
wrote to the House of Commons asking that 
reinforcements of infantry might be sent thither, 
either by Manchester or Essex. The letter was 
referred to the Committee of Both Kingdoms, 
and Waller, Essex, and Manchester were, on 
October 15th, ordered to unite their forces, a 
plan previously sugg^ested by Essex, and Basing 
was named as the rendezvous of the armies. 

Clarendon says that the King '^ was now most 
intent to return into his winter quarters at 



186 



The Kinq*s Advance. 



Oxford, which was all he could propose to him- 
self ; in which he expected to meet with all the 
obstructions and ^ifficol ties his enraged enemies 
could lay in his way. He knew well that 
Waller was even then ready to come out of 
London, and that Middleton (an old foe to 
Basing) was retired from Tiverton to join him ; 
that they had sent to the Earl of Manchester to 
march towards the West with his victorious 
army. So that if he long deferred his march he 
must look to fight another battle before he 
could reach Oxford. His Majesty had a great 
desire in his march to Oxford to relieve Ben- 
nington Castle and Basing, which was again 
besieged by almost the whole army of the 
enemy." 

Such was the posture of affairs, according to 
Clarendon (Bk. viii.), at the end of September, 
1644. 

It was time to help Basing once more, as we 
see from the following letter from the King to 
Prince Rupert : — 

"Nephew, — I am advertised by a despatch 
from Secretary Nicholas that the Governors 
of Banbury, Basing, and Donnington Castle 
must accommodate, in case they be not relieved 
within a few days. The importance of which 
places, and consequently (illegible) hath made 
me resolve to begin my march on Tuesday 
towards Salisbury, where Prince Rupert may 
rely upon it the King of England shall be, God 
willing, on Wednesday next, where I will desire 
Prince Rupert to come with what strength of 
horse and foot you can, and the two demi- 
cannon (30 pounders), many of mv men being 
unarmed. I have sent to Bristol tor muskets, 
which I desire Rupert to speed to me. I desire 
to hear daily from you, and particularly when 
you will be with me, and which way you will 
march, and how strong you can come to 
"Your loving uncle and most faithful friend, 
" Blandford, llthOct., 1644. Charles R." 
Prince Rupert had, on October 5th, left the 
King for Bristol, and the latter had promised 
not to engage until the Prince returned to him 
with reinforcements of Gerrard's and Lang- 
dale's troops. Desertions, sickness, want of pay, 
food, shoes, and stockings thinned the ranks of 
the Royal army, which was obliged to make 
frequent halts in order to secure the payment 
of forced contributions, so that the King did 
not reach Salisbury until October 15th. He 
here received information that Waller lay at 






Andover with his troops, that Manchester was 
advanced as far as Reading with 5000 horse and 
foot and 24 pieces of ordnance, that the Liondon 
Trained Bands, consisting of the red and blue 
regiments of the City of London, the red regi- 
ment of Westminster, the yellow regiments of 
Southwark and the Tower Hamlets, making in 
all about 5000 men, commanded by Sir James 
Harrington, were beginning their march to him, 
and that 3000 of the horse and foot of the 
Earl of Essex's army were near Portsmouth, 
expecting orders to join with the rest. Prince 
Rupert was unable to meet the King at Salis- 
bury, and, after a halt of three days, the Royal 
army was again on the march. Instead of pro- 
ceeding directly to Oxford and relieving Basing 
House and Donnington Castle on his way 
thither, the King, over-persuaded by Lord 
Goring, determined to attack Waller, who, 
with three thousand horse and dragoons, 
had occupied Andover, at a considerable distance 
in advance of the supporting army of the Earl 
of Manchester. He had marched thither from 
Salisbury, through Winterboume Stoke, from 
which village he wrote a letter on October 14th, 
stating that the King was advancing towards 
him. Essex, Waller, and Manchester held a 
Council of War on October 12th, at Basing- 
stoke, and on the evening of the following day, 
which was Sunday, four regiments of the London 
Brigade reached the town, the fifth being left 
to garrison Reading. Waller returned to his 
troops at Winterboume Stoke, near Amesbury, 
at which place he still was on October 15th, and 
from whence he fell back upon Andover. He, 
together with Lieutenant General Middleton, 
hoped by thus retreating to gain time, so that 
Essex's recruited, re-clothed, and re-armed 
troops might be able to effect a junction with 
the army of Manchester. Sir Arthur Haslerig 
was still serving under his old commander 
(Waller), and Lord Hopton was near Bristol. 
A critic unfriendly to the King observes, *^ when 
haste is in the saddle, repentance is in the 
crupper.'' Daily skirmishes took place between 
the King's forces and Waller's rear guard, but 
on October 14th Lieutenant-General Cromwell 
reached Reading from the siege of Banbury 
with a detachment of horse, and two days after- 
wards Manchester at length marched in bad 
weather with his infantry and 32 guns towards 
Newbury and Basingstoke, which he reached on 
the following day, lus intention being " to have 



Rendezvous at Basing. 



187 



onr foot to be betwixt Newbury and Basing- 
stoke, and there to meet with oar Lord General 
(Essex)." He sent on most of his horse, under 
Cromwell, to reinforce Waller, but it was after- 
wards made a matter of accusation against him 
that he had not joined Waller with his whole 
force instead of marching to Basing. At Basing 
he met " Sir Archibald Johnston, of Warriston, 
and Mr. John Crewe, sent by the Committee of 
Derby House to attend the movements of the 
Generals and to stimulate them." 

TheParliamentarian Committee atBasingstoke 
made on October 14th an earnest appeal for 
reinforcements, and two days afterwards Mr. 
Boyce, the Lord General's messenger, carried 
orders to the Earl of Manchester to send forces 
to Basing " for the reducing of that garrison, 
which is a service of very great concernment." 
Manchester answered this letter on October 19th, 
reporting his arrival with his army at Basing- 
stoke. He was now so anxious to fight that the 
Commissioners, in company with Sir W. Balfour, 
Major-General Skippon, and other of&cers, 
selected the positions to be taken up by the 
several regiments in the event of a battle. 

The Earl of Essex at Portsmouth was now 
again ready to take the field. Some of his men 
were " sea and weatherbound " in the Isle of 
Wight, where Sir Gregory Norton and other 
good people were doing them much kindness, 
and boats were sent to fetch them on Tuesday, 
October 15th. The Earl of Pembroke had two 
days previously been thanked by Parliament 
for his care of the Isle of Wight, and had been 
empowered to seize any boats ^* upon the con- 
tinent " of Hants for its security. He was also 
ordered, in consequence of a letter written on 
October 14th, by the Mayor and inhabitants of 
Newport, to direct Colonel Came, the Deputy- 
Governor, to repair to the island forthwith. 

On landing on the shores of Hampshire, 
Essex's men marched at once to Titchfield, 
which had been appointed as a rendezvous for 
the various detachments of their comrades 
quartered in Portsea Isle, Southampton, and 
elsewhere. Essex finding that the King was 
advancing with some 10,000 horse and foot, 
sent on his cavalry under Sir William Balfour 
to Basingstoke, whilst he himself followed with 
between three and four thousand infantry. 
Both armies were eager to fight, weather per- 
mitting. The Kings rendezvous was "about 
Andover, and in a heath near Whitohurch 



between Andover and Basing." Some of the 
Royal horse had on Sunday, October 13th, 
appeared on a hill not far from Basing, but 
on their scouts giving timely warning of the 
advance of some Roundhead troopers, they fell 
back in good order. The garrison or force to 
which this adventurous party of bold riders 
belonged is not stated. 

The Earl of Manchester was in charge of the 
train of artillery destined for Essex's army. 
The guns had previously been sent by water 
from London to Reading. Essex marched on 
October 17th from Portsmouth to Petersfield, 
and on the following night quartered his men 
at Alton. The Parliament had now therefore 
troops posted from Abingdon to Basingstoke, 
as well as at Alton, Midhurst, and Petworth, 
and could easily hinder the King from invading 
Sussex, m which county Colonel Temple was 
also raising forces on belialf of the Parliament. 

On Friday, Octobor 18th, Sir William Waller 
was granted 300 backs, breasts, and pots,300 pair 
of pistols, and 300 saddles for the cavalry under 
his command, and was also to be reinforced by 
Colonel Ludlow and Major Dewett, with their 
horse. Bat disaster now befel " Sir William 
the Conqueror," which made him less eager " to 
go a king-catching" than he had previously been. 

The King *' had left all the cannon that he 
had taken from the Earl of Essex at Exeter ; 
and now he sent all his great cannon to a 
garrison he had within two miles of Salisbury, 
at Langf ord, a house of the Lord Gorges, where 
was a garrison of one hundred men, commanded 
by a good officer. The rest of the cannon and 
carriages were left at Wilton, the house of the 
Earl of Pembroke, with a regiment of foot to 
guard them, and the King appointed a 
rendezvous for the army to be the next morning 
(October 18th), by seven of the clock, near 
Clarendon Park, and good guards were set at 
all the avenues of the city, to keep all people 
from going out, that Waller might not have 
any notice of his purpose, and if the hour of 
the rendezvous had been observed, as it rarely 
was (though His Majesty was himself the most 
punctual, and never absent at the precise time), 
that design had succeeded to wish. For though 
the foot under Prince Maurice came not up till 
eleven of the clock, so that the army did not 
begin it*s march tiU twelve, yet they came within 
four mUes of Andover before Waller had anv 
notice of their motions^ when he drew out his 



188 



Andoyer Fight. 



whole body towards them as if he meant to fight, 
but upon view of their strength, and the good 
order they were in, he changed his mind, and 
drew back into the town, leaving a strong party 
of horse and dragoons to make good his retreat. 
Bat the King's van charged and routed them 
with good execution, and pursued them through 
the town, and slew many of them in the rear, 
until the darkness of the night secured them, 
and hindered the others from following farther. 
But they were all scattered, and came not 
quickly together again, and the King quartered 
inat night at Andover. The scattering of this 
ffreat body under Waller in this manner, and the 
fittle resistance they made, so raised the spirits 
of the King's army, that they desired nothing 
more than to have a battle with the whole army 
of the enemy, which the King meant not to seek 
out, nor to decline fighting with them if they 
put themselves in his way. And so he resolv'd 
to raise the siege of Domiington Castle, which was 
little out of his way to Oxford. To that purpose, 
he sent orders for the cannon which had been 
left at Langford and Wilton to make all haste 
to a place appointed between Andover and 
Newbury, where he staid with his army, till they 
came up to him, and then marched together 
to Newbury, within a mile of Donnington." 
(Clarendon, Bk. viii.) 

We learn from Symonds' Diary that this 
battle was fought on October 18th, 1644, and 
that the Eang ^ept that night at the *^ White 
Hart" Inn, at Andover. This writer says, 
" Friday, 18th October, 1644, His Majesty, &c., 
left Sarum and marched towards Andevor. Gen. 
Goring raised a forlorn of horse, consisting of 
about 200 gentlemen, who were spare com- 
manders of horse, beat them out of Andevor, 
took Carr, a Scot colonel, and another captain, 
a Scot, that died, who a little before his death 
rose from under the table, saying he would not 
die like a dog under a table, but sat down on a 
chair and immediately died of his wounds. 
Took about 80 prisoners, followed the chase of 
them two miles, who all ran in great confusion. 
Had not night come so soon it might have been 
made an end of Waller's army, for our intention 
was to engage them, but they disappointed our 
h opes by their heels." 

Waller's men are said to have been routed in 
a lane leadins into Andover, and to have been 
afterwards diased through the town. This 
affair was styled "a fierce alarum." The 



fighting continued for two hours. Some 
accounts say that Waller lost about thirty men, 
others that the Eong and Waller each lost 20 or 
30 men, whilst another chronicler states 10 men 
as the loss on either side, describing the affair 
as being only a skirmish with Waller's rear 
guard. 

It was, however, considered much more serious, 
for Waller at once retreated towards Basingstoke, 
sending at the same time to the Earl of Manches- 
ter to ask for assistance. The latter general thus 
writes from Basingstoke on October 19tfa, 
" Yesternight late I received a very hot alaim 
from Sir William Waller's quarters, that the 
King with all his army was come to Andover, 
and that he was upon his retreat towards me, 
whereupon I drew out my foot and those horse 
that were with me in order to help Sir W. 
Waller, who reached Basingstoke with little or 
no loss." Manchester was evidently frightened, 
and prepared to retreat from Basing. He was 
afterwards charged with having *^ retreated to 
Odiham, out of the way, though he had 7000 
horse and 7000 foot, enough to face the King's 
whole army." Cromwell stated that Manchester 
at this time would have retreated to Odiham, 
leaving the besiegers at Basing House exposed 
to the whole army of the King, if Sir W. 
Waller and Sir A. Haslerig had not arrived just 
in time to hinder him from so doing. Cromwell 
indignantly adds : '* We being at Basing with 
near 11,000 foot, and about 8000 horse and 
dragoons, and the King with not above 10,000 
horse and foot I" 

The Earl of Essex at Alresf ord was promptly 
informed of Waller's disastrous retreat, and, 
says Manchester, on October 19th, *' notwith- 
standing some difficulties, is marched this 
night to Alton." The "difficulties" referred 
to seem to have been some Cavalier horse, who 
were said to be under the leadership of the 
gallant Hopton. A party of Sir Arthur 
Haslerig's regiment of horse, 120 strong, com- 
manded by the celebrated Major (afterwards 
Colonel) Okey, met the King's cavalry 
near Alresford. The Cavaliers charged boldly, 
but ere long fell back upon their reserve, 
leaving a lieutenant, a quartermaster, and four 
troopers in the hands of the enemy. Essex 
then proceeded without molestation to Basing, 
arriving there on October 2 1st. He had two 
da^ previously asked that Colonel Dalbier 
might be sent to him. 



A PUBITAN AbMT. 



189 



On October 17th, being Thnndfty, a litfcle 
after mid-day, the watchers on the towers of 
Loyalty lionse descried the vanguard of Man- 
chester's army marching to Basingstoke and 
Sherfield. Next day some of his cavabT' rode 
op to the siege works, two of them being picked 
off by the marksmen of the garrison. The 
foUowing day (October 19th) eight regiments 
of infantry and some of cavalry, with all the 
baggage and artillery (24 guns), halted and 
fa^d the house for some hours, drawn up on 
the south of Basingstoke. Towards night the 
infantry retired and quartered in Basingstoke, 
most of the cavalry, which all day long had 
been drawn up near Book's Down, two miles 
distant, riding at speed to their quarters near 
Farnham. 

On October 19th Manchester wrote to London 
that the King had halted, " only I hear that 
some of his horse were drawn up about White 
Church." 

On Saturday, October 19th, the King 
advanced from Andover to Whitchurch, where 
he was to remain until his General, Lord Brent- 
ford, who was behind, and the Earl of Portland, 
who had been detained with the siege of Poi't- 
land, should come up with the remainder of his 
forces. Some of the Royal cavalry were only 
five miles distant from the enemy, and the 
Earl of Northampton, with his brigade of 1500 
horse, was sent to unite with Colonel Gage, who 
led a regiment of foot and some horse from 
Oxford for the relief of Banbury, which had 
been basieged for thirteen weeks by Colonel 
John Fienneawith all the forces of Northamp- 
ton, Warwick, and Coventry. Sir William 
Compton had bravely defended the town and 
castle, and the garrison, " though they had but 
two horses left uneaten, had never suffered a 
summons to be sent to them.*' Reduced, how- 
ever, to great distress, these gallant soldiers 
gladly hailed the arrival of the relieving force, 
which completely routed the besiegers. Colonel 
Webb, who had accompanied Colonel Gage on 
this expedition, as he had formerly done to 
BasinfT, was here seriously, but not mortally 
wounded. 

Mr. Money says: ^'On Sunday (October 20th), 
a party of horse was dispatched to relieve Don- 
nington Castle, and returned the next momin|f. 
On Monday night, October 21st, 1644, a spy m 
the service of &e Parliament returned to camp 
with the JtoUowing intelligence : His Majesty's 



army was in Whitchurch all Sunday night, and 
that town was full of soldiers, both horse and 
foot, but their train of artillery was not there, 
only a few waggons belouffing to officers. That 
their train stood on Andover Downes, within 
two miles of Whitchurch, or thereabouts. The 
King was last night (Sunday) at Whitchurch, 
but by some reported to be at Winchester, and 
by others at Andover. The last night, about 
eight of the clock, went out about 4000 horse 
out of Whitchurch to give an alarm, and 
returned this morning about break of day. 
(This was the party which was sent to relieve 
Donnington Castle.) Yesterday it was ordered 
that the train should be drawn up to Whitchurch 
Downes, but was hindered by the wet weather, 
and so staid two miles short. And that this 
day (Monday) the rendezvous was to be kept 
upon Sevenborough (Seven Barrows), the drums 
beat up at Whitchurch at break of day. This 
day, about eight o'clock, there stood at Whit- 
clear (? Whitway or Highclere), a great body 
of horse, as he conceiveth to be 2000, on this 
side Sevenborough. That about twelve o'clock 
there were going to Kingsclere some empty 
carts, accompanied with some troops of horse, 
which carts he supposeth were to carry pro- 
visions that were sunmioned to be brought to 
Donnington Castle. (These apparently were 
the empty carts returning from the Castle). 
That it is generally reported the King quarters 
at Donnington the next night. Carriages were 
warned at Bawgus (Baughurst), and the parishes 
adjacent, to appear this morning at Whitchurch. 
From Newbury that great provisions of victuals 
are made, and all towns adjoining, for the army 
which is expected there this night. That a great 
party from Oxford and Wallingf ord is to be theie 
to meet the King's forces this night." ^("Parlia- 
mentary Scout," 24th to 31st October, 1644.) 

On Saturday, October 20th, the sum of 200l. 
was voted for the defences of Hurst Castle, and 
on the next day 800 suits of clothes and 200 
carbines were ordered for Waller's dragoons. 
Forty loads of cheese, a due proportion of bis- 
cuit, six tons of match, and six tons of musquet 
ball were to be sent to Farnham Castle as a 
magazine for the armies. 

Sir Archibald Johnston, of Warriston, and 
Mr. John Crewe, Commissioners in the Parlia- 
ment's army, reported from Basingstoke on 
October 21st the arrival of the Loi^ Gisneral 
Essex with his army. 



190 



The Kinq Betireb. 



The combined f oroes of Essex, Waller, and 
Manchester, together with the London Brigade, 
at least 5000 strong, under Sir James Harring- 
ton, amounted to 11,000 foot and 8000 horse 
and dragoons, whilst the King had not more 
than 10,000 horse and foot. Nine days pre- 
viously the House of Commons had voted 
20,000^. for the maintenance of the London 
Brigade. 

Essex on reaching Basing approved Man- 
chester's determination to fight, and at once 
sent orders to Reading for the destruction of 
all the bridges over the Thames and Kennet, in 
order to cut off the King's retreat to Oxford. 

On October 2l8t the Parliament Commis- 
sioners stated the King was at Overton. Waller, 
who was now at Basingstoke, had captured two 
captains and divers common soldiers. One 
estimate reckoned the strength of the Royal army 
to be from 16,000 to 20,000, composing three 
brigades. One of these was said to be with 
Hopton at Winchester, the second with the 
King at Andover, and the third marching 
towards Marlborough, intending either to reach 
Oxford or to relieve Banbury. Captain Symonds, 
in his " Marches of the Royal Army," says : 
" Munday, Oct. 21st. His Majesty lay at King 
Cleer (at Mr. Tower's), seven miles from Basing, 
the troop (i.e. of Life Guards) at Newtown 
(between Kingsclere and Newbury), the head 
quarters of the horse at Newbury. This day 
the enemy visit Essex, Manchester, Waller were 
with all their forces, and made assault upon 
Bating." 

On the other hand we are told ''near that 
house they gathered into one body, but 
attempted not the place. Here joined the Earls 
of Essex, Manchester, Sir William Waller, with 
some Trained Regiments of London," and 
according to " Aulicus," of Oct. 28th, " They 
durst not adventure the bruising of their army 
upon Basing Garrison, but left it on Tuesday 
last, after their outguards within half a mile of 
Basing had been beaten up by Captain Markham, 
with a party of horse of the Queen's regiment. 
His Majesty's army being then at Kingsclear." 

A battle being now imminent, several surgeons 
were sent down on Oct. 21st to Basingstoke, by 
the Parliament, and the following day was set 
apart in London as a day of humiliation and 
praver. Cromwell and some other commanders 
wished to fight at once, but the Earl of Man- 
chester decided to march back to Reading, with 



the object of making the attack from the north 
or left bank of the Kennet. The King had 
marched toKing8c]ere,which lies midwaybetween 
Basing and Newbury, with the intention of 
attempting the relief of Basing. But finding 
this position indefensible against an enemy so 
greatly superior in cavalry, he, after one night's 
halt, continued his march towards Newbuiy 
with his infantry and a party of horse. Sir 
William Waller, eager to avenge his defeat at 
Andover, skirmished with the Cavaliers, ''but His 
Majesty facing the Parliamentarians with a party 
of horse, drew off his infantry from King's Cleer, 
and marched to Newbury." Waller was, how- 
ever, not to be denied, and Captain Fincher was 
ordered to push home a charge upon the retirinff 
Cavaliers, which resulted in the capture of several 
officera and 60 men. 

Mr. Money says : " In the year 1839, in dig- 
ging a grave in the nave of Ewhurst Church, on 
the Basingstoke-road, near Kingsclere, the 
remains of twosoldiers, with portions of military 
ornaments, were found at a shallow depth. 
These interments had the appearance of having 
been hastily conducted,and were supposed to have 
been the bodies of officers slain in a skirmish in 
the neighbourhood during the operations before 
Basing." May they not have fallen during Capt. 
Fincher 's cavalry charge ? 

The King having thus departed, Essex and 
Manchester marched on Oct. 22nd from Basing- 
stoke through Swallowfield to Reading. On 
Oct. 27th was fought the second Battle of New- 
bury, which has been so graphically described 
by Mr. Money, to whose admirable work the 
writer is greatly indebted for many important 
facts. 

On Oct. 29th the House of Commons sanc- 
tioned the following scale of daily pay for the 
garrison of Windsor Castle : — A colonel, 22. 5s. ; 
one captain, 15s. ; two lieutenants, 4b. ; two 
ensigns, 3s.; five sergeants, Is. 6d.; five corporals. 
Is. ; five drummers, Is. ; 12 gunners, 2s. ; 12 
matrosses, Is. ; one minister, 8s. ; his man, 8d. ; one 
marshal, 5s. ; one gun-smith, Is. 6d. : one 
armourer, Is. 6d. ;one surgeon, 4b. ; his man, 8d. 
The knapsack was then called a " snapaack." 
" Aulicus " speaks on Monday, Oct. 28th, 1644, 
of " three days' provisions prepared in their 
snapsack." 

But to return to Basing House. The " Diary 
of the Siege" says :— " On Oct. 20th, three foot 
soldiers coming too near to see the House 



Welcome Suppueb. 



191 



reoeiye the cartesy of fetching in, and next day 
by onr foot in ambush in the laiie a oomet of 
Sir William's (Waller) regiment, and two 
dragoons were taken ; our horse from off the 
hill fetch in two straggling foot, at noon some 
regiments of horse and foot belonging to the 
Earl of Essex join to the Leaguer ; their army 
toward evening drawn in Battalia that night 
keep the field, the van near Bookers Downe, the 
battle (ix.y main body) at Basingstoake, and 
rear by Hackwood ; next day marching the 
army towards Beading, the foot by Sherborne, 
and the horse keeping along their left (to repel 
any attack from the King's cavalry)." The 
following day (Oct. 23rd) three more troopers 
were brought in, Lord Winchester's cavalry 
ventaring forth to harass the enemy on their 
march. At night a storm brought down a 
tower, which had been almost destroyed by the 
artillery, upon the heads of five of the garrison, 
killing one, and somewhat bruising the rest. 

Skirmishes marked the closing days of 
October. Lieut. (Captain) Cuffand, with some 
40 horse, checked the besiegers on Cowdry 
Down, wounding five horses and as many men, 
and capturing a prisoner, losing only one man 
himself. Next day he faced their horse again, 
whilst Cornet Bryan, ever in the saddle, with 
some few horse, carried off a load of corn driv- 
ing near to their guard, "and riding through 
the garrison from off the 6ther side, bring in a 
cart and team passing to Basingstoke." These 
carts were sent out on each of the three follow- 
ing nights, with a strong guard, and brought in 
five quarters of threshed com from Fiat's (t.e., 
Magpie's) Hill, on the other side of the nver 
Loddon, together with 12 loads in the sheaf. 
Fourteen beasts were also brought in from the 
same place. To stop these proceedings, the 
enemy posted a guard of horse and foot at 
the bams on Fiat's Hill, the said guard being 
relieved daily at nine p.m. 

After the second Battle of Newbury, which 
was fought on Oct. 27th, 1644, it was reported 
that Frince Bupert would do his best to raise 
the siege of Basing House. A Council of War 
ordered the three armies of horse to prevent any 
such attempt. The King, having left Marl- 
borough, was expected to head a relieving force 
in person. Manchester accordingly marched to 
Aldermaston, where he encamped in the fields, 
in order to intercept him. At a Council of War, 
** no man speaking so much against fighting as 



Cromwell," it was unanimously decided to con- 
centrate the Farliamentarian infantry at Bead- 
ing and Henley, and the horse at Famham, 
Okingham, Windsor, Maidenhead, and Staines, 
in preference to adopting more vigorous mea- 
sures. On November 6th the Committee of 
Both Kingdoms sent Messenger Bulmer to the 
Earl of Manchester with orders to send the 
City Begiment from Beading to Basing siege, 
relievingjit either by one of Manchester's own, 
or by some other suitable regiment. Colonel 
Ludlow's regiment, which had been cut up at 
Newbury, "being that day on the guard," was 
ordered to be sent at once into Wiltshire. 

The month of November opened with gloomy 
prospects at Basing House. All the beer bar- 
rels were empty, and the stock of bread and com 
but slender. Lieut.-Colonel Feake was there- 
fore despatched with a party of horse and foot 
to Fiat's Hill, which was reached about 8 p.m. 
The enemy's fires were still burning, but the 
guard was nowhere to be seen. Two prisoners 
only were made, and the loading and sending of 
carts to the House went on without interrup- 
tion until midnight. Then some cavalry from 
Sherfield came down the hill, and together with 
some infantry from Basing attacked the 
Boyalists, who lined the hedges, according to 
their usual practice, with musketeers. A fierce 
and protracted cavalry skirmish ensued, but 
volleys of musketry from the hedges turned the 
scale in favour of the Cavaliers. Norton's foot, 
who knew every inch of the ground, fought 
desperately to dislodge the musketeers. But 
being charged by the royalist horse, and a diver- 
sion being made by an attack upon Basing 
Church by a party from the House, they were 
put to the rout, and driven through the river 
Loddon in confusion. Lieut.-Colonel Feake and 
his foragers then fell to work aeain, "and before 
morning carry in 16 cart loads in sheaf; our 
drovers at same time passed through our guards 
eight beasts, and at noon next day some soldiers 
skipping out seize on twelve sides of mutton and 
some pork loaded upon a horse as contribution 
food going unto the church." Short allowance 
at church that day. 

Listen again to Chronicler Svmonds : " His 
Majesty, when he came to Oxford (Satterday, 
2 Novembris, 1644) knighted Colonel Qage 
for his good service of relieving Banbury and 
Basing." An honour well and worthily won ! 
Four days afterwards Colonel Sir Henry Gage 



102 



Prince Bupert*b Visit. 



commanded the Queen's Regiment of Foot, 150 
strong, oat of Oxford at the rendezvoas on 
Bhotover Green. 

For ten days before the 5th of Norember the 
officers at Basing Hoase had been reduced to 
one meal per diem., the soldiers being allowed 
two. Beer now failed completely, and everyone 
was obliged to drink water. The soldiers were 
persuaded by their officers to follow their 
example, and content themselves with one meal 
a day. This was more than one hnngry man 
oonld bear, and at night he deserted to the 
enemy, who were almost inclined to raise the 
siege in despair, and disclosed the necessities of 
the garrison. The deserter's information caused 
the besiegers to persevere a little longer, more 
especially as they had been reinforced from 
Newbury by Colonels Strode and Ludlow, with 
a good strength of horse and some dragoons. 
Colonel Strode was " one of the Deputy 
Lieutenants of the Militia for Somerset, a man 
much relied on in those parts, and of a good 
fortune. No man wished the King's army 
worne success." Clarendon speaks, Bk. vii., of 
his dread of the King's soldiers. 

Colonel Ludlow, whom Carlyle describes as 
"solid Ludlow," was afterwards one of the 
King*s Judges, and succeeded to the command 
of the Army in Ireland, after the death of 
Ireton, on November 26th, 1651. He came to 
Basing with his regiment at the special request 
of Colonel Norton. By way of welcome to 
Colonel Strode's regiment. Comet Bryan rode 
forth on November 6th, under cover "of a fog, 
with a party of horse, down the valley nearly to 
Basingstoke, and carried off three sentries. 
Posting his own men in their stead, he soon 
afterwards took prisoners, without even firing a 
pistol, a corporal and two troopers, who came to 
relieve the three luckless sentries. The same 
night Major Cuffand made a sortie with some 
horse and foot, killed a sentry, beat off the 
enemy's horse, and cleared the road to Piat's 
Hill, sending out foragers, who, however, 
returned empty handed, on account of the 
vigilance and numbers of the opposing cavalry. 
Two desertions from the garrison, one of the 
runaways taking his horse with him. A mes- 
senger was sent to Oxford, but was unfortu- 
nately captured by the watchful foe. The 
weather was '* fair for that season." 

Major Rose well led out the same party on the 
night of November 9th, and having lined the 



hedges with musketeers, was able to keep the 
enemy's horse at a distance. He stormed the 
works at the Delve on Cowdry Down, and again 
despatched a foraging party to Piat's Hill, who 
within four hours afterwards brought in IB 
beasts and six loids of com in sheaf, besides 
sending two messengers safely on their way to 
Oxford. The long nights were now favourable 
to any attempt to raise the siege. A letter from 
the King, in which he declared his intention to 
relieve the garrison '*in spite of heaven and 
earth," was about this time intercepted by the 
besiegers, and certain Cavaliers, who sallied 
forth to obtain some hop-poles for firewood 
'* were so pelted by some of our City forces that 
they left 18 behind, besides that went halting 
Five regiments from Newbury were 



m. 



»T 



ordered to check any effort on the part of 
Prince Rupert to succour Basing. *' which, if 
not prevented, would exceedingly encourage 
the enemy, and be very prejudicial to the pubuc 
affairs." 

Warburton savs ** Rupert appeared before 
the stout old walls on the 11th November, and 
exchanged compliments with the garrison." It 
may be to this period that the following para- 
graph in *' Mercurius Aulicus" (p. 101-2), which 
gives a not over pleasant picture of the con- 
dition of Royalist prisoners, refers : — 

" There was a poor man living near Moor 
Park, whom, when JPrince Rupert was in those 
parts, he commanded to show him where the 
pipes lay which conveyed water to the Castle. 
For this crime they apprehend him, and commit 
him prisoner to the Castle, where they fed him 
with so slender diet that they even starved him, 
and when upon his wife's tears and lamentable 
cries that she and her children were like to 
starve at home while her husband starved at 
Windsor, they having no subsistence but what 
he got by the sweat of his brows, he was released. 
He was not able to stand on his legs, and 
whether dead since we have no information." 

Prince Rupert's stay in the neighbourhood, 
both on this and other occasions, was not of 
long duration, for on the 21st he attempted to 
surprise Abingdon, and on the 23rd entered 
Oxford with the King. 

Upon Cowdry Down Colonel Ludlow's tram- 
peter, or " music," was captured on November 
13th, and on the following day a regriment of 
foot was seen at Chinham, marching to Basing- 
stoke. 



The Siege Raised. 



198 



The 15th brought a trampet from Bir 
William Waller to arrange terms for the 
exchange of his cornet, who had been taken 
prisoner in the lower road to Basingstoke on 
October 20th. Another trampet brought in two 
officers of the garrison that had long been pri- 
soners at Famham. Were these officers 
" Ensigns (Ancient) Coram, son of one Coram, 
a Papist, in Winchester, and William Robinson, 
a Papist, snrgeon to the Lord Marqnesse of 
Winchester," the only two officers captured at 
Odiham on the 2nd of June, of whose release 
by exchange we have not already heard ? For 
these two officers the trampet took out " seven 
of theirs, we taking care to fill their roomes 
again within two hours after, fetch in one, and 
kill two more abroad." Dates are now some- 
what obscure. The " Diary of the Siege" seems to 
imply that the besiegers finally struck tents 
and departed about November 15th, whilst from 
Symonds we gather that the siege was raised 
on the 20th. Clarendon says " the enemy was 
in the meantime marched from thence to Basing, 
which, they thought, would, upon the sight of 
their whole army, presently hav^ yielded, but, 
finding the Marquis still obstinate to defend it, 
they were weary of the winter war, and so 
rerired aU their force from thence, and quitted 
the siege the very day before Gage came thither, 
so that he easily delivered his provisions, and 
retired to the King without any inconvenience." 
Symonds tells us, " Monday, 18th November. — 
The enemy left JJTewbery and marched near 
Basing. This day, Tuesday, 19th November, 
Colonel Gage was sent towards Basing to relieve 
it with 1000 horse." The Diary says that the 
siege lasted 24 weeks. It commenced on June 
4th, and according to this computation ended 
about November 18th. Symonds states that 
Colonel Gage was sent to the relief of Basing on 
November 19 th, and Clarendon says that his 
force was to ** march so as to be at Basing 
Hoase the next morning after they parted from 
the army." " Aulicus" gives the date as Novem- 
ber 13th, the anniversary of Waller's repulse 
in 1643. The question is a difficult one. The 
sight of the whole army of his foes did not in 
the least dismay the ** Loyal*' Marquis. The 
Diary says " their army now again hovering 
about, aKord as sport, each day killing or 
taking some of their carious ones, and seize two 
carts, one with a load of hay, passing too near 
our works.'' 



But help was at hand. In Clarendon (Bk. 
viii.) we read, '* The King had not yet done all 
he meant to do before he took np his winter 
quarters, and since he heard the enemy lay still 
at Newburv, he marched to Marlborough, where 
he found all things to his wish. His heart was 
set upon the relief of Basing, which was now 
again distressed ; the enemy, as is said before, 
begirt it closely from the time that Gage relieved 
it. He had a great mind to do it with his whole 
army, that thereby he might draw the enemy to 
a battle ; but upon full debate, it was concluded 
that the safest way would be to do it by a 
strong party, that 1000 horse should be drawn 
out, every one of which should carry before him 
a bag of com, or other provisions, and march so 
as to be at Basing House the next morning after 
they parted from the army, and then eveij 
trooper was to cast down his ba^ to make their 
retreat as well as they might, and Colonel Gage, 
who had so good success before, was appointed 
to command this party, which he cheerfully 
undertook to do. The "better to effect it, Hun- 
gerf ord was thought the fitter place to quarter 
with the army, and from thence to despatch that 
party. So His Majesty marched back to Hunger- 
ford, which was half way to Newbury." 

Colonel Sir Henry Gage led his 1000 horse to 
Basing, bat found that there was no need of 
sudden withdrawal from thence. Let the Diary 
speak. "The enemy wearied with lying 24 weeks, 
diseases, with the winter seizing them, his army 
wasted from 2000 to 700, fearing the forces of 
His Majesty now moving about Hungerf ord, 
raiseth his leaguer, and at eight this mom drew 
off his waggons and two gunns, three days before 
brought in. The foot at noon march towards 
Odgiham, the huts being fired, and some troops 
of horse left to secure their rear. On whom a 
party of our horse with Coronet Bryan waiting 
their opportunityes disorder their retreat." 

"Next night honoured Sir Henry Gage (the 
enemies' remove not knowne), sent by nis 
Majesty with 1000 horse, brings in supplies of 
ammunition and provision, each trooper in a 
bag bearing his part, having a skein of match 
swadled about his waist, oesides what was 
brought in carts, and staying here three days 
most amply victaalled the garrison, drawn down 
by length of seige almost unto the worst of all 
necessityes, provision low, the soldiers spent 
and naked, and the numbers few, having besides 
our hurt and maimed, and such as ran from us, 



194 



IClUTAST BBQUlBmOHS. 



lost near 100 men by ntknem, and the siege, 
whereof a Lientenani-Golonel (Jchnaon), two 
enngna (one of whom was Amoiy), three 
sergeants, and seven oorporals." It was said in 
London on Korember 26th, that '* Basing 
garrison had neither stockings nor shoes, drank 
water, and looked all as if they had been rather 
the prisoners of the grave than the keepers of a 
castle." 

Some of the warrants iasned by Col. Grage, 
at Basing, on November 23rd, appeured in print 
shortly afterwards. 

One of them thus addresKd, "To the 
Tythingman of Lystomey (sic) haste, post 
haste, horse post, see these conveyed as aforesaid 
with speed," ovders 300Z. to be sent at sight 
from Odiham Hundred in part payment of 
oontribntion money, " Tonr part is 291. 2s. 6d. 
William Gregorie, Constable." Two thousand 
horse and dragoons were to pay an unwelcome 
visit in case of refusal, but in the event of com- 
pliance, kind treatment was promised, and an 
allowance for any cattle previously taken. By 
a similar warrant the Constable of the Hundred 
of Odiham was ordered to send in by eleven 
o'clock on the following morning 100 qrs. of 
oats, 60 qrs. of barley or malt, 60 qrs. of wheat, 
1000 lb. weight of cheese, 1000 lb. weight of 
bacon, and 20 loads of hay. " Your part is 
10 qrs. of malt, 5 qrs. of wheat, cheese 100, and 
bacon 100 lb." The same terms were offeied as 
in the former case. 

It is said that the siege was raised by the 
unanimous decision of a Council of War, Ineut.- 
General Cromwell being specially in favour of 
this measure. Of Basing it was said *' many 
brave sallies were made, and a multitude of men 
they slew, so that it was afterwards called Bast- 
ing House. It was reported that during the 24 
weeks' siege the besiegers lost not less than 1000 
men." " Mercurius Britannicus" is satirical on 
Nov. 25th : *^ But by this time Basing House 
is relieved, and the Winchester Gk>ose proud in 
conceit that his feathers shall not be pluckt this 
winter." Suspicions now arose in Parliament 
of the Earl of Essex "as careless or discontent," 
and on Friday, November 22nd, the Committee 
of Both ELingdoms were asked to give an account 
to the House of the operations at Donnington, 
Newbury, and Basing House. A letter was read 
from the Local Committee at Basing, with two 
warrants annexed concerning the remove of the 
f oroes, one under the hand of the Earl of Man- 



chester only; the other under the hand of th« 
Bail of Manchester, Sir W. Balfour, and Sir W- 
Waller. " For Colonel Norton had writ a letter to 
them that he had receiTed a warrant from a chief 
commander in the army, to withdraw from 
Basing, which was to bun a thing unexpected, 
but yet he obeyed." 

Colonels Norton and Jones " dispersed their 
forces into winter quarters at Fainham,Beading, 
Henley, and Abingdon, whilst the CavaUera 
occupied Basiug, Odiham, Blewbury, and 
Marlborough." Judging by the following para- 
graph. Lady Onslowe must have r^^retted the 
raising of the siege, quite as much, if not more, 
than her husband : — 

" And Basing House now at liberty, when at 
London it was confidently reported it was lost. 
And the Lady Onslow reported that the Par- 
liament had considered their good service in 
the cause, and therefore had given Basing 
House to her husband, and ho^d the world 
should then see them in a better condition. 
But it proved otherwise, he being forced out of 
his Lines of Communication." 

The King, having been rejoined by Colonel 
Gage, reached Oxford on November 23rd, and 
placed his troops in winter quarters. 

No better words can conclude this chapter 
than those which end the "Diary of theSiege": — 

" I shall end all with these observations, viz., 
that seldome hath been a seige wherein the 
preservation of the place more imediatiy might 
be imputed to the hand of God! That the 
souldiers in so lousc s Seige with all the sufiEer- 
ings incident thereto should never Mutiny. 
Nor that the customary Liberty at all our 
Parlyes for to meet and talke wrought any 
treachery, Wants of Provisions alwayes so sup- 
plyed as if by miracle, during the Leaguer; 
wee not having lesse then seavensoore uselease 
mouths, that had reliefe come at the time 
appointed, Waller then hovering with his force 
at Famham, in probability a hazard whether 
thev had releived us, or preserved themselves. 
Or had Norton (able to bring three times their 
numbers forth), when the next weeke they 
came, drawne out Ids strength, or had we not 
got Powder from them, that, by our Releife 
scarse serving till the Seige was raised ; or, 
when we were releived, had they not suffered ns 
to possesse the Towne a weeke, thereout sup- 

glymg ourselves for horse and man, before not 
aving for above three weekes. Or had they 



Thanksoiyimo. 



195 



when we first fetcht com from Piats-Hill, or 
fired or removed it." 

^ Bat €rod that holdeth all thingsm Hie hand, 
appointing times and seasons ; ordereth all that 
tends unto those ends he wils ; in vain it there- 
fore were to villify the enemy ; blaming his 
valor or discretion, or vet to say the care and 
diligence of the Lord Marqnisse Govemonr, the 
skill and valonr of the officers, the courage and 
obedience of the Souldiers (though all these did 



their parts) had thus preserved the place, in vain 
we watch and ward, except God keepe the 
House. Let no man therefore speake himself 
an instrument, onley in giving thanks that God 
had made him so, for here was evidently seen, 
He chose the weak to confound the strong. Non 
Nobis Domine, Not unto us, not unto us O 
Lord, but to thine owne name be all Glory for 
ever. Amen I" 



NOTS.— I^stuni^^ (page 194) Is Um or Uas Tun^, near FeUrafleld. 



Chapter XXVI. — ^Dr. Lewis — Goring in Hants — ^Courtesies of Warfare — Cavalier 
Defeat at Salisbury — ^Lieut.-General Middleton — ^Requisitions — ^A Cavalier 
Plot — ^Isle of Wight Affairs — Goring at Portbridge and Christchurch — 
Ludlow at Salisbury — Death of Colonel Gage — Crondall in Flames — Cavalier 
Baids — ^Waller pursues Goring. 



On Friday, November the lat, 1644, news- 
paper readers learned that a foraging party 
from Winchester Castle had appeared at Peters- 
field, and under cover of a fog plundered a 
Portsmoath road waggon, carrying off the eight 
horses which drew it. On November 14th an 
ordinance of Parliament was passed for displac- 
ing the Rev. Wm. Lewis, d.d., Master of St. 
Cross Hospital, at Winchester, because " he 
hath neglected the government of the said house, 
and adhered to those that have levied war 
against the Parliament, and are enemies to the 
mng and kingdom." Dr. Lewis was a Welsh- 
man, bom in Merionethshire, who was at an 
early slkq elected Provost of Oriel College. He 
was obliged to resign his post and to retire to 
the Continent on account of certain amours, 
but afterwards became Chaplain to the Duke of 
Buckingham, was created D.D., and was 
appointed to the Mastership of St. Cross. He 
accompanied the expedition for the relief of 
Bochelle, and on his return published ** An 
Account of a Voyage to the Isle of Bhe.'* 
He was a staunch Cavalier, and a prebendary of 
Winchester Cathedral. Deprived of his office 
as Master of St. Cross, poverty and exile were 
his lot, until the Bestoration 'sent him back 
again to St. Cross, where he died, and was 
buried in 1667. (Fasti Oxon.) Mr. John Lisle, 
M.P. for Winchester, remained Master of St. 
Cross until the year 1657, when he was called 
by Cromwell to a seat in the Upper House. 

On Thursday, November 2l8t, 1644, both 
Houses of Parliament ordered 500 tons of 
timber and 6000 cords of wood to be cut on the 
estates of Papists and delinquents in Hants and 
Sussex, for the repairing of the defences of 



Portsmouth. The 500 tons of timber were to 
be employed in planking and fortifying the 
defensive works, and the 6000 cords of wood 
were to be sold by the Governor, Colonel Jeph- 
son, to provide money for the expenses of the 
garrison. The local Committees were ordered 
to see that the wood was cut equally in the two 
counties, and on the estates of the proper per- 
sons. No waste or spoil was to be permitted, 
and the work was to be done at seasonable 
times. No young trees or any fit for navy use 
were to be sold, and no timber was to be cut in 
the New Forest. 

Sir William Waller had already sent some 
troops to Taunton in Somersetshire, where the 
Parliament had many friends, and where Colonel 
(afterwards Admir^) Blake was in command, 
and intended to go thither himself with the 
nucleus of an army to be raised for the purpose 
of reducing the loyal western counties to sub- 
mission. 

Clarendon says that the Parliament sent 
Waller out with such troops towards the west 
as they cared not for, and resolved to use their 
service no more. Lord Goring now persuaded 
the King to send him with 3000 horse and 
dragoons, 1500 foot, and a train of artillery 
through Hampshire to Salisbury, in order to 
keep Waller in check, saying also that he 
intended to advance into Sussex, where many 
friends to the Boyal cause were, according to 
his account, ready to declare for the King, as 
were also the Qavaliers of Kent. He received a 
commission as Lieutenant-General of Hamp- 
shire, Sussex, Surrey, and Kent. He first 
I attacked Christchurch, " a little unfortified 
' fisher town,'' but was beaten off with loss and 



Courtesies of Warfabe. 



197 



obliged to retreat to Salisbury, "where his 
horse committed the same horrid outrages and 
barlMiities as they had done in Hampshire, 
without distinction of friends or foes, so that 
tiiose parts, which before were well devoted to 
the Kmg, worried by oppression, wished for the 
access of any forces to redeem them." 

Goring permitted Yandruske, a German of&cer 
who had a command under Sir William Waller, 
to reHeve Taunton, and then, pretending that 
bis friends in Sussex and Kent were not yet 
ready to join him, requested and obtained orders 
from Oxford to proceed to Weymouth. This 
fortress too he lost " by most supine negligence 
at best." His forces, who were generally styled 
^* Goring*B Crew," committed unheard of rapine 
in Dorset, Somerset, and Devon, without 
attempting in any way to harass the enemy. 

Warburton says : — ** I am tempted to insert 
here, as apposite, a very characteristic anecdote 
of this time, told by Sir Richard Bulstrode. It 
riiews the sprightly nature of the subordinate 
part of the war, and proves that even the 
Puritan general could enter into the spirit of 
his former associates. 

'This winter (1644-5) General Goring was 
quartered at Bruton, in Somersetshire, at Sir 
Charles Berkeley's, an enclosed country, where 
the vUlages were thick, and great store of forage 
for horse. Sir William Waller was then 
quartered at Salisbury, in Wiltshire, where the 
villages are thin, standing only in the valleys, 
some distance from each other. General Goring, 
taking this advantage, sent out parties almost 
every night, to beat up the enemy's quarters in 
Wiltshire, which was done with such fi[ood 
success that in a short time we took many 
prisoners and colours, which occasioned Waller 
to write this ensuing letter to General Goring : 

Noble Lord, — God's blessing be on your heart. 
You are the jolliest neighbour I have ever met 
with. I wish for nothing more but an oppor- 
tunity to let you know I would not be behind 
in this kind of courtesy. In the meantime, if 
your Lordship please to release such prisoners 
as you have of mine, for the like number and 
quality which I have of yours, I riiall esteem it 
as a great civility, being 

Tour Lordship's'most humble and 
obedient Servant, 

William Waller. 
A trumpeter (a humble sort of herald iviio 
transact^ such messages between the hostile 



camps), arrived with this letter while Goring and 
Sir Richard were at dinner. ** He had been 
often with us,'* says the worthy knight, *' and 
was a pleasax^t droU, this trumpeter," so they 
told him to wait and he should have his answer 
after dinner. Meanwhile, a party of horse 
return from a foray on the enemy, bringing 
back '* five colours and some prisoners of Colonel 
Popham's regiment." Whereupon Sir William 
WaUer's trumpeter pressed that he might be 
sent back to his general, else probably he might 
find his general ^' a prisoner too." This trans- 
action was followed by a general exchange of 
prisoners.* ** 

On Nov. 22nd, 1644, Colonel Jones, the 
Governor of Farnham Castle, asked for and 
obtained reinforcements from Sir William 
Waller, as 7000 Boyal horse and dragoons, under 
Goring, had reached Odiham. Kent *^ now 
raised 3000 men to oppose the King's march 
into Sussex and Surrey, which was feared." 
Our old acquaintance. Col. Bennet, whose regi- 
ment of horse had been obliged '^ to bear off in 
some confusion " by Essex's cavalry at New 
bury, on Oct. 27th, was now at Odiham, on Nov. 
24th. The King's forces in that town were 
said to number 4000. Four days afterwards 
the armed Cavaliers in Hants were said to be 
9000 strong, of whom 1800 were cavalry. The 
horse were quartered at Basing, Basingstoke, 
Odiham, and at various other places in the 
county. They made continual raids, and had 
threatened to proceed to extremities if a contri- 
bution of 40,000/. was not at once paid. Basing- 
stoke is said to have suffered greatly. Sir 
William Waller sent out a detachment to the 
village of Crondall, near Farnham, which, find- 
ing the Cavaliers to be in considerable force, 
exchanged shots with them, and retired to 
Farnham. Many thousands were said to be 
taking up arms in Sussex for the Parliament. 
Mr. W. Cawley, at Chichester, was exerting 
himself to check the aspirations of the Boysdists, 
and at the end of 1644 it was thought advisable 
to ** demolish many strong houses in Sussex," 
where there was no garrison, allowing the 
delinquent owners to compound. 

After the second Battle of Newbury (Oct. 
27th, 1644), in which his regiment suffered 
severely, and his cousin. Comet Gabriel 
Ludlow, was killed, Colonel Ludlow, at the 
express desire of Colonel Norton, took part in 
the siege of Basing House. After the raising 



198 



Oayalier Defeat at Sausbuby. 



of the siege he withdrew with the greater part 
of his regiment into Wiltshire, as the Com- 
mittee of Both Kingdoms had ordered special 
care to be taken for that county.' A party of 
Cavaliers, nnder Colonel Francis Cooke, had 
meanwhile reached Salisbury, and were busily 
fortifying the Cathedral Close. Early in Decem- 
ber they sent. out a detachment towards South- 
ampton, which was repulsed near that town 
with a loss of 10 men and 12 horses. The 
yictorious Roundheads, following up their 
success, marched on December 5th to Salisbury. 
Their leaders were Sergeant-Ma jor (t.6., Major) 
Duet (Dewett), who belonged to Colonel Lud- 
low's regiment, and Major Wansey (Weins- 
f ord), who was in command of Colonel Norton *s 
horse and some other cavalry. The whole force 
numbered 200 horse and dragoons. The 
Cavaliers, driven out of the town, retired into 
the Close, shutting the gates against their pur- 
suers. The " Angel " Inn, at the Ch)se- 
gate, and the " George*' Inn, at the Sand-gate 
(St. Anne's Gate), were both hastily garrisoned, 
the one by Captain Sturges' troop, and the other 
by Sir John Pollard's troop. The Puritan 
infantry forced open the Sand-gate, and their 
mounted comrades speedily entered the Close- 
ffate. The " George " and the " Angel " were then 
both set on fire, which, ere long, obliged those 
within to surrender, whereupon the assailants 
extinguished the flames. The prisoners taken 
here were Colonel Francis Cooke, Lieut.-Colonel 
Hooke, Lieut. Kelsall, Cornets Bame (Game), 
and Martin. Quarter-Masters Bower, Holly well, 
and Berry (Derry), Master Alexander, a Gentle- 
man Volunteer, and 40 common soldiers. Major 
Bower escaped, although wounded, as did many 
others, in the darkness. All the horses, 163 in 
number, some match and powder, 200 arms, and 
some other plunder were captured. A captain 
and about twenty others were killed on the 
King's side, but only two of the attacking party 
were slain. Capt. Feiler (Fielder ?) ana some 
others were wounded on the side of the Parlia- 
ment. Some of the prisoners were set at liberty, 
and others, both officers and men, took the 
Covenant, and enlisted in the service of the 
Parliament. Elated with success, the victors 
retired with 80 prisoners to Southampton by way 
of Dean House, which was the home of Sir John 
Evelyn. Major Wansey had here found such 
good quarters that he neither cared to give up 
possession to the lawful owner, nor to take the 



heApateld bidding of Colonel Ludlow. Ludlow 
therefore marched to aid in the relief of Tsunton 
at the head of 200 horse, leaving the gallant 
major to take his ease at Dean House. Taunton 
being once more in safety, the forces raised in 
Wilts and Dorset returned at once to their own 
counties. * 

On December 5th a detachment of Ludlow's 
horse was quartered at Petersfield. Other Parlia- 
ment forces were stationed at Arundel, Abing- 
ston, Reading, Henley, and Famham, and active 
preparations were on foot for the relief of 
Taunton. On the next day complaints were 
made in Parliament that the counties of " Surrey, 
Sussex, and Hants, pay not the money due to 
Colonel Middleton," and on December 90th 
the Committee for the West and the Com- 
mittee for Surrey, Sussex, and Hants were 
ordered to meet that afternoon *' about pre- 
paring and furnishing the dragoons ordered from 
these counties, and to send money to Lieut.- 
Gen. Middleton." This officer afterwards 
represented Horsham in Parliament. He had 
been in May, 1641, the involuntary cause of 
alarming all London. " The report on a plot 
was reading in the House of Commons, wnen 
some members in the gallery stood up, the better 
to hear the report, and Middleton, and Mr. 
Moyle, of Cornwall, two persons of good bigness, 
weighed down a board in the gallery, which gave 
so great a crack that some members thought it 
was a plot indeed, and an alarm of fire, of the 
House falling, and of a malignant conspiracy, 
spread rapidly over the town, so that a regiment 
of trained bands was collected in the city upon 
beat^f drum, and marched as far as Covent 
Garden to meet these imaginary evils." Mid- 
dleton at first sided with the Parliament, and 
did good service against Donnington Castle and 
Basiuff House, but in June, 1648, he was con- 
cerned in a Boyalist rising in Sussex, and was 
sent to London under arrest. 

On December 6th, 1644, the Marquis of 
Winchester sent a warrant to the Tythingman 
of Chert (Charte, near Frensham), which is 
described as being a fonall hamlet of not more 
than 40 houses, ordering him to pav up eleven 
months' arrears of the assessment levied QpcHi 
the neighbourhood by the Cavaliers. The 
required amount was 85/. 2s. 6d., and the 
township or precinct was required to pay an 
additional 602. per month for eight montiis in 
aafit.ecn The whole sum of 565/. 2b. 6d. was 



A Cavalier Plot. 



199 



io be paid within 30 dayB, ^* which if yon fail 
to do, you must not expect any favoar, but to 
be left to the mercy of the soldiers, which will 
take yonr goods and destroy youjr horses." On 
Thursday, Dec. 12th, Colonel Jones, Governor 
of Famham Castle, came to London, and reported 
his garrison to be in a good state of defence, 
but he asked for a few horsemen to keep in 
check the Cavaliers from Basing House, who 
were constantly plundering, and carrying into 
the house much money and great store of 
provisions. There was no Boyalist garrison 
nearer to Famham than Basing, and he (Colonel 
Jones) had a few di^s previously sent out his 
scouts, who rode to Odiham, and went within 
two miles of Basing, without meeting with the 
enemy. 

At 8 p.m. on December 1 7th, Harie Barclay 
wrote to the Earl of Essex from Beading,Btating 
that a Eang*B spy had been arrested on the pre- 
vious day, and had confessed that he had formerly 
been a soldier in the Royal army, but was now 
living at Strattfeild Sea (StrathfieldsayeV On 
Friday, December 13th,he was '' sent for oy some 
of the Commanders of Basin House, and 
ordered to go to Beading to find out what guns, 
and how large a garrison there were in the town, 
^* and what horse lay near." He was directed to 
ask for a brewer's house near St. Mary's Church, 
and was told that the owner thereof would send 
to four or five other friends of the King in the 
town to tell them that the messenger had arrived 
from Basing. A townsman promised *^ to be as 
good SM their words." A large force of Cavalier 
horse and foot was to arrive about two o'clock 
in the morning of December 18th, in the hope of 
surprising the town. Several of the townsmen 
bad been arrested, and all the guards had been 
strengthened. Barclay asks that cavalry may 
be sent, as scouts are urgently required. *^ One 
Mr. Bedford" had hitherto supplied intelligence, 
*^ who will be forced to put away his men for 
want of money." 

On December Slst cavalry were also asked for 
at Famham, in order to check foragers from 
the garrisons of Winchester and Basing. Thus 
ended the year 1644. 

On New Year's Day, 1645, Speaker Lenthall 
was urging the Committee of Hants, Surrey, 
and Sussex to more energetic action, and on the 
next day it was order^ that Iiieut.-General 
Middleton should have power ^*to raise the 
arrears due to the troop under his command 



raised by the county of Hants out of the quar- 
ters of the enemy in the said county, and that 
care be taken for the protecting of the people 
of that county, when the forces now there 
shall be drawn away from thence." The local 
Committees of Sussex, Surrey, and Hants were 
likewise ordered to raise 925/. Is. 6d., in order 
to repay certain advances of money made by 
Waller to the troops of horse under his com- 
mand which bad been raised in those counties. 
From some of these loans we can ascertain 
the strength of various commands. In Sussex 
Major Ker, as captain, his commissioned 
officers, inferior officers, and 72 soldiers received 
192/. 3s. as 14 days' full pay. Paid to Mr.John 
Crookshanks to send to him in prison at Bridg- 
water, 20/. Paid Nicholas Roberts, a wounded 
soldier of Captain Draper's, 17s. 6d. 

In Hampshire Captain- Lieutenant Bobert 
Parham, who was in command of the troop 
originally raised for Sir llichard Granville, 
received 117/. lOs. Lieutenant-General Middle- 
ton, as captain, his commissioned officers, one 
trumpet, three corporals, and 80 soldiers received 
214/. lis. Captain Jervoise's troop had in it 
107 troopers on July 6th, 1644, but on December 
12th of the same year he drew seven days' full 
pay for himself and other commissioned officers, 
and 14 days' full pay for two corporals, one 
trumpet, and 40 troopers, the total amount being 
114/. 12s. 6d. In Surrey Captain PaveU 
received for his troop 37/. 10s. 

On January 8th, 1645, Col. Norton was voted 
14 days' pay for Ids regiment, and Sir Walter 
Erie and Mr. Lisle were to decide on the best 
means of raising the money. Colonel Norton 
and all commanders then in London were 
ordered to go to their respective commands at 
once. Two days afterwards 500/. worth of 
provisions were voted for the garrison of Ports- 
mouth at the request of Colonel Jephson, the 
cost being charged against the garrison, which 
was also *^to have all desired clothes." The 
provisions were to be sent from the Isle of 
Wight, concerning which we read that on 
January 25th the Lords sent down an ordinance 
to the Commons ^^ for the making the borough 
of Newport, in the Isle of Wight, a parish of 
itself, and that Mr. Thompson may be minister.' 

On New Year's Day, 164^, Sir Arthur Hasle- 
rig's regiment of horse and the Kentish regi- 
ment of horse had their headquarters at 
Petersfield, whilst detachments were posted a 



200 



JjVdlow at Baubburt. 



Midhunt, Petworth. and Tangmere, near Ghi- 
cheater. They were in great need of reat, their 
hones haying marched hard and &r, in oider to 
eheek the atrocities of " Goring's crew.'* 

On January 2nd orders were gi^en hv the 
Honse of Commons tiiat the bnrden of billeting 
soldiers should be lessened in Hants, and that 
the forces raised in the county, then under the 
command of 8ir W. Waller, should receive 
regular pay. On January 2 1 st, complaints were 
made to the Honse " of many great outrages and 
insolencies committed by diyers Walloons and 
strangers of Colonel Behr's regiment." The 
Committee of Both Kingdoms were directed 
** at once to secure the arms and horses of those 
Walloons and strangers and to discharge them 
of the service." 

On January 2nd Major Philip Lower, who 
was in command for the Parliament at Christ- 
church, heard that a large force of Gorinff's 
Cavaliers from Winchester was only four miles 
from the town. A council of war at once 
resolved that as the garrison was but snudl and 
the town open and unfortified, and the scddiers 
but newly raised, a retreat must be made to 
Hurst Castle and the Isle of Wight. Having, 
therefore, sent away all their ammunition in 
boats belonging to Christcburch, the Puritans 
evacuated the town, pursued by the Cavalier 
horse, but with some loss at length made good 
their retreat. The Royalists soon afterwards 
left Christcburch, and fell back towards ti^eir 
main body. 

On January 3rd Colonel Ludlow was defeated 
at Salisbury. On his return from the relief of 
Taunton to Salisbury he found that a Cavalier 
garrison had been established at Lord Cole- 
raine*s, " at Langf ord House, two miles from 
thence." It consiBted of half a troop of horse 
and 200 or 300 foot, who often entered Balis- 
bury, pressing men for the King's service, taking 
beds, &c. Ludlow, therefore, detennined to 
fortify the belfry tcwer, which tiien stood in 
the Cathedral Close, but hearing that some of 
the enemy were at Amesbury, he sent out Capt. 
Badleir, who was the only captain of the regi- 
ment then at headquarters, to obtain informa- 
tion. Captain Sadler met the Cavaliers at 
Ketberavon, and, contrary to his Colonel's 
expectation, was soon body engaged. Lud- 
low oame in all haste to the rescue, and 
iome men were kiUed and taken on both sides. 
The Puritans retired to Salisbnry, and placed 



their prisoners in the belfry. Ludlow's force 
consisted of between 300 and 400 men, 100 of 
whom were quartered in the Close. They com- 
mitted the fault of "thinking themselves 
too secure in their quarters." As Ludlow 
was reading a letter from Colon^ Norton, 
askmgfor a cavalry reinforcement, a sentry 
gave the alarm, saying that some Cavaliers were 
entering the city. Mounting in haste, Colonel 
Ludlow rode up the street past the "Three 
Swans," but hearing a great noise of horses in 
Castle-street, he returned to the Market-plaoe, 
which he at once perceived to be thronged 
with mounted Cavaliers. Whereupon, says 
Ludlow, " I went by the back side of the Town 
House (Council Chunber), through a street 
called the Ditch" to the guard in the Cloee. 
He there found that some of his men were in 
bed, whilst others had quitted their posts during 
the hours of darkness. Only about 30 horse- 
men could be collected, ten of whom were sent 
with a comet to charge the enemy, Ludlow 
following with ten others, with a trumpet 
sounding in the rear, as if another body of 
cavalry was close at hand. Marching past the 
Butter Cross in single file, the colonel, with his 
men, entered the Market-place, where he found 
his comet fighting desperately. Major Dewett 
was absMit in London. The new comers charged 
the Cavaliers on the left flank and routed them. 
Ludlow, who escaped unhurt, checked hishoree, 
which fell backwards, but he was roeedily again 
in the saddle, and captured in Endless-street 
Lieut.-Colonel Middleton (a Roman Catholic), 
who said that he was In command of 300 men, 
that 300 others would soon arrive, and that a 
reserve of 300 additional troopers, under Qir 
Marmadnke Langdale, who was in supreme com- 
mand, had halted m the outskirts of the city. 
There was now po alternative but to retreat, 
and Ludlow, at the head of 16 men, cut his way 
through the enemy, killing and wounding many 
of the Cavaliers. Captain Sadleir fired both 
his pistols, and then proved himself a skUfol 
s wordsman,as did also MajorDewett's lieutenant. 
Both these oifieers escaped, as did rather more 
than 100 men with their horses, and about the 
same number on foot. About 100 horses and 
80 men remained in the hands of the enemy. 
lieutenant-Colonel Read, Captain Jones, three 
or four "under officers," and a few troopers still 
resisted in the belfiy tower, but the Cavalien 
bnmght a eart laden with c^rooal up to the 



f 



GOSIMO AT POBTBBIDGB. 



201 



door. Those within shot the luckless driver, 
who was hy no means a willing agent in this 
transaotion, but seeing that active preparations 
for roasting them alive by burning straw and 
charooal were in progress, they discreetly sur- 
rendered. 

Colonel Ludlow retreated over Harnham HUl 
through* Odstock, losing the road upon the 
descent of the hill beyond Odstock, the snow 
lying deep upon the ground. He had a narrow 
escape from capture in a lane, but, passing 
through Fordingbridge, reached Southampton 
without further molestation, taking with him 
Colonel Fielding and certain other prisoners. 
His captured troopers were soon after 
exchanged for Colonel Cooke and the 60 
other Cavalier prisoners who had been taken 
at Salisbury on December 5th, 1644, and who 
were still in durance at Southampton. Ludlow 
sent his best men to Portsmouth, and kept the 
rest with him near Lymington and Hurst Castle. 
He defeated an attempt made to sarprise his 
force, and then went to the Isle of Wight, 
where he met with numerous friends. 

On January 7th, 1645, Goring's head quarters 
were at or near Romsey, and on the following 
day the House of Commons heard that from 
3000 to 5000 Cavalier horse were' at Petersfield 
and Petworth, and were threatening to invade 
Surrey. The Kentish regiment of horse and 
Sir A. Haslerig's regiment had marched from 
Petersfield towards the west, and 6000 or 7000 
Cavalier horse and foot were reported to be near 
Winchester, which was Goring's base of opera- 
tions. The Earl of Manchester was officially 
adced ** Why their forces lay quartered on their 
friends near London, and did not remove nearer 
to the enemy according to former directions.'* 

^'Mercurius Britannicus '' said, on January 
10th, '* The enemy are very busy about Win- 
ohester, quartering within four nules of Ports- 
mouth,** intending to take Portbridge. Some 
foragers from Winchester Castle had been 
charged by Colonel Morley's troop, and routed 
with the loss of the cattle which they had 
seised, and of several prisoners. Goring's horse 
had now left Petersfield, and his army, consist- 
ing at 4000 horse, 2000 dragoons, and 1500 
intantrv, which had formerly been commanded 
hy Pnnoe Maurice, was marching towards 
JPoitamouth, where Colonel Jephson and his 
fmrrison were thoroughly on the alert. 



'* Aulicus," on February 5th, said that Goring 
had taken numerous prisoners at Alton, Peters- 
field, and elsewhere, and amongst them Lieut. 
Langley, an engineer belonging to the garrison 
of Portsmouth. Having an iron substitute for 
a lost hand, his comrades styled him " Vulcan " 
and the "God of War,** saying that he had 
made his own hand, but the Cavaliers called 
him " Bunny,** because a namesake of his had 
been executed at Tyburn. He was released on 
parole, which he broke, whilst others observed 
it, and escaped, but was retaken in a house 
near Portsmoath. **A zealous woman,*' mis- 
taking the Cavaliers for Roundheads, told them 
that the King's forces would certainly have 
surprised Portsmouth if honest Lieutenant 
Langley had not made his escape, and given 
information to the Governor. Extremely incle- 
ment weather and otJier reasons made Goring 
retire ere long. 

The Parliamentary forces in Sussex wero now 
reinforced by 1500 horse from Kent, and a 
strong force was also on the march from Read- 
ing to carb Goring*s excesses. His headquarters 
were at Winchester, but some of his cavalry 
were quartered at Andover. About January 
11th he retreated from Portbridge. The 
Governor of Portsmouth, with 140 horse, at 
once went in search of stragglers. They killed 
several, and returned to Portsmouth with ten 
wounded prisoners and about 20 horses. 

The « Life of Sir WUliam Penn '* (Vol. I., 
p. 104) gives us a specimen of Goring's usual 
method of procedure. Penn was then in com- 
mand of a Parliament's ship named the Fellow- 
ship, which had been, whilst laden with the 
Slunder of Bristol, captured by the SwalUno at 
[ilford Haven in the preceding year. The 
Fellowship was of 400 tons burden, had 28 guns 
as armament, and a crew of 110 men. Cap- 
tain (afterwards Admiral) Penn writes thus : — 
"1644-5, January 6th, Colonel Goring, his 
forces came dpwn and plundered the town of 
Gosport ; and about six o'clock at night fired 
some twenty-four (21) houses, and we, and the 
SvnfUure and the Jfary Rose, shot divers pieces 
of ordnance to them." The Swi/tsure was of 
260 tons burden, mounting 48 guns, whilst the 
Mary Mose, Captain Phineas Pett, was of 320 
tons burden, with 28 guns and 100 men. 

Lord Winchester, on January 11th, lost a 
valued and trusty ^e;id by the death of Sir 



202 



Death of Colonel Gage. 



Henry Gage, who had been appointed by the 
King as Goyernor of Oxford, in the stead of 
Sir Arthur Aston. 

The town of Abingdon, which was strongly 
garrisoned for the Parliament, is thns described : 
— ** Abingdon, where a cruel custom had been 
practised of hanging all the Irish without any 
manner of trial, under which notion very many 
English also suffered, a barbarity so common 
that it grew into the proverb of * Abingdon 
law' ! * 

The Goyernor of Abingdon appointed by the 
Earl of Essex was Major -General Browne, of 
whom frequent mention has already been made. 
Heath's Chronicle says that though he was at 
first a zealous partisan of the Parliament, he 
was *' afterwards, when the war was ended and 
the King brought to Holmby, made one of the 
Commissioners to attend His Majesty, where he 
was so wholly gained upon by his princely good- 
ness and yirtues that from that time he was 
wholly changed and reduced from all false 
opinions concerning II is Majesty, and after- 
wards proved a most cordial and loyal actor and 
sufferer for him and his cause." 

Abingdon and its garrison had long been a 
thorn in the side of Oxford, and, with the 
approval of Prince Bupert, Sir Heniy Gage 
proposed to construct a royal fort at Culham 
bridge, to keep the Abingdon forces in check. 

On January 11th, 1645, he marched out of 
Oxford at the head of a party of horse and 
foot. A traitor had, however, given warning 
to the enemy, and Major-Genend Browne was 
on the alert. A sharp skirmish ensued, in which 
Major Bradbury and at least thirty others were 
slain on the side of the Parliament. Of the 
Kinff's forces not more than seven common 
soldiers fell, but Colonel Gage, marching at the 
head of his men, was wounded by a musket 
shot, and died a few hours afterwards. Claren- 
don says that he was shot through the heart by 
a musket bullet, and a third account states that 
he was wounded in the head, " of which he died 
as soon as he came to Oxford.*' *'His body was 
afterwards interred at Oxford with funebrious 
exequies and solemnities answerable to his 
merits, who, having done His Majesty special 
service, was, whilst living, generally beloved, 
and dead, is still universaJly lamented. His 
daily refreshed memory makes me trespass on 
the reader's patience wmi this 



I 



ELEGY 

On the Never-Enough-Lamented Death of 
Sir Henrt Gage, the Most Desired 
G^vemourof Oxford. 
So TifeoB called was, " The world*8 delight," 
And straightway dyd ; The enviona Siatera* spight, 
Still the great favourite : The darling bead 
Unto the Fates is always forfeited. 
Onr Iafe*8 a Chaae, where (tho* the whole Herd fly), 
Thegoodlyest Deer is singled out to dye. 
And as in Beasts, the fattest ever bleeds, 
So amongst men, he that doth bravest deeds. 
He might have lived, h»d bnt a Coward fear 
Kept him securely sonlking in the rear, 
Or like some sncking Colonel, whose edge 
Durst not advance a foot from a thick hedge. 
Ox like the wary ttKIPPOK had so sure 
A suit of Arms, he might (besieged) endure. 
Or like the politick Lords, of different skill. 
Who thought a Sa^r-pit safer, or a Hill: 
Whose valour in two organs too did lye, 
Distinct: the one's in*s ear, th* other's in his eye. 
Puppets of War I Thy name shall be divine. 
And happily augment the number nine, 
But that the Heroes, and the Muses strive 
To own thee dead, who wert them all, alive. 
Such an exact composure was in thee, 
Neither exceeding Mabs nor Mebcuby. 
*Twa8 just tho' hard, though shouldst dye Govemour 
Of th' King's chief Fort of Learning, and of War. 
Thy death was truljr for thy Garrison 
Thou dy'dst projecting her Redemntion. 
What unto Basing twice (successful spirit) 
Was done, thou hast effected here in merit. 
The Bridge was broken down : The Fort alone 
GAGE was himself, the first and the last stone. 
Go, bum thy faggots, Bbown, and grieve thy Ba^e 
Let's thee outlive the gentle grasp of GAGB. 
And when thou read'st in thy Bntannicus 
The boasted story of his death, say thus : 
The Valour I have shewn in this was Grime, 
And GAGE'S Death will brand me to all time. 

Various changes seem to have taken place in 
the garrison at Basing. Cornet Bryan we shall 
see no more at Loyalty House, but methinks I 
catch a glimpse of him as Major Brvan, 
Governor of Wem in Shropshire, from which 
town Governor Eong, sometime a chandler in 
Chancery-lane, had been expelled. A eallant 
soldier ever I Many of our old f riendsi will 
appear again. 

To keep Goiing in check, Waller in chief 
command, Cromwell, and Massey were 
sent westward with 6000 horse, with con- 
siderable success. On January 11th, the 
famous Kew Model Army was oxdered 
to consist of 6000 horse, forming ten regimente, 
and of 1000 draff oons, arranged in ten companies. 
There was to be no Lieutenant-Colonel in a 



Goring at Ohbistghubch. 



203 



regiment of horse. Tlie 12 regiments of foot, 
were each to have 10 companies, and to muster 
1200 men. ^* Each trooper shall receive 2s. per 
diem for his entertainments." Horses were 
allowed to captains and other officers at the rate 
of 28. each per diem. Colonel Rossiter's 
regiment of horse, 600 strong, was to be extra 
to the New Model. Sasscx was to pay 3927/. 
and Snrrey and Sonthwark 2000/. per month 
towards the maintenance of this force. 

On January 15th, 1645, the Parliament had 
6000 horse and dragoons quartered in and about 
Petersfield, in addition to a reserve of 1100 
dragoons. A false report was prevalent on 
January 17th that Goring had surprised Christ- 
church, capturing 80 men and arms, together 
with two guns, but the truth was speedily 
known. After burning either 21 or 24 houses 
at Crosport, he marched westward, driving off 
all the cattle, horses, sheep, swine, and carrving 
away many men out of the hundreds of Titch- 
field, Alverstoke, and Fareham. Colonel Jeph- 
aon arrested a miller, and certain others who had 
been heavily bribed by Goring to put him in 
poflsession of Portbridge, and of one of the 
defences of Portsmouth. Goring having 
plundered Bomsey, " not leaving a sheep or a 
nog," marched into the New Forest, and on 
January 15th attacked Christchurch, which was 
again occupied by Major Philip Lower, and a 
garrison of 200 men, storming it on all sides," 
with about 1000 men. The town was "meanly 
fortified," and Clarendon calls it '*a little 
unfortified fisher town." A townsman, who was 
the first num killed, guided the assailants to an 
open place, xhe town was quickly entered, and 
the garrison driven into the church, the castle, 
and Mr. Hastings' house. Such a bold stand 
was now made that a Major who led the 
stormers fell, together with many of his men. 
Bullets were flying thick and fast, when all at 
once a bright light as of a beacon fire was seen 
in the direction of Poole. This was hailed by the 
hard pressed garrison as a token of approaching 
relief, and a panic seized the Cavaliers, who 
were quickly driven out of the town with heavy 
loss. It was afterwards discovered that the fire 
which did such good service was not in any way 
intended to announce the coming of relief from 
Poole. Colonel Ludlow had already embarked 
his men in the Isle of Wight to relieve Christ* 
church, when he heard of the defeat of Goring, 
who retreated towards Lymington, taking as he 



went all the farmers* corn, and not leaving any 
for seed, so that the wretched peasants were 
obliged either to forsake their dwellings, or to 
starve. Lieutenant-General Middleton pursued 
the Cavaliers as far as Lymington, where he 
almost succeeded in hemming them in, but 
Goring at length eluded him, and on January 
17th was at Whiteparish and the neighbouring 
villages, having lost at Christchurch a major, 
two captains, and many men. Clarendon says 
that he "was forced to retire to Salisbury, 
where his horse committed the same horrid out- 
rages and barbarities as they had done in 
Hampshire, without distinction of friends or 
foes ; BO that those parts, which before were 
well devoted to the King's, worried with 
oppression wished for the access of any forces 
to deliver them." 

On January 21st Goring was still at and near 
Salisbury, Essex's horse were at Alton, about 
to march to meet Sir William Waller, who was 
to advance against Goring with 6000 horse and 
dragoons, ** and 1 100 dragoons are to attend them 
as a reserve." Waller *s infantry were about to 
march from Famham, from which place a week 
afterwards Colonel Fortescue laments the *'want 
of money and other provisions." It having been 
said by '^Aulicus" that the Roundheads had 
stripped the lead from the roof of Basing 
Church and had then blamed the Cavaliers for 
it, *' BritannicuB," on January 27th, 1645, 
retorts that Lord Winchester, whom the 
journalist in very coarse terms charges with 
having taken shelter from bombardment for 
many months in a cellar, " gave order to have 
the church unleaded to make consecrated bullets 
to shoot away the Protestant religion." On the 
same day that this statement appeared in print 
120 of Goring*s horse sallied from Basing 
House and attacked two small troops at Cron- 
dall and Addershot (Aldershot), many of whom 
escaped, either by means of back doors, or by 
being quartered at scattered farmhouses. 
Either four or six men who asked quarter were 
killed, and 50 men and 40 horses were cap- 
tured. Amongst the prisoners were a lieutenant, 
two comets or colours, and a quartermaster. 
Some plunder was also obtained, but the alarm 
having been given at Farnhsm Castle the 
assailants retirod, after setting the village of 
Crondall on fire in several plaoes. The flames 
were extinguished after four houses and a bam 
full of com had been destroyed. Another 



204 



Cavalier Raids. 



acoonnt' says that but few escaped out of 
three companies of Botmdheads, and that 
only 30 were taken prisoners oat of 160, 
the rest being refused quarter. The leader 
in this bold enterprise was an Irish gentleman. 
A great panic prevailed in Famham, of which 
several Cavalier prisoners took advantage to 
escape from captivity. Goring had been roused 
to action by hearing that Waller's infantry had 
marched from Farnham. Sir Marmaduke Lang- 
dale had therefore marched from Salisbury to 
Bishop's Waltham, whilst Goring, on the other 
side of Winchester, beat up the enemy's quarters. 
Goring and Langdale were said to be in com- 
mand of 3000 horse. Passengers arriving at 
Portsmouth informed the Governor that 
recruits raised in Normandy for Goring 
were at Brest, intending to disembark 
near Portsmouth. The House of Commons 
ordered reinforcements to be immediately sent 
to Farnham Castle, and that Waller, who left 
London on January 30th, should "go west 
towards the enemy presently." About this 
time Captain Charles Price (not Capt. Rayden) 
was mortally stabbed -at Basing (one account 
says Oxford) in a private quarrel. Colonel 
Ludlow was now posted at Odiham to check 
foragers from Basing House, and was frequently 
ordered to Godliman (Godalming) and other 
places. Colonel Devereuz attacked near Marl- 
through a party of Cavaliers, who, on their 
march to join Lord Hopton from Donnington 
and Basing, were plundering road waggons. 
He captured Sir Anthony Sellenger, who com- 
manded the party. Major Hyde, a captain, a 
lieutenant, and some other officers, 30 troopers, 
50 horses, and about 40 stand of arms, retaking 
also the carriers' carts and waggons. 

During the first week in February, 1645, 
Waller, at Farnham, asked for and obtained 
6000Z. from the excise duties, 3000 pairs of shoes, 
one week's biscuit and cheese, 200 backs, breasts, 
and pots, and 400 pairs of pistols. His men 
were to pay for their shoes, and " his surgeons 
were to be provided with medicaments that he 
ma^ go into action." On February 2nd he was 
waiting for artillery before marching against 
Goring. On this day, which was Sunday, some 
troopers from Basing House rode up to Tile- 
hurst Church during divine service, threatening 
to carry off the minister and the leading 
parishioners, unless 3002. was at once paid to 
tiiem, which was accordingly done. Three 



more regiments of horse and foot were now 
being raised in Kent for the service of the 
Parliament. On February 4th Waller marched 
from Farnham to Alton, and was still demand- 
ing indispensable supplies. Some of his troops 
were skirmishing with and advancing against 
Goring's forces, who were retreating in a north- 
westerly direction beyond Salisbury. Goring 
himself, whose army, by the junction of Sir 
Thomas Aston's command, now consisted of 
5000 horse and foot, was still at Salisbury. Sir 
Thomas Aston had been created a baronet on 
July 25th, 1628. A steadfast Cavalier, he died 
at Stafford on May 24th, 1645, from wounds 
received in the King's service. 

Goring's army was thus described : *^ Such pro- 
fane and blasphemous, villainous Irish, French, 
Walloons, ana divers other nations as the world 
affords not the like." There followed the camp 
" a thousand women of bad character, many of 
them Irish, who carry much plunder upon 
horses!" 

" Britannicus" says, on February 24th, 1645 : 
" * Anlicus* tells of Goring scouring Hants, but 
Hants will never be scoured clean as long as 
that blaspheming wretch remains there, with 
collected filth of several countries, which the 
earth sure would vomit out, or take in, but that 
she is merciful to her native inhabitants." 

The Cavaliers were, on February 4th, watch- 
ing Southampton so closely that it was not safe 
to go a mile ^m the town. On February 12tii 
Waller reported the loss of the outworks at 
Weymouth, and was ordered to march into 
the west with all his available horse and foot. 
If the infantry were as yet unprepared to maroh, 
a strong body of horse and dragoons was to go 
to the support of the garrisons in the west, 
leaving the infantry to follow with all speed. 
Some of Waller's officers refused to march with 
him from Petersfield, but the officers of Crom- 
well's regiments, and of some others, were will- 
ing to do so. To check such disorders in future, 
the Parliament on February 13th gave Waller 
full powers to enforce military obedience from 
all rsmks, at the same time thankinff him for ao 
readily executing their orders and advaneing 
against Goring, who was attacking Weymouth. 
Waller, who now had 3400 horse, 700 dragooofl, 
and a large infantry force, found that 28 troops, 
numbering some 700 men, were in a mutinous 
frame of mind. They marched as i^ ss 
I Croydon, and the dwellers in Surrey and Kent 



Tobias Baislev. 



205 



fully expected to be plundered by them, but 
awed by the firmness displayed by the House of 
Commons, they implored pardon, and, promis- 
iug better behaviour for the future, returned to 
their duty. Waller fully intended to obtain 
possession of Winchester Castle before marching 
against Goring, but the desertion of a trumpeter 
on the night before that fixed for the assault 
gave warning to the garrison, and the scheme 
was abandoned. 

A letter from Waller was read in Parliament 
on February 12th, which stated that hearing 
that three regiments of Goring's horse were 
quartered at Andover, he sent a party thither to 
beat up their quarters, but, warning having 
been sent from Alresf ord, a retreat was made to 
Newton Toney, near Amesbury, and Waller's 
men were foiled in their purpose. Goring, 
evidently intending to march westwards, had 
requisitioned transport to assemble at Sarum 
npon pain of death. Waller himself was muster- 
ing his forces at Petersfield, intending to go 
westwards on February 17th or 18th ; Goring 
pretended that his friends in Sussex and Kent 
were not yet ready to help him, and succeeded 
in obtaining orders from Oxford to march into 
the western counties, in which Lord Hopton 
commanded as Field-Marshal and General of 
the Ordnance. Goring was General of the 
Horse, and in order to prevent disputes, Hopton 
was, by special order, recalled to Bristol. 
Goring reached Weymouth with his full strength 
of horse, foot, dragoons and artillery, number- 
ing more than 3000 horse and 1500 foot, in addi- 
tion to local contingents, but most shamefully, 
^^ by most supine negligence at best," allowed 
the town, which was about to surrender, to be 
recovered for the Parliament. On February 20th 
Captain Batten, from Portsmouth, was lying 
there with either two or three ships from Ports- 
mouth, which had proved a welcome succour to 
the beleaguered garrison. All the western 
counties were now practically lost to the King, 
*^ whilst the Lord Goring's forces equally 
infested the borders of Dorset, Somerset, and 
Devon, by unheard of rapine, without applying 
themselves to any enterprise upon the enemy." 
It appears somewhat doubtful whether 
Tobias Baisley (see p. 117) was executed in 
February, 1644, or 1645. The following addi- 
tional particulars are given concerning him. 
He had formerly been a pewterer by trade, then 
a. porter to Nottmgham carriers, at the ^' Bam " 



Inn, Smithfield, by which means he gained 
information about the traffic on various high- 
roads, and lastly a corporal in Prince Rupert's 
own regiment. He was said to be skilful in 
poisoning, as well as in casting bullets. Whilst at 
Basing House he received a share of all the 
property captured through his information. He 
went to London as a spy, and *^ to buy military 
commodities, and by these gradations he is 
likely to go three steps higher. He was take^ 
by man-catchers, as he called them." The 
Council of War which condenmed him sat at 
Essex House. He died railing, full of impreca- 
tions, and refusing to join in prayer ! On 
February 18th the Lieutenant of the Ordnance 
was ordered to send to the Isle of Wight 40 barrels 
of powder, a ton of match, 300 culverin shot, 1000 
demi culverin shot, 2000 saker shot, and a ton of 
lead. The Portsmouth garrison was to receive 
200 snaphaunce muskets (p. 70), and ^^ arms and 
furniture" for fifty horsemen. Official demands 
were now made why Waller did not march. He 
replied from Petersfield on February 17th and 
19th, and also from Portsmouth on February 
22nd, reporting the condition of his own forces 
and of the enemy. On February 21st Parlia- 
ment voted him 20002., but on the following 
day none of his men had advanced beyond 
Winchester, to which city it was reported that 
Goring paid a visit with a strong brigade on 
February 25th. Mr. Lisle was directed on 
February 24th to bring in an Ordinance " for 
the catting down of woods belonging to 
delinquents for the service of Christchurch, in 
Hampshire," but no oak, ash, or elm timber was 
to be felled. Cromwell's Independents declined 
to march with Waller, remaining about Godle- 
man (Godalming), but on February 27th both 
Cromwell and his men were ordered by the 
House of Commons to join Waller, who had 
given an alarm to the Winchester Cavaliers, 
taking some horsemen prisonern. On February 
27th Waller writes from Wickham, saying that 
he is watching Goring's movements. On March 
1st he writes from Owslebury, near Twyford, 
two days later from Famham, and on March 
4th he was, together with Cromwell, ordered to 
march at once into the west against the enemy, 
** all excuses set aside, with all available horse 
and dragoons." These two generals were said 
to have had four or five thousand horse and 
dragoons, and 2000 foot at or near Southampton 
on March 2nd, 1645. The "alarm" above referred 



206 



Auoui AT Wjnchebtss. 



io was aa follows. About Much 2iid a party 
of Oayalien had ''a mat drinkiiig day At 
Winchester, and being derated in their minda" 
rode oot 200 atrcmg to engage a troop of €0 
horae belonging to Wilier at Ifarwell Hall, the 
•eat of Sir Henry Mildmay, who bore the niek> 
name of Sir Whunaey Milamay, and waain 1649 
one of the regicides. The Ga wiers mardied so 
forionsly, ^vers being in their cnps," that 
•ereral of the party were left behind on the 
road. On reaching Ifarwell, there was a flonnsh 
of trompets, and a trooper riding forth from the 
house was slain by one of the King*s soldiers. 
Challenges and defiances were freely exchanged, 
and seyeral single combats took place, in one of 
which Sir Thomaa Phillips was shot throngh 
the head by one of Waller'a troopers. The 
Cavaliers at length fled in confosion towards 
Winchester, losing a laentenant-Colonel and 
tome men killed, and Colonel Gardiner captured, 
together with several otherSi as weU as some 
horses and arms. 

The weather was very wet, when on March 
6thWaUer was mustering about 30,000 horse 
and dragoons near Winchester, whilst Colonels 
Cromwell and Fiennes were not far off with 
their respective regiments. Waller was at 
Andover on March 9th, and his troops were said 
to be " a well disciplined and orderly army, that 
they behave themselves with all civility to the 
people, and gain much love." On the other 
nand, it was said that not long before, when 
some of Goring*s men were drinking at the 
Catherine Wheel in Salisbury, one of them 

Sroposed the health of the devil. A comrade 
enied the existence of Satan, unless convinced 
by ocular demonstration, whereupon he was at 
once '^ mysteriouslyfeteht away I" 

On March 9th Waller wrote from Andover 
that he had captured Lord Percy (Mr. Henry 
Percy) and 30 companions near that town. The 
prisoners stated that their destination was 
France. They had an old pass, which was, 
however, sanctioned by Parliament, and the 
captives were released. Christopher Love, ic.a., 
was about this time appointed as ** Preacher to 
the Garrison at Windsor Castle." He belonged 
to an old Hampshire family. Some of his rela- 
tions dwelt at Basinff, and he had made himself 
hated by the BoyaBste b^ having said, when 
preaching before the CommissionerB at theTreaty 
of Uxbndge six weeks previously, " that there 
was as great distance between this treaty and 



I 



peace, aa between heaven and helL*' On Mardi 
13th Waller reported to Parliament the defeat 
near the Lavingtona of Ccdonel Long, High 
Sheriff of Wilta, by, saya Clarendon, ^*hia great 
defect of courage and conduct." Colonel Long 
waa captured, together with 300 men and 340 
horses. Sir A. Haslerig was directed to write 
to Waller requesting him to exchange Colonel 
Long for Cotonel Stephens, a prisoner to the 
King's forces. About 4000 men were ready to 
rise and join Waller and Cromwell in Dorset- 
shire, threatening to plunder those who did not 
join with them ''to extirpate the Cavaliers." 
The Puritan (Governor of Wareham was already 
aiding them with a cavalry force. Two oc 
the Kinff*s flhips bound from Dartmouth to 
France driven into the Solent by stress of 
weather were seised by Captiun Baxter, 
Governor of Hurst Castle. The larger vessel, 
named the &nrit of Dartmouth^ mounted six 
guns, and had on board 17 men, some letters, 
provisions, and a pack of hounds. In the other 
ship were 300 bairels of herrings, eleven pieces 
of cloth, four guns, and 23 men. This capture 
was known in London on March 15th. 

Seven days afterwards the Earl of Man- 
chester's treasury was to advance 14 days* pay 
to Colonel Wosan's regiment "for good service, 
being quartered about Famham." It was now 
ordered that every pressed man should receive 
from the Committee of his county a coat, 
breeches, shirt, stockings, shoes, and snapsack. 
" The cost of these articles was not to exceed 
24s. for each, besides the conduct money." 

Captain Symonds writes thus : " Upon the 
King's coronation day, 27th March, lo45, Sir 
Bol^rt Peake, sometime picture-seller at Hol- 
bom Bridge, and Lieft.-Colonel to the Marquis 
of Wincherter, was then knighted in Christ 
Church, Oxon." An honour weU deserved. 

A letter written at Salisbury on March 28th 
complained Ihat ^'the Winchester Horse do 
mudi mischief not only in Sombome and 
Thomgate Hundreds, in Hants," but even as 
far as Alderbury, near Salisburv, carrying off 
as prisoners to Winchester "aivers honest, 
godly men." During the last week they came 
to Winterslow, near Salisbury, where they met 
amounted carrier, **a godly, honest country- 
man," who had also " a bagi^kge horse, and two 
men rid with him." They marched up to the 
amazed travellers and captured the carrier'a 
horses and his two companions, but he himself, 



Oo|X>NEL Jones. 



207 



<( 



for he hath formerly iaated of their omelty," 
escaped into Bnckholt Foreafc. 

On March 29th, the "^ Granada ehellB remain- 
ing at present in the cnetodj of Mr. Browne, 
gnn founder," were ordered to be delirered to 
Sir Walter Erie, Lientenant of the Ordnance. 
The gentlemen of Surrey and Hants received 
permission from Parliament to select and appoint . 
a€k>vemor of Famham Castle. Colonel JoneS^ 



then in command complained that hia pay and 
that of his garrison was in arrear, and thought 
himself unfairly treated. He asked that General 
Fairfax might appoint his successor, and that 
he might not be superseded by his own lieutenant- 
colonel. 

Some of the dates given in this chapter are 
onlv approximations, but they are all correct 
within a day or two. 



CuAPTKK XXVII. — Cromwell in Hants — Duchkss of Chevereux — Military Changes — 
Cavalry Skirmish — Goring Recalled — Religious Strife — Colonel Rawdon leaves 
Basing — Fairfax on the March — Stern Discipline — Basing again Besieged — 
Lang FORD House — Distressed Taunton — Massey at Romsey — Clubmen. 



Though Sir William Waller was in chief 
command, Lien tenant-General Cromwell was 
the principal actor in the expedition into the 
west against Goring. He it was who captured 
Lord Percy and his friends at Andover, and 
now that he and WaUer had about 10,000 men 
under their command, *' Britannicus'* hoped 
that they would " in time expel or bring up the 
Cornish ferret Grenvill with a halter about his 
neck." On March 18th Sir William Balfour 
was between Romsey and Winchester, and on 
April Ist Cromwell had reached Ringwood, 
where he was joined by Colonel Norton and 
Colonel Unton Crooke, with their regiments of 
horse. Further reinforcements had raised the 
number of his men to 4000 foot and 500 horse. 
Goring's army was not far distant, and Waller 
was marching to effect a junction with Crom- 
well, whose advance guard was said to be posted 
twelve miles beyond Dorchester. On this day 
also the estate of Sir Richard Norton, of Rother- 
field, was released from sequestration, as he had 
for his loyalty paid a fine of 250/., and found 
security for 500/. more. Captain Blagrave was, 
on April 3rd, 1645, retained in garrison at 
Reading at the special request of the local 
Committee. Captain Daniel Blagrave was M.P. 
for Reading, Treasurer of Berkshire, and a 
vexatious persecutor of the clergy. He was 
one of the regicides, and at the Restoration fied 
to Aachen, in Germany, where he died in 1668, 
in an obscure condition. 

On April 4th a man was arrested in Cheapside 
and remanded for further examination, on a 
charge of conveying strong waters to Famham, 
and information to Basing House. A ship had 
been taken near the Isle of Wight by ^^ Captain 
Hodges, that haughty and courageous man, in 
which was some of the worser sort of female 



stuff not worth the owning, many French ladies 
of eminent quality, said to be bound for Ireland.*' 
These were the Duchess of Chevereux and her 
attendants. It was from the hands of 
the Due de Chevereux that Charles I. received 
bis bride, Henrietta Maria, at Canterbury, 
on June 23rd, 1645. The Rev. Hugh Peters, 
being then in the Isle of Wight, spent 
divers hours with the Duchess, and persuaded 
her to make a statement. She stated that, 
belonging, as she did, to the Spanish faction, 
she had quarrelled with the Queen and Mazarin, 
both of whom she hated, and was imprisoned 
at Tours. Escaping, she tried to reach Dun- 
kirk, but finally left France in a small vessel 
bound for Dartmouth. She had with her her 
daughter, who had been falsely reported to be 
Queen Henrietta Maria in disguise, and two 
servants, but only 80 pistoles in money. She 
had asked the Spanish Ambassador for a far- 
ther supply. All things considered, Mr. Peters 
thought that the lady would be far better at 
Dunkirk than in the Isle of Wight, and arrange- 
ments were soon afterwards made to send the 
whole party to London. The Duchess was, 
however, still in the island on May 24th ; sick, 
in want of money, *^her 80 pistoles almost 
spent, as well as other monies received by her 
in England," and she wanted a pass for either 
Denmark or Spain. Colonel Jones, Governor 
of Famham Castle, was on bad terms with the 
Committee for Surrey, who wished him to be 
superseded by Colonel Jeremy Baines. If this 
were done, the Committee would undertake to 
garrison the Castle with 200 or 300 men, to 
maintain 1000 men for the defence of the 
county, and also to have a troop of horse in 
readiness either to guard the borders of the 
county, or to garrison the Castle, as need might 



Military Changes. 



-201) 



reqaire. The House of Commons appointed a 
committee to indace Colonel Jones to resign 
honourably, and on April 5th the Committee of 
Both Kingdoms appointed Mr. John Fielder as 
his successor, and Lieut. -Colonel Whitehead, 
who had acted as lieutenant-colonel to Colonel 
Jones, was made Governor of Windsor Castle. 
Mr. Baynton and Sir Robert Harley were 
directed *^ to prepare a declaration in approba- 
tion of Colonel Jones his carriage, late Gover- 
nor of Famham Castle." 

Some guns and infantry for Waller's army 
had reached Portsmouth by sea on April 4th. 
The House of Lords on the following day 
passed the ordinance for felling lOOO/. worth of 
timber on sequestered estates in Hants. No 
oak, elm, or ash timber was to be felled except 
thirty tons of oik required for the defences of 
Christcburch, on the fortifications and garrison 
of which town the proceeds of this timber were 
to be expended. 

The Self- Denying Ordinance was passed on 
April 3rd, 1645, by which Manchester, Essex, 
and Waller lost their commands, whilst Crom- 
well was still permitted to serve the Parliament. 
Essex and Waller were, however, in no hurry to 
send in their resignations, and some of Essex's 
foot at Farnham mutinied, and, demanding 
their arrears of pay, marched to Readiifg, in 
opposition to orders. Skippon, Major-General 
of the Xow Model Army, by his presence and 
rough but effective eloquence, induced these five 
regiments to submit ouce more to discipline on 
April Gth. Two days afterwards Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thorpe, in recounting his warlike 
exploits, stated that ho had been wounded 
by a bullet in the stomach, and shot 
through the arm whilst leading on a regi- 
ment at Basing. He commanded the dra- 
goons originally raised for Sir Richard Gran- 
vill at Cheriton Fight, where he captured Col. 
Beard's waggon laden with horse and foot arms, 
and his other carriages laden with powder and 
bullets. At Winchester, on the last march west- 
ward, he had the guard when a sortie took place 
from the Castle. He killed a lieutenant-colonel 
and six troopers, and captured another lieuten- 
ant-colonel and eight fcroopers,. with the loss of 
one man killed and two wounded. Waller wrote 
on April 9th asking for money and supplies, 
which were granted, but he was informed that 
" the foot of Sussex come in so slowly that they 
are not considerable to be sent." He enclosed 



a letter from the Committee at Chalfield House 
near Bradford, stating that the Princes Maurice 
and Rupert had reached Marshfield. Prince 
Maurice seems not to have been present in 

Eerson,but to have sent some troops to reinforce 
is brother Rupert. Cromwell also writes from 
Salisbury on April 9th, 1645 (ten o'clock at 
night), that Goring had retired to Wells and 
Ghtstonbury, " whereupon Sir William Waller, 
having a very poor infantry of about 1630 men 
— ^lest they, being so inconsid curable, should 
engage (entangle or encumber^ our horse — we 
came from Shaftesbury to Salisbury to secure 
our foot, to prevent our baiug necessitated to a 
too unequal engagement, and to be nearer a 
communication with our friends. Since our 
coming hither we hear Prince Rupert is come to 
MarshSeld, a market town not far from Trow- 
bridge Sir, I beseech you send 

what horse and foot you can spare towards 
Salisbury, by way of Kingsclere, with what con- 
venient expedition may be. Truly, we look to 
be attempted upon every day." Prince Rupert 
withdrew without fighting, and, on April 16th, 
letters reached London from Waller and Crom- 
well, at Salisbury, and from Colonel Norton, at 
Southampton, stating that they were anxious to 
divide their forces, so as to >3ngage the enemy 
on all sides at once, but that their men's pay 
was sadly in arrears. Colonel FitzJames and 
Quartermaster-General Fincher presented a 
modestly- worded petition to Parliament from 
the ofl&cers of Waller's army, and obtained 14 
days' pay and a promise of arrears for all ranks. 
Waller and Norton added that " the garrisons 
of Winchester and Basing range and rage about 
the country." 

From a very interesting letter written at 
Southampton, on April 15th, 1645, by John 
Eyres, " to his loving uncle in London," and 
from other sources we learn that Col. Norton 
having left Waller's army, and returned to 
Hampshire, marched to Romsey with six troops 
of horse on April 14th, intending to fortify the 
town " to stop the insolencies of the garrison 
of Winchester." Early in the morning Major 
Stewart was sent out wit three troops of horse 
to face Winchester, occupy the enemy's atten- 
tion, and to bring them to action on equal terms 
at some distance from Romsey, where the other 
three troops of Norton's horse were hard at 
work. Meanwhile, Major Stewart having 
" otherwise dared them," the Governor, Sir 



210 



Cavalbt Skirmish. 



William Ogle, rode forth from the Castle, with 
all hifl horse, who were mach more numerous 
than their opponents. Major Stewart '* retired 
soberly'* to a strong position, having bnt few 
men, bnt kept his foes at bay by a bold charge, 
retreating n^n Romsey, with a view to rein- 
forcements, and also to draw the Cavaliers from 
Winchester, so that their retreat might be cut off. 

Norton*s men did not arrive from Romsey as 
was expected, and Major Stewart charged thrice, 
disordering the enemy, until he was wounded, 
bnt not dangerously, in the thigh. Four or five 
-of his men were taken prisoners, and seven or 
eight Cavaliers were killed. During the after- 
noon Norton's horse came up from Romsey, and 
the advance guard of ten or twelve men 
" between Hurstley and Winchester discovered 
the enemies' body, who sent out a forlorn hope 
to charee them, but were at first salute sent back 
faster than they came ; after this they drew out 
40, and sent them against this small party of 
ours, led by my cousin Leon Green, a 
Reformado, who routed them, so that they 
fled, and disordered their main body." All 
Norton's men now followed in hot pursmt. Lieut. 
Coward, of whom Woodward says " few names 
recur more in the annals of Winchester than 
those of Coward an^ Simonds " was killed, with 
six or seven others, during the chase. Captain 
Heath, Lieut. Barnes, four or five other officers, 
and 30 soldiers with their horses (40 horses and 
27 men), were captured before Winchester walls 
gave shelter to the fugitives. The Cavaliers 
were said to number 250, and their opponents 
only 130. The prisoners were brought on the 
evening of Tuesday, April 15th, 1645, " to the 
gaol at Southampton to sing another tune. 
Here's a gentleman (Norton) that will protect 
the country as well as the town in which he 
quarters, or of which he is Governor. Store of 
wese would do well I" 

On April 17th the 500Z. per month first levied 
in August, 1644, on excise duties in Hants, was 
order^ to be continued for the pay of Ports- 
mouth garrison as long as need requires. Colonel 
Norton was appointed Governor of Portsmouth, 
on May 10th, 1645, on which day Algernon 
Sidney became Governor of Chichester, and 
Colonel Morley of the town and castle of 
Arundel. Sir William Waller had been beating 
up Gorinsr's quarters in Somersetshire, but 
towards the end of April he fell back to 
Andover. He had reached Windsor before 



April 25th, and resigning his command, as he 
was obliged to do by the self -den ving ordinance, 
passed on April 3rd, went to Lonaon. On April 
19th Cr(»nwell was besieging Langford House, 
near Salisbury, and i^e garrison oumed their 
bams, stables, and outhouses, in order to 
strengthen their position. On April 23rd all 
deseiters from the armies of the Parliament 
were ordered to be executed without mercy. 
At the end of April Goring was recalled with 
his horse and dragoons towards Oxford by the 
King, who was anxious to join Prince Rupert 
hear Worcester, but was hindered from so doing 
by Cromwell, who was at the head of a strong 
cavalry force, and had already thrice defeated 
the Royalists. On April 24th "merely bv 
dragoons and fierce countenances he took 
Bletchington " from Colonel Windebank, who 
was, for thus surrendering, shot on May drd, at 
Merton College, Oxford. Islip-bridge on April 
24th, Witney on the 26th, and Bampton Buah 
on the 27th, were scenes of Cromwell's victories, 
causing the King to exclaim " Who will bring 
me this Cromwell dead or alive ?" 

Goring was unwilling to march to Oxford, 
but, savs Clarendon, " However unwelcome 
soever these orders were to the Lord Goring, 
yet there was no remedy but he must obey 
them ; and it was now hoped that the west 
should be hereafter freed from him, where he 
was at that time very ungracious runpopular^." 
He ti^eref ore commenced his march, plundering 
as he went, and making Beverston Castle, in 
Gloucestershire, a centre of devastation. Mr. 
Secretary Nicholas, writing from Oxford on 
April 3()th, said, ^* Cromwell is now l^n^ at 
Stamford and other places next to Farnngdon, 
with six regiments of horse and four troops of 
dragoons, expecting the coming of Colonel 
Royden's (Rawdon's) regiment thither.'] 

Religious dissensions had, alas! arisen at 
Basing House, with the usual sad results ! 
Comrades, who had fought shoulder to shoulder 
against Waller and Norton, could not dwell 
together when all for the time seemed peaceful. 
"Mercurius Veridicus" says, on May 16th, 
"That Colonel Royden (Sir Marmadukc 
Rawdon) is cast out from being Governor of 
Basing House to some is already known, though 
the place of his new government, and the manner 
of his being put out of the old, will be true 
news to all that will be pleased to read it." 

" Since the removing of the last siege against 



Colonel Baiydon leaves Basiko. 



211 



Buing (the garruon being miz't Protestants and 
Papisto), the Papists became jealons of the 
Protestants, especially of Colonel Boyden, 
which by commission had the command of the 
house. 

^ This jealonsie broke forth into a complaint 
against the Jnnto of Oxford that the Catholics 
of the Garrison were afraid to tmst themselves 
any longer there amonj^st the Protestants, and 
for their better secnnty presented a petition 
thns: — 

* To the Bight Honourable the Lords of His 
Majestie^s Most Honourable Privy Council : 

The Humble Petition of His Majesty's 
Catholic Subjects of the Garrison of Basing 
Hoose, 

Sheweth that your petitioners, both during 
the time of the siege, which for some months 
was continued against this place, and since the 
raising thereof, hath {sic) had just cause to 
suspect divers persons of this Garrison, for by 
reason of their different opinions from us, we 
do generally hold it more safe that this Garrison, 
which hath been very serviceable to His 
Msnestie, may consist of persons (both officers 
and soldiers) of one religion. 

Therefore, to prevent such inconveniences as 
may arise, the Petitioners humbly 4>ra^ that the 
premises may be taken into consideration, to the 
end it may be declared whether it be not requi- 
site that your Petitioners, who are most deeply 
engaged in this present war, may not be thought 
the fittest defendants and maintainers of a p^ce 
of that strength and concernment. 

And your Petitioners shall pray, &c., 

WINCHESTER.' " 

Upon which petition it was thought fit and so 
ordered, **That the garrison of Basing House 
should consist only of Boman Catholics, and that 
the Commander-in-Chief should be of that 
religion." This being declared a Popish garri- 
son, Colonel Boyden was ordered to depart 
thence with his troop of horse, since which he is 
made Governor of Farringdon." The Governor 
thns dismissed must have been a resolute soldier, 
for we learn from Lady Willoughby, " Sir Mar- 
maduke Bawdon declared to the Marquis, who 
proposed to surrender, that he would not so long 
as a dog or cat or rat did remain." He success- 
fully defended Farringdon, where his monument 
was formerly to be seen in the church. 

The places of Colonel Bawdon and his veteran 
soldiers were but ill supplied. On Mi^y 15th, 



1645, the ** Moderate Litelligencer" is informed 
*^ that they have forced into Basing House, 
instead of those that are gone abroad with Col. 
Boyden, almost as many out of the counties, and 
of them the most 18 years old, some not 12." 

Truly these were ** boys," but, in the hour 
of danger they proved themselves, like Napo- 
leon's levies at Waterloo, " small, but biting." 
The most reliable estimates give 300 fighting 
men as the strength of the garrison during the 
final siege. 

Colonel Bawdon was ordered to proceed from 
Basing to join Goring, and to march with him 
to Oxford in company with Colonel Bennet and 
Major Smith, as Cromwell was waiting near 
Farringdon to intercept the party from Basing. 
On May Day, 1645, some 500 horse and foot 
Cavaliers marched out of Loyalty House. As 
they were crossing the Kennet, between 
Thatcham and Newbury, thej were attacked by 
Colonel Butler *s Puritan regiment of horse, but 
succeeded in reaching Donnington Castle, where 
they were prudently refused admission by brave 
Sir John Boys, who was apprehensive of a siege. 
Fortunately for Sir Marmadnke Bawdon and his 
men, Fairfax's large army and about 32 guns did 
not reach Newbury until the following evening, 
so that they were able to pursue their march 
next morning, but were chased throughout the 
day by Colonel Butler, until,about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, they joined Goring*s army near 
Lamboum. Col. Butler captured some prisoners, 
amongst whom was a Commissioner of Excise, 
who had about 25/. in his possession. Goring 
was on May Day at or near Marlborough '* at 
dinner with his officers, roaring and drinking 
healths, and making themselves merry," and he 
mustered his armv at Marlborough on May2nd. 
Some of his men had penetrated as far as Farn- 
ham, but were obliged to beat a hasty retreat 
towards Oxford, abandoning three guns and 
some ammunition. 

Goring, having been thus reinforced by the 
party from Basing, marched about eleven p.m. 
on Sunday to attack Cromwell at Farriuffdon, 
" but by the vigilancy and care of the Scout 
Master, they had such timely notice that they 
escaped him, Colonel Cromwell at that time 
being with Sir Thomas Fairfax, and sent for by 
him, but hasted to his quarters, and brought off 
his men without any loss, very little action, 
neither having at that time much mind to 
engage." (** Moderate Litelligencer.") Informa- 



212 



Fairfax ox the Maxcu. 



tion of this intended attack was obtained from 
Lieot.-GoL Hacket, taken at Xewbory. Crom- 
well was earlj in May near Blewbnry. eflEecting 
a junction with the infantry, intending either to 
await the enemy or toadranoe. Prince Bnpert 
waa marching to join the King and Croring. 

General Sir Thomas Lord Fairfax had heat 
dnring the closing days of April. 1645. preparing 
at Windsor to take the field with the tuaooa 
New Model Army, which was to consist of 
2 1 .<J00 effective men. 60<>'J horse, besides officers, 
made np ten regiments. UAP) dragoons besides 
officers, commanded by CoL Okey, who '^'were 
always counted the best men of the army." 
\4,()t)() foot were drawn np in regiments of l«XiO 
each, besides officers, so says Colonel Edward 
Wogan, who held command in this army, but 
another acoonnt says that the infantry regi- 
ments were 1200 strong. 44.955/. per month, 
levied by assessment npon the whole kingdom, 
was the cost of maintaining this large army. 
Of this amount Surrey and Southwark con- 
tributed 2000/., and Sussex 3,927/. 15s. 6}d. 
The cavalry regiments were in all twelve in 
number. Col. Boesiter's horse and CoL Okey's 
dragoons being additions to the nominal 
strength. They were commanded by General 
Fairfax, the Com m issary-GeUeral, Colonels 
Greaves, Sir Bobert Pye, Whalley, Rich, Bossi- 
ter, Bourchier, Sheffield, Fleetwood, Hollis, and 
Okey. Col. Hollis's regiment was given to Lieut.- 
General Cromwell after Xaseby Fight. The 
infantry regiments were commanded by General 
Fairfax, l£ijor-General Skippon, Colonels Sir 
Hardr^ss Waller, Pickering, Herbert, Ingoldsby, 
Fortescue, Montague, Welden, Hammond, Lam- 
bert, and Bainsborough. There was in addition 
a body of 400 pioneers. 

The Bev. Joshua Sprigge, one of Fairfax's 
chaplains, seems to have been the author of 
^'Anglia Bediviva," which has, however, by 
some been attributed to Colonel Nathaniel 
Fiennes. From this work, which gives copious 
details of the proceedings of FaiSax, we learn 
that in April, 1645, the King had in Wiltshire 

farrisons at Devizes, Lacock House, Langford 
louse, and Highworth. The Parliament had 
only one garrison, at Malmesbury. In Dorset 
the King held Portland Castle and Island, Corf e 
and Sherborne Castles, whilst Poole, Lyme, and 
Weymouth had Parliament garrisons. In 
Hants the strong Boyal garrisons of Basing and 
Winchester were opposed by troops at Ports- 



mooth, Southampton, and Christchurch. In 
Berkshire the Cavalieis poaseased Farringdon, 
Wallingford, Donnington, and Badcot, the 
Boondheads guarding Abingdon, Beading, and 
Windsor meanwhile. Oxford, Banbury, Wood- 
stock, Craunt House, Godstowe, and Boarstall 
House were confronted by the garrisoas of 
Henley-on-Thames and Aylesbury. Bletching- 
ton Honse« another royal garrison, within four 
miles of Oxford, was captured by Cromwell on 
Apnl 24th. 

The King had between Oxford and St. 

Michael's Mount about 14,000 men under arms, 

and the clubmen (of whom more hereafter), 

favoured his cause. The Parliament had in the 

same district, under Waller's conmiand. Waller's 

own regiment, the Plymouth regiment, and 

those of Cols. Popham, Fitzjames, and Cooke. 

There were also the weak cavalry regiments of 

Cols. Behr and Dalbier, which had formerly 

served under the Earl of Essex, but were now 

commanded by Lieut.-Col. Bnller, and detailed 

for the army of Major-General Massey. These 

' two regiments were brigaded just before Naseby 

. Fight. But General Fairfax's New Model 

, speedily turned the scale in favour of the 

Parliament. 
I Marchingfrom Windsor to Beading on April 
3«^th, 1645, Fairfax reached Theale on May 1st, 
' Newbury on the 2nd, and Andover on the 3rd. 
I He wrote from Newbury complaining that his 
I march was impeded by the tardy arrival of pro- 
I visiouB, and asking for the regiments of Qplonels 
Cooke and Thompson, which had previously 
returned to Surrey. The Committee of Both 
Kingdoms were instructed *' to dispose these 
regiments." Near Newbury he sent out good 
scouts and parties of horse, and without loss 
captured in a cavalry skirmish Lieut.-Colonel 
Hacket and six other prisoners, who gave 
seasonable information that Goring, to whose 
army they belonged, intended early next morn- 
ing to beat up Lieut.-General Cromwell's 
quarters at Farringdon. Cromwell was speedily 
warned, and the night attack was repulsed. 
Fairfax marched from Newbury between noon 
and one o'clock on May 3rd. On the next day 
he had with him seven infantry regiments, 
numbering from 10,000 to 12,000 men, his 
cavalry having not yet joined him. At Andover 
the soldiers were quartered in the town and in 
the adjacent villages, and on the following day 
(May 4th) a muster of the whole force, which 



Stern Discipline. 



213 



halted for two or three honrs, took pUoe a mile 
oat of Andover on the Salisbury road. A 
Council of War was held, and five men were 
sentenced to death. One was a renegado or 
deserter, ^^ and f oar more, authors of the mutiny 
in Kent, were cast, one of whom (whose lot 
it was) with the renegado was executed upon a 
tree at Wallop in the way of the army's march 
in terrarem. The deserter was "a parson's 
son," and was a native of Wallop. " Both of 
them died as they had lived, like sots. But 
how the Great Judge passed His sentence I 
have not to say." Summary punishment having 
been thus inflicted, the army marched forward 
to Salisbury. On the following day ** was pro- 
clamation made thronghoat the army that it 
should be death for any man to plunder, at 
which our old Horse Dragoons, somewhat 
gailty, made answer *^ If the Parliament would 
pay truly let them hang duly." All ranks had 
received four months' pay, and nothing was per- 
mitted to be taken without payment. '^ No, not 
so much as grass for our horses." Not an ox, 
sheep, lamb, or even an egg was stolen, '^ save in 
oar hard march hot days, vacancy of towns or 
houses over the Plain made them inordinately 
desire drink, or covet for water -in the villages 
we past." The soldiers mostly slept in barns 
or under hedges for eight days. On May 
6th the bivouac was at Sixpenny Handley, on the 
7th at Blandford,and on the Bthat Witchampton, 
from whence a party under Colonel Welcher 
was sent to relieve Taunton, which was hard 
pressed by besieging Cavaliers. The army had 
now advanced 79 miles, '^ marching the whole 
seven days, and some of them very long 
inarches, without any intermission, so willing 
were the soldiers to come to the relief of dis- 
tressed Taunton, to Salisbury were they come 
before the enemy was aware, as was discovered 
by letters of Sir Ralph Hopton to the Gover- 
nors of Winchester and Basing, wherein he 
desired them to send him word when he 
thought Fairfax would be able to take the 
field." General Fairfax had intended to relieve 
Taunton with his whole force, but two expresses 
from Westminster overtook him at Blandf ord 
with orders to retrace his steps towards Oxford . 
The King having marched northwards to join 
Rupert, the friends of the Parliament in Oxford 
promised to overpower the small garrison left 
in the city, if Fairfax appeared before the for- 
tifications. Foar regiments were at once sent 



towards Taunton under the command of Colonel 
Welden. How successfully this officer per- 
formed his task is admirably told in Mr.Hep worth 
Dixon's *^Life of Admiral Blake." Fairfax beinff 
now weak in cavalry, avoided highways and 
marched through an enclosed country, as Goring's 
horse were now returning westward from 
Oxford to commit the same excesses as before. 
He reached Ringwood on March 9th, and a 
trooper was sentenced to death for burglary 
and murder. He was executed at Romsey on 
the following day. A fourteen mile march 
then brought the army past Winchester to 
Alresf ord, and we read, '* I need not acquaint 
you with our hard march, hot weather and hard 
quarter, but in all our march we have not yet 
seen an enemy. We faced Winchester Castle 
as we came by, but no enemy appeared, nor any 
gun shot off against us." On May 14th the 
relief of Taunton was known in London, and 
Fairfax, who halted for one night at Whitchurch, 
had reached Newbury. At this place a foot 
soldier was sentenced ^' to have his tongue bored 
through with a red hot iron, for notorious 
swearing and blaspheming, all which was dune 
as well for example and terror to others as for 
justice sake." But Fairfax, though severe, was 
a prudent general. Some regiment complained 
that constant rear-guard duty was exceedingly 
irksome. The General's own regiment refused 
to waive its privilege of being always in advance, 
but, '' instead of severe discipline, the General 
alighted himself and marched on foot in the 
head of his own regiment about two miles, and 
so brought up the rear, and to this day his own 
regiment takes the turn upon all duties." 

On March 16th, 1645, Prince Maurice wrote 
to Sir John Owen : ** You are likewise to give 
strict order that every officer under the degree 
of a major march afoot with his company ; 
and that no officer or soldier presume to straggle 
or be found pistol-shot from his colours, upon 
pain of death. Hereof you may not fail." 

On Saturday, May 17th, Fairfax marched to 
Blewbury, and from thence proceeded to the 
siege of Oxford and Naseby Fight. 

The " Weekly Account'^ st ited on May 16th, 
that Basing House being now declared a Popish 
garrison, the gentlemen of Hants and Sussex, 
grown wiser by experience, were about to besiege 
it again. Some persons were suggesting that 
instead of blockading the approach it would be 
more economical to spend from 500Z. to 1000/. 



214 



Langfobd House Attacked. 



in building redoubts, malting shelter trenches, 
and employing a skilful engineer,* who would 
speedily compel a surrender. The same news- 
paper stated on May 19th, three companies 
from Famham Castle were quartered at Odiham 
to check foragers in that direction, and that on 
Hay 12th 100 men had marched from Odiham to 
Hackwood Park, within a mile of Basing, cap- 
turing two loads of hay and provisions which 
were going to the House. No large force of 
Cavaliers was met with, but four Parliament 
scouts met an equal number from the garrison, 
one of whom they secured, but the others fled. 
Colonel Ludlow, whose Major Dewett had some 
time previously deserted to the King, taking 
some troopers with him, was about this time 
stationed at Odiham. His standard bore the 
device of an open Bible with the motto " Yerbum 
Dei'' placed aoove a mitre, crozier, and rosary 

On May 12th ^^ the gentlemen of the Life- 
Guard to Sir William Waller, now quartered in 
Surrey,'' were ordered to receive 14 days' pay 
from " Sir Richard Onslowe, and the rest of the 
irentlemen of Surrey, and were then to be dis- 
banded." The physicians, chaplains, surgeons, 
and scoufcmaster-general of the army, late under 
the command of Sir William Waller, obtained 
by petition part of their arrears of pay. The 
(jommittee of the Army were " to consult and 
consider with the Assembly of Divines upon the 
speedy sending down and supplying the army 
under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax with 
a convenient number and proportion of godly, 
learned, and able ministers." A humble 
petition was readfrom the officers and soldiers 
of the Portsmouth Garrison, and from the poor 
inhabitants of the town. Colonels Jephson and 
Norton were authorised to borrow money to 
be repaid before Midsummer by the Committee 
of the Bevenue, in order to clear off the arrears 
of the old establishment. The gentlemen of 
Hants were to bring in an ordinance for selling 
the estates of Lord Worcester, and some other 
delinquents in Hants, to raise 20001. of the gar- 
rison arrears of the new establishment. *' It is 
but reason those incendiaries should have no 
wood left who strive to burn down the 
kingdom." The Committee of both Kingdoms 
soon afterwards decided that 600 men was a 
sufficient garrison for Portsmouth, and Colonel 
Jones, late of Famham Castle, obtained com- 
mand at the end of June of Sir W. Bereton's 
regiment of horse. On May 13th '' 1000^ was 



provided as a fortnight's pay for Colonel 
Fienis his regiment." A week previously Col. 
Thompson, who had lost a leg at Cheriton Fight, 
asked for his arrears of pay, with either the 
command of a garrison or some civil employ^ 
ment, stating that he had, with the help of 
friends, raised a troop of horse for the service 
of Parliament, but that nearly 400/. was owing 
to his men. It was recommended by the Upper 
to the Lower House " that he may have reuef 
and respect shewed him." 

Driven to desperation by Goring's excesses, 
the counties of Sussex, Surrey, Hants, and 
Berks were preparing to raise troops for the 
Parliament. On May 21st, 1645, Major Peter 
Baxter, Governor of Hurst Castle, was to 
receive lOOZ. in part payment of his arrears, and 
1002. from the next sequestration of a delin- 
quent's estate. Three days afterwards, in 
reply to a petition presented by 200 wounded 
and maimed soldiers in the Savoy Hospital, and 
by 1500 other soldiers and widows, 250/. per 
week was voted for the relief of maimed 
soldiers and widows, together with the collec- 
tions at the three next monthly fast.s, except 
one-half of the collection at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, and at St. Martin's in the Fields. 
About May 23rd Colonel Norton, with a force 
of Southampton men, attacked Langf ord House, 
near Salisbury. His horse were commanded by 
Captains St. Barbe, Bettesworth, and Gcrtin, 
and his foot by the son of Captain Murford. 
Norton placed an ambush near the house. Then 
a small party of his men approached the 
garrison, as if levying contribution money. The 
Cavaliers sallied forth, led by the Governor, 
Colonel Griffith, who came out wearing linen 
stockings, without either horse or boots, and 
were aU captured by the ambuscade. Captain 
Ludlow, who was probably a relative of the 
celebrated Colonel of that name, did the Parlia- 
ment ^ood service. The prisoners were Colonel 
Griffith, his captain, lieutenant, his own comet, 
and eight other officers, besides soldiers, the 
total number being 74, together with their arms. 
Ten Cavaliers were killed, but Norton's loss 
was inconsiderable. The captives were sent to 
Southampton, and on May 29th were ordered to 
be sent up to London, exchange being pro- 
hibited without the consent of Parlmment. 
Colonel Griffith was sent to Newgate, bat his 
escape was announced on June 4th and all 
officers of forts and courts of guard were 



MUBTEB AT ROMSEY. 



215 



ordered to arrest him, and to send him up to 
the Parliament in very safe cnstodj. On Ma^ 
29th, 600 foot were ordered to form the garri- 
son of Portsmouth, and the officers of Waller's 
artillery train were granted their arrears of 
pa J, and were to be recommended to Fairfax for 
employment. On Jnne 5th Mr. Edward Hooper, 
who had been appointed Governor of South- 
ampton, obtained exemption on the ground of 
infirmity, and on July 5th Captain St. Barbe 
obtained the vacant post. The St. Barbes 
lived at Ashlington in Somenetshire, and at 
Broadlanda, near Romsey. One of them was 
killed at Newbury Fight, on September 20th, 
1643. 

'* Goring's crew" were now ravaging Somer- 
setshire, and besieging Colonels Welden and 
Blake in Taunton. Great nnxiety was felt in 
London for the fate of the town, and a deputa- 
tion from the House of Commons went to the 
Committee of Militia to ask for 500 mounted 
mnaketeers. They were granted, and volun- 
teers offered themselves on all sides. On June 
7th the Committee for Surrey were ordered to 
send 100 dragoons, Sussex was to " send forth- 
with a troop of horse, consisting of four 
scofe, and one hundred mounted muske- 
teers" ; Wilts was to provide 150 horse, and 
Kent was **to send what force they can of 
horse mounted musqueteers for the relief of 
Colonel Weldon and the brigade at Taunton." 
Thirty pair of pistols, with holsters, and a 
like number of saddles with their furniture, 
were to be at once delivered to Colonel Norton 
for his Hampshire horse by Lieut.-Colonel 
Owen Roe, who was in charge of the public 
stores. Colonel Whitehead acquainted the 
House of Commons that the Committee for 
Hants and Colonel Norton *^had conferred 
together, and that they had resolved to furnish 
100 oonmianded horse, tinder the command of 
Captain Thos. Bettesworth, to go upon this 
present expedition into the west for the relief 
of the brigade at Taunton." Fairfax wrote 
from Sherrington, and obtained permission for 
Cromwell to take command of all his horse. 
An ordinance now passed to collect the revenues 
of the sequestered estates of Hampshire Royalist 
delinquents. One-fifth and one-twentieth part 
of the proceeds were to be expended upon the 
county fortresses and defences and in the 
impressment of soldiers therein, the Isle of 
Wight being specially excepted. Another 



ordinance, passed through the infiuence of Col. 
Norton on Jnne 12th, appointed *^ John Dove^ 
gentleman, treasurer and keeper of the stores 
of ammunition for the town of Portsmouth." 
Two days later *' 600 soldiers and 40 gunners, 
comprehending the old establishment," were to 
be the garrison of Portsmouth, 50 soldiers being 
assigned to Southsea Castle. "£200 per week 
over and above the old establishment" was voted 
for the troops of Portsmouth and Southsea 
Castle. The Committee for Hants was to 
advance for this purpose 5000/., which was to ba 
repaid from the Excise duties. 

Colonel Massey, the well known Governor of 
Gloucester, was to come into Hampshire from 
the west, in order to unite with the forces from 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, which were intended 
for the relief of Taunton. Clarendon says 
that Massey was a soldier of fortune, who had 
formerly served the King in Scotland. When 
the troubles began he was at York, ^' with incli- 
nation to serve the King, but finding himself 
not enough known* there, and that there wotlld 
be little gotten but the comfort of a good con- 
science, he went to London, where there was 
more money and fewer officers, and was easily 
made Lieu tenant- Colonel to the Earl of Stam- 
ford, and being quickly found to be a diligent 
and stout officer, and of no ill parts of conver- 
sation, to render himself acceptable among the 
common people, was, by his Lordship, when he 
went into the west, left Governor of the City 
of Gloucester, where he had behaved himself 
actively and successfully." Massey was, on 
Jnne 13th, at Romsey ; he had from 1000 to 
1200 horse, and was expecting reinforcements. 

On June 2lth Colonel Webb was with the 
City Dragoons at Southampton, from which 
town the local contingent of horse was to 
march on May 23rd to Romsey ; at which plaoo 
a general muster was to take place on May 24th. 
Colonel Popham conunanded the horse at 
Romsey dunng Massey's temporary absence. 
Clarendon calb him " Col. Edward Popham, a 
principal officer of the Parliament in their fleets 
at sea, and of a passionate and virulent temper, ol 
the Independent party." Captain Pittman had 
on or about June 9th repulsed a sortie from 
Winchester Castle, and carried o£E 50 horsea» 
The Pittman family owned land at Mapledet^ 
well, and John Pittman, Esq., was one of the 
Commissioners appointed en November 6th, 
1643, for making the weekly collection in Hamp- 



216 



The Clubmen. 



flhire. Colonel Massey, on or abont June 19thy 
marched (o Winchester and carried off the 
sheep which Lord Ogle had collected in antici- 
pation of a Biege, bnt which he made no effort 
to defend. " Some 60 or more of the King's 
scattered horse" from Naseby Fight reached 
Winchester abont this time. Colonel Massey 
was present on June 24th at the Romsey 
muster. He had been reinforced from Kent by 
80 horse and 166 dragoons ; from Hants by 100 
horse, and Sussex, Surrey, Middlesex, and 
London had each sent him 100 dragoons. 
Captain JeryoLse joined him with 340 horse, 
and 340 Bef ormadoes were a welcome accession 
of strength. These reinforcements together 
numbered 567 horse and 966 dragoons, and on 
July 2nd Massey joined with 3000 men at 
Blandf ord the army of Fairfax, which, after 
the decisive battle of Naseby, " turned west- 
ward to raise the si^ge of Taunton, crush 
Goring's crew,and recover the great strongholds 
of Somerset and Devon for Parliament." 

The excesses of troops like those of Goring 
naturally brought about a reaction in the 
county, and on June 26th Mr. Secretary 
Kicholas, writing from Oxford, says, ^^The 
Clubmen in Hampshire and Wiltshire grow 
numerous, and, I hear, very stout. They have 
above 500 arms in Hampshire. The rebels have 
given orders for suppressing of them." It 
seems probable that the Royalist generals might 
have turned the movement to good account, 
but the opportunity was lost, as Goring issued 
a severe oraer against them from Exeter. These 
Clubmen wore white ribbons as a badge, and 
derived their name from being armed with 
clubs, flails, scythes, and sickles fastened to 
long poles. The county gentlemen and clergy 
headed the movement, which, according to 
Locke, was originated by Shaftesbury when a 
young man. The design was to form a third 
party, which should neither be Royalist nor 
Parliamentarian, an army without soldiers, for 
they were neither to wear swords nor to carry 
firearms. The Clubmen were about 14,000 
strong, and were already ready when necessary 
to assemble in force in defence of their homes 
and granaries. Refusing to allow any armies to 
quarter within their districts, their banner, a 
white sheet, bore this motto : — 



** If yon offer to plunder or take our cattle, 
You may be Bore well give yon battle." 

The word " plunder," which had been intro- 
duced by soldiers of fortune from Germany, 
here first appears in our language. The Clnb- 
men refused to submit to the Parliament, say- 
ing, ** Our intentions are to go in a middle wa^ ; 
to preserve our persons and estates from vio- 
lence and plunder ; to join with neither ; and 
not to oppose either side, until bv the answer 
to our petition we see who are the enemies of 
that happy peace which we really desire. '' 
Fairfax negotiated with them, attended some 
of their meetings, and employed some of them 
as pioneers, but finally suppressed them. 

On June 30th, 1645, Fairfax, returning from 
Naseby Fight to relieve beleaguered Taunton, 
marched from Marlborough to Amesbury. It 
was the day of Marlborough Fair, and some 
stragglers were in consequence left behind, who 
were speedily surprised and captured by Major 
Dewett or Duet, who, being Colonel Ludlow's 
major, had changed sides, and was now in garri- 
son at Devizes. On July 1st there was a 12 
miles' march to Broad Chalke, "and being 
drawn up that morning to a rendezvous to a 
place called Stonage (Stonehenge), marched in 
battalia upon Salisbury Plain." Chaplain 
Hugh Peters urged the destruction of Stone- 
henge, as being one of " the monuments of 
heathenism," but fortunately more pressinff 
matters demanded attention. Some officers and 
others riding through Salisbury found the 
Clubmen there very confident, " wearing white 
ribands in their hats, as it were in af&ont of 
the army, not sparing to declare themselves 
absolute neuters, or rather friends to the enemy." 

On Wednesday, July 2nd, Fairfax reached 
Blandf ord, where he was joined by Massey at 
the head of 3000 horse and foot. A soldier 
who had robbed a gentleman near Marlborough 
was here executed m a narrow lane. Mr. Pen- 
ruddock and Mr. Fnssell, two leaders of tho 
Clubmen, were arrested, but, having acknow- 
ledged their error, were released. Five days 
afterwards Goring was beaten at Langport 
Fight, and the Royal cause soon became nope- 
less in the west. 



Chapter XXVIIL— Eoad Waggons in Danger— Clubmen Routed.— Ways and Means — 
Lord Ogle's Requisitions — Colonel Dalbier — ^Basing again Besieged — Mining 
Operations — Hampshire Clubmen — Church Parade— A Shattered Tower— A 
Gallant Stratagem. 



On Saturday, July 12th, 1645, some scoats 
reported at Famham Castle that a party of 
horse from Basing House were returning to that 
garrison with a Chichester road wacgon, which 
they had captured near Hind-head. All the 
horse and dragoons in the Castle were at once 
sent out, and Comet Stokam was despatched 
with a small party to bring up a detachment 
commanded by Captain Joyner from Alton to 
Tunworth Downs. Both parties arrived at the 
same time,and charged the Cavaliers both in front 
and rear, at a place two miles from Alton, 
routed them, retook the waggon, and pursued 
them to within half-a-mile of Basing, killing 
and wounding most of them, and taking nine 
prisoners and 15 horses. The retiring Parlia- 
mentarians had reached Bentley Green, when 
they were faced bjr 120 cavalry, belonging to 
the garrisons of Winchester, Basing, and Faring- 
don (Sir M. Bawdon's command). The new- 
comers prepared to charge, and took " Trooper 
Beeves, but received such a salute from our 
dragoons'' that they fled. A Parliamentarian 
Major, whose name is unrecorded, was at the 
same time posted with 100 foot at Upton 
Oray, near Weston Patrick. He intercepted the 
Cavaliers as they retreated towards Basing, 
taking six men and four horses. Capt. Joyner 
(Joynet). who was shot in the arm. Comet 
Btokam, whose head received a sword cut, James 
Mansurgh (Mansar^h), who was shot in the leg, 
" were they who did most execution." One 
Puritan dragoon was killed. 

On July 24th measures were taken to provide 
maintenance for 1500 horse and dragoons, to be 
employed in the blockade of Basing, Winchester, 
and other places. £5000 was, by an ordinance 
brought in by Mr. Lisle, voted upon Excise 
receipts " to be employed for the reducing of 



Winchester, Donnington, and Basing." Th® 
Committee of the Admiralty were '* to take a 
speedy course for the reduction of the island of 
Jersey, and report the same to the House/' as a 
petition had been presented from thence, to the 
effect that ** many inhabitants, well affected, 
were remaining there in want and misery, ever 
since the revolt of the islanders, upon the for- 
cible entrance which Captain Carteret made 
there against the Parliament." 

On July 26th, 1645, it was ordered "Mr. 
Morris Jephson to be Lieut.-Colonel, and Mr. 
John Lobb to be Major of Colonel Norton's 
regiment of foot, now at Portsmouth." The 
Lobb family lived at Southampton, and one of 
them afterwards owned the Vine, near Basing- 
stoke. On July 3l8t the Committee of the 
Navy were *' to take care to bring about those 
prisoners that are on board the ships now at 
Portsmouth." 

On August 1st our old acquaintance Major- 
General Browne was granted 2000 foot and 600 
as the strength of his Abingdon garrison, and 
on the next day Colonel Fleetwood surrounded 
and dispersed 1000 clubmen at Shaftesbury. 
Cromwell attacked about 2000 others in an old 
Roman camp onHambledon Hill. His men were 
at first repulsed, but were after an hour's fight- 
ing victorious, and brought 600 arms, 400 
prisoners, 200 of whom were wounded, to Shraw- 
ton, where they were imprisoned in the church. 
Sixty clubmen were killed. They were said to 
have been stirred up by " malignant priests," 
and four vicars and curates were among the 
captives. Some were afterwards sent up to 
London, and others released, on talcing 
the Covenant, and promising future quiet- 
ness. Twelve colours were eubo taken. The 
Earl of Southampton was High Steward of 



218 



LoBD Ogle's Requisitions. 



Winchester, but was on account of his loyalty 
disabled from holding office, and on Xoyember 
27th, Robert Wallop, Esq., was elected in his 
stead. The Earl was now serving the King, and 
on Angast 4th a pass was granted by both 
Houses of Parliament to the Countess of South- 
ampton with her two young children for 30 
days to go from Oxford to Titohfield House. The 
reason assigned is a touching one, " It being the 
desire of the old Countess of Southampton to 
see them, which yet she never did." The 
Countess was permitted to take with her a coach, 
and a waggon, with ten ordinary servants and 
horses, bat none of the party were to enter or 
remain in any of the Parliament's forts, castles, 
or garrisons. Six troops of light horse 670 in 
number, and three troops of dragoons, number- 
ing 330, had been raised in several counties for 
General Fairfax. The sum of 9924/. 2s. was 
now voted for three months' maintenance of this 
regiment, " in all 1000, besides commissionary 
omoers." The Kentish horse were on August 
6th ordered ** to be employed for the service of 
reducing the county of Southampton to the 
obedience of the Parliament." receiving pay 
meanwhile from the Committee for Hants. 
Colonel Jephson, M.P. for Stockbridge, was 
ordered to embark for Munster, with his regiment 
of horse. His men were to have quarters every- 
where, paying for necessaries at reasonable rates. 
Not more than twelve pence per man and horse 
was to be paid for each 24 hours. Fairfax 
received some ammunition and battering pieces 
from Portsmouth, which aided in the capture of 
Sherborne Castle on August 15th, after a siege 
of 16 days. 

About the middle of August much discussion 
took place as to the payment of some 60 poor 
waggoners who had been employed in several 
expeditions to Basing, Newport, Petworth, and 
the western counties. Their claim of nearly 
3000/. was at last paid. Colonel Weare, who 
had been sent up from Portsmouth by the Earl 
of Essex under arrest in September, 1644, was 
still confined in the Comptor at Southwark. 
He was now removed to another prison, and 
was granted subsistence money from his arrears 
of pay. "Captain Bettesworth, having done 
very good service to the Parliament, to be 
enjoined not to go out of the Kingdom" on 
Aufnist 20th, and, nine days afterwards, men- 
tion is made of the " Masters and Governors of 
^e Mystery aiid Commonalty of Barber Sur- 



geons, London." A Common Assembly was 
held in the Guildhall, Winchester, on a certain 
Monday of this month to consider a warrant 
issued by the Governor, Lord Ogle. '^It 
generally agreed by the whole assembly that 
Mr. Mayor (Longland) and whom of the rest of 
the Corporation he shall think fit, shall go, and 
to-morrow morning shall go to my Lord Ogle to 
inform him what things are here to be gotten, 
and what not concerning his warrant for neces- 
saries for the Castle, and so to consider how they 
may be provided." Before this time only four 
constables had been annually elected at Win- 
chester. But since the city had been garrisoned 
two others had been added, " to make up the 
number six during the tyme of these troubles.'* 

Vigorous preparations for the final siege of 
Basing were now being made. The senior com- 
manding officer was Colonel Dalbier. 

Dol Beere, Dalbyer, &c. (his name is spelt in 
every possible wav). He was a Dutchman by 
birth, and from him, according to Heath, Crom- 
well first of all learned the mechanical part of 
soldiering, and received help in the drilling of 
his Ironsides. At the outbreak of the war we 
find him in command of a troop of horse under 
Lord Bedford. He was also Quartermaster- 
General to the Earl of Essex, as well as an 
engineer. A most invaluable officer. He had 
been engaged some years previously, together 
with Sir William Balfour, in raising German 
horse. After the battle of Edgehill he urged 
the adoption of vigorous measures. In the 
same year the Lords desired the Commons that 
he being under accusation and restraint might 
be either tried or discharged. He took part in 
the burning of the village of Chinnor, in 
Oxfordshire, in June, 1643. The strength of 
his troop is given by Woodward as being 60 
troopers, with two trumpeters, three corporals, 
a saddler, and a farrier. The officers were 
Lieuc. William Frampton, Cornet H. Yan- 
braham, and Quartermaister John Downe. 

In 1644 Colonel Dalbier was in command of 
a regiment of horse composed as follows : — 

Officers Troopers 

ColoDel Dalbier 12 ... 67 

Captain Salkield 11 73 

„ Pymm 11 80 

„ Lakcman 9 48 

48 267 

Total 316 

<< Anlicus" and " Brilannieus" are aa 



Basing Again Besieged. 



219 



inntiially Batirical about the commencement of 
the si^e. The former said that Dalbier com- 
plained of his design being " very mnch dampt by 
the alarms given to London, when His Majesty's 
horse was at Dunstable," whereupon the latter 
retorts that ^* the hoase is very mnch dampt, and 
the wise Marqnis has taken up his damp lodging 
once more," adding that Lord Winchester spent 
his time in bed at the bottom of a cellar " out 
of reach of gunshot, for you know generals and 
governors should not be too venturous. " ^^Aulicns' ' 
asserted that Dalbier had bargained not to 
receive any pay until Basing was taken, except 
150/. to be paid at once to his wife, and that all 
Dalbier's projected mines were only plans to 
obtain money. *' Britannicus" replies, " Upon 
such terms we will employ two or three colonels 
more, if they please to be in action, and to leave 
murmuring for arrears." ** The engineer fell to 
his pretence, the work itself is money, August 
20th" ("Aulicus"). On August 4th Dalbier 
brought in proposals to the House of Commons 
that the forces of Sussex and Surrey should 
block up Basing House, and that those of Hants, 
Middlesex, and the City of London should 
blockade Oxford, and on the 19th the Parliament 
ordered 400 bandoliers, 400 swords, 300 muskets, 
200 pikes, and 10 drums to be issued from store 
to the forces from Portsmouth garrison employed 
for the reducing of Basing House. ^^ Colonel 
Dalbier reached Basingstoke with 800 horse and 
foot on August 20th, but made no attack, and 
the provisioning of Basing House was not inter- 
fered with. **Which being completed, the Gar- 
riM>n resolved to visit the rebels, which it did on 
Thureday and Friday, and took an officer and 
nine troopers, since which time Sir John Boys 
went from Dcnnington Castle (pi which he was 
Qovemor) to alarm them, and Drought away a 
colour, two officers, and seven other prisoners to 
Denning ton. Basing daily beats up their 
quarters." Whereupon ** Britannicus" retorts 
on September 2*2nd. "Are not these bare 
victories, think you ? But such they are glad to 
live upon." 

On August 23rd it was ordered "Out of 
Beading, Captain Blagrave's company to be 
drawn for Basing." Dalbier was now in pos- 
session of Basing village, and " hath with him 
many good engineers and pioneers, such as use 
to dig in coal pits." Heavy rains favoured the 
besiegers, "the place thereabouts being hard 
and rocky." On August 28th more troops and 



materials for a siege were urgentlv required, 
and seven days afterwards 100 South wark mus- 
keteers were ordered to Basing, those refusing 
to march being fined by the Committee of 
Militia and punished as usual. 

On September Ist it was settled that the 
horse and arnu of a dragoon were not to cost 
more than 6/., and on September 6th Waller 
received pay for 820 days as a Major-General, 
at the rate of 101. per diem. Bv September 
17th Dalbier had been reinforced, and hoped 
"to give a satisfactory account within a few 
days of that business," having commenced a 
bombardment and destroyed a great tower in 
the Old House. " That part of Basing House 
on the south called the Kew House is thought 
most seizable ; if we could gain that the other 
could not long hold out. There is a design to 
show the enemy there a gallant stratagem of 
war, but I had rather let them study to find it 
than let my pen telltales out of school." The 
Clubmen were now rising for the King in Hants 
and Sussex, and vain hopes were formed of 
their coming to the relief of Basing House. Mr. 
W. Cawley and the Committee for Sussex on 
September 18th and 19th reported "divers 
outrageous proceedings" of 1000 Clubmen at 
Rowkeshill, near Chichester, enclosing the war- 
rant issued by the Sussex Clubmen, and the 
declaration published by the men of Hants, 
Wilts, and Dorseti Colonel Norton was ordered 
to shift the quarters of the horse and foot 
under his command from Portsmouth to 
Bishop's Waltham, and to await orders from the 
Committee of both Kingdoms, to whom these 
documents were referred. The Committee for 
Hants, Sussex, and Surrey were directed to 
consult " how to prevent any inconvenience that 
may happen by reason of the Clubmen," and to 
sequester the estates of all recusants. Mr. 
Cawley again complained on October 13th of 
hindrances to the recruiting of Fairfax's army 
in Sussex. On September 25th we hear of 
Colonels Anthony Stapley, Morley, Norton, and 
others trying to disperse the Clubmen at 
Rowkeshill without bloodshed. Three days 
previously we read, " The Clubmen in Sussex 
and Hampshire are now numerous. A party is 
assigned to pacify them ; sure they have not so 
much to complain of as the more westerly parts, 
but if by this they draw troubles upon them- 
selves, let them thank themselves.'' — Mod, 
Intelligencer, 



220 



The Clubmen Bouted. 



The Hampshire Olubmen, although pro- 
fessedly nentral, were mach more incUned to 
favour the King than the Parliament. *' Idle 
Dick" Norton^ otherwise Colonel Norton, took 
the field against them from Bishop's Waltham, 
with his cavalry and infantry, and on Wednes- 
day, September 17th, Cromwell, who was now 
on his march from Devizes, sent him a strong 
reinforcement. On the 20th Cromwell and his 
brigade were at Andover. The reinforcement 
sent to the aid of Colonel Nortoif was the 
regiment commanded by Major Harrison, as will 
be seen by the following letter which appeared 
in the City Scout^ of October 7th :— " The other 
news I hear of is, that of Wednesday last, the 
malignant (i.e., Royalist) Clubmen rose and met 
at Loomer^B Ash, within three miles of Win- 
chester, countenanced by all the malignant 
gentry of Hampshire, to whom the Committee 
of Parliament for Hampshire, with noble Col. 
Norton, came, assisted by godly Major Harri- 
son, with Colonel Fleetwood's regiment, where 
Colonel Norton used all means to send them 
home again ; but the malignant towns of 
Bishop's Waltham and Petersfield would needs 
fight, who were soon surrounded by the horse. 
Then those Clubmen shot at them, which caused 
the horse to fall upon them, and killed four or 
five, wounded some others, and alarmed most 
of them. This day I hear worthy and religious 
Colonel Norton, with the Cqmmitteee of Par- 
liament, have given warrant to apprehend all 
the principall gentlemen of the Clubmen, to 
prevent further mischief. Winchester, the 29th 
of September, 1645." 

The Kingdom's Weekly Intelligencer says that 
the horse ^^ cut and hackt many of them, took 
all their chiefs, ringleaders, and about 1000 
arms, which made their neighbours in Sussex to 
shrink in their heads, and we hear most of them 
are departed to their own homes." 

The place where Colonel Norton dispersed the 
Clubmen is known as Waller's Ash, and is about 
3^ or 4 miles distant from it. It is near the race 
course, and the first long tunnel on leaving 
Winchester by rail for London is called Waller's 
Ash Tunnel, from being near the place. The 
spot known as Waller's Ash is about three- 
quarters of a mile from it. 

An Ordinance passed the Cpmmons on Sep- 
tember 30th to appoint Commissioners of 
Martial Law in Hants. Sir Henry Tichbome, 
who had been captured at sea after proving him- 



self a loyal, skilful, and intrepid soldier in 
Ireland, was, together with Colonel Weare, on 
this day released from the Tower on exchange. 

Sir Robert Peake, the Lieutenant-Governor 
at Basing, lost both his horse and groom at 
once. 

"The Diary or Exact Journal" says, on 
September 20th, "Colonel Dalbeere is now 
intrenching himself before Basing House," 
and describes the Governor as " Robert Peek, 
who sold the pictures by Holbom Conduit," 
adding, " Sir Robert's groom is come in unto 
Dalbeir, and to make himself more welcome he 
hath brought with him his master's horse, on 
which he chargeth in the field, and another 
horse of good price." 

The 21st oi September, being Sunday, the 
besiegers assembled to listen to a sermon from 
their chaplain, who was then styled the 
Minister of the Army. The sermon was so 
much appreciated that it was sent next day to 
London, and was printed for John Wright, at 
the "King's Head," in the Old Bailey, on 
October 6th, 1645. A copy of it, with the 
imprimatur of James Crauf ord, September 26th, 
1645, is now in the British Museum. Think 
not, oh most patient of readers, that I am about 
to inflict upon you 32 small qto. pages of small 
type. Far be it from me. The title is, " More 
Sulphur for Basing, or God will fearfully annoy 
and make quick riddance of His implacable 
enemies, surely, sorely, suddenly. Shewed in a 
Sermon at the Siege of Basing on the last Lord's 
Day. September 21, 1645. Together with a 
word of advice full of love and affection to the 
Clubmen of Hampshire. By William Beech, 
Minister of the Army there, Elect Minister of 
O., in the County of Suffolk." The motto of 
the sermon is Rev. xiv., 11, " And the smoke of 
their torment shall ascend evermore, aud they 
shall have no rest day nor night which worship 
the beast and his image ;" the text being Psalm 
Ixxxiii., 9, " Doe unto them as unto the 
Midianites, as to Sisera, as to Jabin at the 
Brooke of Kison." William Beech belonged to 
a Hampshire family, and had been a scholar 
under Dr. Love, at Winchester, to whose son, 
the Worshipful Mr. Nicholas Love, a Member 
of the Committee of Parliament for Hampshire, 
he dedicates his sermon in most fulsome 
language. Dr. Love is described as "the 
Learned and Most Orthodox Warden." Im- 
ploring the patronage of Mr. Nicholas Love, he 



A Shattered Tower. 



Wl 



mLy% *^ Malice hsth dogged me these two veajrs 
(the Lord knowes caaselessly) by sea and land, 
and hath bespattered me exceedingly, and many 
are taken np and affected with Halifax Law." 

These somewhat obscure conclnding words 
seem to be synonymous with summary execution, 
as an old local law at Halifax in Yorkshire 
enacted that clothstealers to the amount of 13^d. 
were to be executed on the next market-day. 

The preacher speaks of '* the roaring of our 
cannon, or the terrible bursting asunder of the 
granado," no doubt alluding to the events of the 
week before, for on September 22nd, *' By letters 
from Bazing, we were again advertised that 
Dal bier hath made divers shot against the Castle, 
and hath planted some batteries, and shot in some 
granadoes, some of which are believed to have 
done execution," as they in fact did, for ** one 
granado burnt two hours before they could 
qnench it." 

The Bev. W. Beech ** affirms that his county 
will be famous and sounding unto posterity for 
two things, viz., for sending burgesses and re- 
nowned champions that stood altogether,save one 
strange one that was lost, to defend it, and 
secondly, for two faithless garrisons and un- 
worthy Catalines that laboured so much to 
destroy it." 

** And ah ! poore Hampshire, deceived people, 
deluded countrymen ; for whom my spirit is in 
bitternesse, and my bowels yerne (for the first 
breathing of ayre I bad among you), and once 
happy Hampshire, Bona si sua norint Agricolca 
^1/ farmers only knew when they were well off), 
if they knew their happinesse, and how cans' t 
thou endure a snake in thy bowels, a limbe of that 
cmell beast of Borne, and be silent and sleepe ? 
Nay, two garrisons of countrey destroyers, and 
not resolve against them, and not contribute your 
dubs towards the rooting of them out ?" 

This pulpit eloquence somewhat f aUed of its 
desired effect, for on October 3, the *' Scottish 
Dove" thus makes moan : — " The cpnntrey 
people are base, and add nothing to Dalbier's 
assistance for their own freedome." 

But a more famous soldier than Dalbier was 
at hand. Listen to the *'£xact Journall"on Sept. 
22nd: — "Colonel Dalbere hath raised a battery 
very near Basing House. He plays fiercely upon 
-them, hath beat down one of the towers ; he 
wanted men and more great sans. It may be 
.that Lieut.-Genf xal CromweU may come or send 
.him help." 



Cromwell was even then ready to help surely 
and effectually. Prince Bnpert had ridden 
forth from Bristol after its surrender on Sept. 
1 1th, and soon afterwards Fairfax detached from 
Bath three columns, under Cromwell, Picker- 
ing, and Bainsborough, to take Devizes, Lacock 
House, aud Berkeley Castle, all of which were 
successfnl. A fourth column reduced Farley 
Castle, near Trowbiidge. Cromwell was des- 
patched with a brigade of three regiments ef 
foot and three of horse for the taking of certain 
Boyalist garrisons, which, says Master Joshua 
Sprigge, " like vipers in the bowels, infested the 
midland parts. Of these Basing was the chief." 

The tower above referred to as being destroyed 
formed part of the Old House, and was one of 
the largest belonging to the building. The ''City 
Scout" of Sept. 30th says that " the great tower 
in the Old House was destroyed on Monday, 
Sept. 22nd, at which time he might have taken 
the House had he had a considerable party to 
fall on. Deserters and one of our troopers, 
which was then a prisoner in ihe House, and 
since released by his wife, for a month's pay, 
say that in the top of this tower was hid a 
bushel of Scots twopenccs, which flew about 
their ears. The Marquis of Winchester swears 
that Dolbier is a greater trouble to him than 
ever any was that ever came against the House." 

The *' Weekly Account" gives further details on 
Saturday, the 27th: — " From Basing it was cer- 
tified that on Monday and Tuesday last, Colonel 
Dalbier played with the cannon very fierce upon 
the New House,and after many shots against the 
midst of the House, which loosened the bricks 
and made a long crack in the wall, he made 
another shot or two at the top of the House 
which brought down the high turret, the fall 
whereof so shook that part of the house, which 
before was weakened, that the outmost wall fell 
down all at once, insomuch that our men could 
see bedding and other goods fallout of theHouse 
into the court." 

*' The enemy in the house are extremely vext, 
yet at this time were thev blockt np but on one 
side, and for want of horse they had often 
sallied out as far as Basingstoke and returned 
again, but by this they are confined to a less 
compass." According to the**CitySoout, "Dalbier 
had, on Friday, September 26th, not more than 
1000 foot and some four troops of horse. He 
was unable to compass the house, the garrison 
of which was estimated to b« half as numerovi 



222 



A Gallant Stratagem. 



* as were the besiefl^rs, and oould only besiege it 
on one side. On Tneaday, the 23rd, there was 
heavy firing, the resnlt being "a very great 
breach," which was kept open by a vigorons can- 
nonade. Colonel Dalbier now asked for further 

- additions to his strength. 

The "Tme Informer" hints at farther destruc- 
tion : — " Wednesday, September 24th. This 

' day we understood by a messenger from Basing 
that Colonel D*Albere hath made several bat- 
teries against Basing House, or, as Aulicus calls 
it, Basing Castle. He hath beaten down one of 
the Towers of the Old House, and taken one of 
the works of the New House by storm. And 
we doubt not but that the House will, within 
10 days, be in the Parliament's possession 1" 

"Mercuricus Veridicus" of Saturday, Sep- 
tember 20th, adds : — ** Those that come from the 
siege at Basing tell us that at the entering of 
one of the enemy *s works in the New House, 
destroyed together with the Tower on Septem- 
ber 22nd, they blew it up, but Colonell Dalbier 
made good the breach." The same newspaper 
somewhat prematurely reports the capture of 
the New House. " Mercurius Civicus " on the 
following day writes more cautiously : — " This 
evening we understand from Basing that Colonel 
Dalbier hath made several batteries upon Baaing 
House, and hath beaten down one of the 
greatest Towers, and some say he hath taken 
the New House, but of that there is no cer- 
tainty." The storming of the above-mentioned 
defence of the New House sufficiently accounts 
for these rumours. " The gallant stratagem of 
war." before referred to, was disclosed by the 
"True Informer" on September 24th :— "He hath 
a design to smoke them out, good store of straw 
being brought in from the country for that 
purpose." 

The " Scottish Dove" two days later has the 
following : — " Colonel Dol Beer is in good 
action at Basing ; he hath beaten down a Tower, 
and whilst he makes his works foi the effecting 
his design he smokes them with the sulphur of 
brimstone, an emblem of their future vengeance!" 
" Mercurias Yeridicus " on Saturday, the 
27th, is jubilant, yet cautious : — " But what ? 
Will all the King's chiefcst holds go to wrack 

-toffether? Must they part with Basing House ? 
AU Papists ? No treachery feared there ? Tes, 

' we are bidding fair for that, too, if the house 
will not burn the straw and other combustible 

^matter will smoke, which, with advantage of 



wind, may seeme another element, and make 
the enemy scarce find their port-hole, bnt no 
more of this till we hear of the success. Dalbier 
sends into the house a compounded stifling 
smoake." Pass yet two aays more, and 
" Mercurius Britannicns " adds insult to injury, 
" yet we must not call all yielding cowaniice, 
because Winchester, the man of Basing, would 
needs be thought valiant, though he love not 
the smell of gunpowder, and therefore, in com- 
miseration. Colonel D^Albier hath this last 
week tried to smoke him out with straw, just aa 
they use to serve eeles in old walls ; and if this 
trick will not take, there is another nameless 
stratagem in acting, for the gallant Colonel is 
resolved to have his pay." 

The " Parliament Scout " thus describes the 
siege on Sept 30th : 

" They are all Papists in that garrison, and 
if there were purgatory upon earth, the Papists 
do find it and feel it there, for besides the thick 
and perpetual darkness which the wet and 
smoaking straw doth make, the burning of 
brimstone and arsenic and other dismal ingre- 
dients doth infinitely annoy the besieged, which 
makes them to gnash their teeth for indignation: 
in the meantime the cannons do perpetually 
thunder one against another. On every side 
desolation dwells about them, and to subdue the 
place there are those things are put in execution 
which the nature of man cloth tremble at." 

The editor of " Perfect Passages" on Oct. Ist 
seems quite satisfied with the state of affairs : — 

" 800 are ordered by the Committee to be 
sent to strengthen D^Albere against Basing. 
Good reason he should have them, he goes on 
so hopefully." 

On Friday, Oct. 3rd, the " Moderate Intelli- 
gencer " alludes to the siege : — " We hear the 
business before Bazing goes well I A battery 
upon one side, a breach made, if he had men to 
enter and storm, but they are wanting, that in a 
few more than they have ! " 

The " Exact Journal " says, on Oct. 4th : — 
" From Bazing we are informed that Dalbier 
expe teth more supplies, without which he 
cannot so easily go through the task he hath 
undertaken." 

From " Mercurius Yeridicus " (Mercury the 
Tmthteller) of October 4th we learn that a 
heavy and effectual fire was maintained hv the 
besiegers, and that the garrison were losing 
heart: — " I thought not at this time to have men- 



Desertions fbom Basimu. 



223 



iioned Bazing, for the defendants have been so 
used to the strong breath of old priests and 
Jesaits that straw and sulphur will not stifle 
them out of the house, therefore Dalbier daily 
sends pellets amongst them, and hath beat down 
part of the house, and so terrified some that 
they have stolen out of the house and got quite 
away. Others have come from Walliugford to 
us, and protest that they will never fight 
against the Parliament. No less than eight 
came in thus with their horse one morning, and 
say that more will come, and many are gone to 
other garrisons of ours.'* 



The "Scottish Dove** of the same date says : — 
" Basing House is still besieged, not yet stormed, 
but continual battery, so that they have cer- 
tainly made some breaches, and were it not that 
the besieged have good hopes to be relieved they 
would quickly peld it. I^rovisions are scarce 
with them, and want will make them do any* 
thing, but all is in God*s hand, who guides ul 
things by His own wilL*' Things were looking 
badly for the Marquis. 



Ghafteb XXIX. — Grouwell and His Brioade — Colonei^ Aammomd, Fleetwood and 
Harrison — Hugh Peters — Cromwell Summons Winchester — The Castle Besieged 
— Bishop Curle— Siege Operations— Bombardment — Parley and Surrk!IDEr— 
Booty and Spoil— Hugh Peters at Westminster — Troubles at Winchester. 



We have before referred to the surrender of 
Bristol on September 11th, 1645, and noted the 
despatch of Cromwell at the head of his brigade 
of three -regiments of foot and 2000 horse, with 
a view to the reduction of certain Royalist 
garrisons, of which Basing, if not the chief, was 
by no means the least important. 

The character of Cromwell we need not 
discuss. Leave we Carlyle and others to that 
task. A portrait of " Old Noll" hanffs at Hack- 
wood House, not far from that of his gallant 
foe the Marquis, wheref rom all beholders may 
see what manner of man he was. Sir Philip 
Warwick thus describes his personal appearance 
in November, 1640, some five years before this 
time : **I came into the House one morning well 
clad, and perceived a gentleman speaking whom 
I knew not, very ordinarily apparelled, for it 
was a plain cloth suit that seemed to have been 
made by an ill country tailor. His linen was 
very plain, and not verj clean, and I remember 
a speck or two of blood upon his little band (a 
linen tippet, properly the shirt-collar of those 
days), which was not much larger than his 
collar ; his hat was without a hat band, his 
stature was of a good size, his sword stuck close 
to his side, his countenance swoln and reddish, 
his voice sharp and untuneable, and his eloquence 
full of fervour." Mr. Hyde, afterwards Lord 
Clarendon, when Chairman of a Committee of 
the House saw another phase of his character : 
" His whole carriage was so tempestuous, 
and his behaviour so insolent, that the Chair- 
man found himself obliged to reprehend him, 
and to tell him that if he (Mr. Cromwell) pro- 
eeeded in the same manner he (Mr. Hvde) 
would presently adjourn the Committee and the 
jiext moniing complain to the House of him." 



A stem man, unyielding, and cast in iron 
mould, as the '* merciless assault of Basing" 
and the storming of Drogheda give proof ; 
yet, as we would fain believe, a man of per- 
sonal piety, and courteous to an enemy in 
defeat, as the following anecdote clearly shows : 
— ** As the garrison of Hillesdon House, near 
Newport Pagnell, were evacuating it after the 
surrender, one of the soldiers snatched off Sir 
William Smyth's hat. He immediately com- 
plained to Cromwell of the man*s insolence and 
breach of the capitulation. *Sir,' said Crom- 
well, * if you can point out the man or I can 
discover him, I promise you he shall not go 
unpunished. In the meantime,* taking off a 
new beaver which he had on his own head, ' be 
pleased to accept of this hat instead of your 



f tf 



own. 

^' The tears of Cromwell appear to have been 
very constitutional, and must have produced a 
marvellous contrast on his rough-featured and 
hea\y countenance ! " 

*^ This brave commander, by reason of his 
resolution and gallantry in his charges, is called 
by the King's soldiers Ironsides. So 
Winstanley, in his ** Worthies," says, * One 
thing that made his brigade so invia- 
cible was his arming them so welL as 
whilst they assured themselves they could not 
be overcome, it assured them to overcome their 
enemies. He himself, as they called him Iron- 
sides, needed not to be ashamed of a nickname 
that so often saved his life.* Heath also calls 
him by that name, and not his troop.** 

"In the beginning of November, 1642, the 
regiment had reached the number of 1000 
picked men. Whitelooke thus describes them : 
— ' He had a brave regiment ai horse of lus 



Cbomwell*8 Brigade. 



225 



conntryineii, mosl of them freeholders and 
freeholders* sons, and who upon matter of con- 
SGienoe engaged in this quarrel and under Crom- 
well, and thus, bemg well armed within by the 
latisfaetion of their own oonscienees, and with- 
out by good iron arms, they would as one man 
charge nrmly and fight desperately.* In May, 
164S, a newspaper writer says, * As for Colonel 
Cromwell, he hath 2000 more brave men, well 
disciplined. No man swears but he pays his 
12d. ; if he be drunk, he is set in the stocks or 
worse ; if one ealls the other " Roundhead,** he 
is cashiered'; insomuch that the countries where 
they come leap for joy of them, and come in 
and join with ^em. How happy would it be 
if all the forces were thus disciplined I * '* 

*' A colonel of foot received IL 10s. the day ; 
a lieutenant-colonel, 15r. the day ; a sergeant- 
major (the present Major), 9& the day ; a cap- 
tain. 15s. the day ; a colonel of horse, iJ. 10s. the 
day, and for six horses 11. Is. the day ; a cap- 
tain of horse, II. 4s. the day, and for six horses, 
IL Is. the day.** Field officers drew the pay of 
a captain in addition to their own, besides other 
perquisites. 

Cromweirs own regiment was steelolad, back 
and breast, with headpieces. Each man had a 
brace of pistols, the officers more, and each 
troop was 100 strong. Its officers were, Lient.- 
General Cromwell, Major Huntingdon, Captains 
Jenkins, Middleton, John Reynolds, and Black- 
well. The three regiments of foot under 
Cromwell's command were those of Colonels 
Piekering, Montagu, and Sir Hardress Waller. 
These regiments had been long together, 
and had seen much service in company. At 
Marstou Moor ^* on the left was drawn up the 
Earl of Manchester's army from the Associated 
Counties under the general command of Lient.- 
General Cromwell, consisting of three brigades 
of foot commanded severally by Colonels 
Montagu, Russell, and Pickering.** 

In a fiery charge by Rupert both on front and 
flunk ** the br^fades of Colonels Montagu, 
Busaell, and Pickering especially distinguished 
thomselves, standing when charged like a wall 
of brass, and lettmg fly small shot like hail upon 
the Boyaltsts, and yet, as an old acoount assures 
OS, .not a man of their brigades was slain.** 

This brigade sustained a severe check at the 
lecQud battie of Newbury on the 27th of 
October, 1644, but on Naseby Field the Lord 
General's, Montagu's, and Pickering's regiments 



formed the right centre. Skippon's, Sir Har- 
dress WaUer*s, and Pride's regiments formed the 
left centre. During the fight Sir H. Waller's 
regiment was broken by Prince Rupert. At the 
siege of Bridgewater, in July, 1645, the regi- 
ments of Cromwell, Pickering, Montagu, Waller, 
Hammond, and others attacked on the Somerset- 
shire side, Lieut.-Colonel Hewson, of Picker- 
inc's, leading a forlorn hope. At Bristol, in the 
foUowing September, the same regiments were 
to storm on both sides of Lawf ord Gate, and 
during the rest of the month they had simply 
marched from victory to victory. Colonel 
Montagu had raised his own regiment in 1 643, 
took part in the storming of Lincoln, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Marston Moor and Naseby. 
He is better known as the Earl of Sandwich, 
who brought over King Charles to England, and 
perished at the battle of Solebay in 1672. The 
officers of his regiment in 1647 were Lieut.- 
Colonel Grimes, Major Eelsey (since Major 
Rog